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MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE

EVENTS
Events are mutually exclusive if
they cannot happen at the same
time. For example, if we toss a coin,
either heads or tails might turn up,
but not heads and tails at the same
time. Similarly, in a single throw of a
die, we can only have one number
shown at the top face. The numbers
on the face are mutually exclusive
events
If A and B are mutually exclusive
events then the probability of A
happening OR the probability of B
happening is P(A) + P(B).
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
Example 1
What is the probability of a die
showing a 2 or a 5?
Practice
The probabilities of three teams A, B
and C winning a badminton
competition are

Calculate the probability that


a) either A or B will win
b) either A or B or C will win
c) none of these teams will win
d) neither A nor B will win
Solution/s

c) P(none will win) = 1 P(A or B or C will win)

d) P(neither A nor B will win) = 1 P(either A or B will win)


Mutually exclusive outcomes

Outcomes are mutually


exclusive if they cannot happen
at the same time.
For example, when you toss a single coin either it will
land on heads or it will land on tails. There are two
mutually exclusive outcomes.
Outcome A:
Head
Outcome B:
Tail
When you roll a dice either it will land on an odd
number or it will land on an even number. There are
two mutually exclusive outcomes.
Outcome A: An odd
number
Outcome B: An even
number
Mutually exclusive outcomes

A pupil is chosen at random from the class. Which of


the following pairs of outcomes are mutually
exclusive?
Outcome A: the pupil has brown eyes.
Outcome B: the pupil has blue eyes.

These outcomes are mutually exclusive because a


pupil can either have brown eyes, blue eyes or
another colour of eyes.
Outcome C: the pupil has black hair.
Outcome D: the pupil has wears glasses.

These outcomes are not mutually exclusive because


a pupil could have both black hair and wear glasses.
Adding mutually exclusive outcomes

If two outcomes are mutually exclusive then their


probabilities can be added together to find their
combined probability.
For example, a game is played with the following cards:

What is the probability that a card is a moon or a sun?


1 1
P(moon) = and P(sun) =
3 3
Drawing a moon and drawing a sun are mutually
exclusive outcomes so,
1 1 2
P(moon or sun) = P(moon) + P(sun) = + =
3 3 3
Adding mutually exclusive outcomes

If two outcomes are mutually exclusive then their


probabilities can be added together to find their
combined probability.
For example, a game is played with the following cards:

What is the probability that a card is yellow or a star?


1 1
P(yellow card) = and P(star) =
3 3
Drawing a yellow card and drawing a star are not
mutually exclusive outcomes because a card could be
yellow card
P (yellow and aorstar.
star) cannot be found by adding.
The sum of all mutually exclusive
outcomes
The sum of all mutually exclusive outcomes is 1.

For example, a bag contains red counters, blue


counters, yellow counters and green counters.

P(blue) = 0.15 P(yellow) = 0.4 P(green) = 0.35

What is the probability of drawing a red counter


from the bag?

P(blue, yellow or green) = 0.15 + 0.4 + 0.350.9


=

P(red) = 1 0.9 =0.1


The sum of all mutually exclusive
outcomes
A box contains bags of crisps. The probability of
drawing out the following flavours at random are:
2 1
P(salt and vinegar) = P(ready salted) =
5 3
The box also contains cheese and onion crisps.

What is the probability of drawing a bag of cheese


and onion crisps at random from the box?
2 1 6+5 11
P(salt and vinegar or ready salted) = + = =
5 3 15 15
11 4
P(cheese and onion) = 1 =
15 15
The sum of all mutually exclusive
outcomes
A box contains bags of crisps. The probability of
drawing out the following flavours at random are:
2 1
P(salt and vinegar) = P(ready salted) =
5 3
The box also contains cheese and onion crisps.

There are 30 bags in the box. How many are there of


each flavour?
2
Number of salt and vinegar = of 30 =12 packets
5
1
Number of ready salted =3 of 30 =10 packets
4
Number of cheese and onion =
15
of 30 =8 packets
Independent Events
Events are independent if the outcome
of one event does not affect the
outcome of another. For example, if
you throw a die and a coin, the
number on the die does not affect
whether the result you get on the coin.
If A and B are independent events,
then the probability of A happening
AND the probability of B happening is
P(A) P(B).
P(A and B) = P(A) P(B)
Example 1
If a dice is thrown twice, find the
probability of getting two 5s.
Two sets of cards with a letter on
each card as follows are placed into
separate bags.

Sara randomly picked one card from


each bag. Find the probability that:
a) She picked the letters J and R.
b) Both letters are L.
c) Both letters are vowels.
Example 3
Two fair dice, one colored
white and one colored red,
are thrown. Find the
probability that:
a) the score on the red die is
2 and white die is 5.
b) the score on the white die
is 1 and red die is even
Solution for No. 3
a) Probability the red die
shows 2 and white die 5 =

b) Probability the white die


shows 1 and red die shows
an even number =
Example 4
Experiment 1: A dresser drawer contains one pair of
socks with each of the following colors: blue, brown, red,
white and black. Each pair is folded together in a
matching set. You reach into the sock drawer and choose
a pair of socks without looking. You replace this pair and
then choose another pair of socks. What is the probability
that you will choose the red pair of socks both times?
Example 5
A coin is tossed and a single 6-sided
die is rolled. Find the probability of
landing on the head side of the coin
and rolling a 3 on the die.
Example 6
A jar contains 3 red, 5 green, 2 blue and 6
yellow marbles. A marble is chosen at
random from the jar. After replacing it, a
second marble is chosen. What is the
probability of choosing a green and then a
yellow marble?
Probabilities:
Example 7
A school survey found that 9 out of
10 students like pizza. If three
students are chosen at random with
replacement, what is the probability
that all three students like pizza?
Quiz
DEPENDENT EVENTS
Events are dependent if the outcome
of one event affects the outcome of
another. For example, if you draw
two colored balls from a bag and the
first ball is not replaced before you
draw the second ball then the
outcome of the second draw will be
affected by the outcome of the first
draw.
If A and B are dependent events,
then the probability of A happening
AND the probability of B happening,
given A, is P(A) P(B after A).
P(A and B) = P(A) P(B after A)
P(B after A) can also be written as
P(B | A)
then P(A and B) = P(A) P(B | A)
Example 1
A purse contains four P50 bills, five P100 bills
and three P20 bills. Two bills are selected
without the first selection being replaced.
Find P(P50, then P50)
There are four P50 bills.
There are a total of twelve bills.
P(P50) = 4/12
The result of the first draw affected the
probability of the second draw.
There are three P50 bills left.
There are a total of eleven bills left.
P(P50 after P50) = 3/11
P(P50, then P50) = P(P50)
P(P50 after P50) =
(4/12)x(3/11)=12/132
The probability of drawing a
P50 bill and then a P50bill is
P(P50, then P50) = P(P50)
P(P50 after P50) =
(4/12)x(3/11)=12/132
The probability of drawing a
P50 bill and then a P50bill is
Example 2
A card is chosen at random from a standard deck
of 52 playing cards. Without replacing it, a second
card is chosen. What is the probability that the
first card chosen is a queen and the second card
chosen is a jack?
Example 3
Mr. Parietti needs two students to help him with a
science demonstration for his class of 18 girls and
12 boys. He randomly chooses one student who
comes to the front of the room. He then chooses
a second student from those still seated. What is
the probability that both students chosen are
girls?
Example 4
In a shipment of 20 computers, 3 are defective.
Three computers are randomly selected and
tested. What is the probability that all three are
defective if the first and second ones are not
replaced after being tested?
Quiz