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ARTIFICIAL LIFTING TECHNIQUE

By
Deepak Kumar Mishra
At IIT (ISM)- Dhanbad
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Why Artificial Lifting of Oil / Water in CBM


is Required?

When the pressure of the reservoir fluids within the


reservoir are less than, or change with time to be less than
the hydrostatic head pressure of the total produced fluids
from the reservoir to the surface production wellhead, the
fluids will not flow. In order to be able to produce the
fluids, energy must be introduced or transported downhole
to the fluids, to help lift them to the surface and overcome
the flowline pressure.
In CBM wells, it is necessary to reduce hydrostatic head by
dewatering, for the purposes artificial lifting is required.
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

TYPICAL FLOW CONFIGURATION


IN A WELL

HORIZONTAL FLOW

FLOW IN THE VERTICAL REGIME (OUTFLOW)

FLOW IN THE RESERVOIR (INFLOW)


DIFFERENT SYSTEM OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Electronic
Controller
Lubricator Drive
Head

Control Catcher
Armored Equipment w/ Arrival
Sucker
Cable Sensor
Gas-Lift Rod

Rod Pump Pump Valve


Plunger
Floater/
Packer
Tubing Pump Electric Bumper Stator
Anchor Standing Spring
Motor
Valve Tubing
(Optional) Stop
Rod Pump
Electric
Jet Submersible Gas Lift Plunger Lift Progressive-
Pump Pump Cavity Pump
SUCKER ROD PUMP (SRP)
5.5 CASING

2.875 TUBING

API 86 STRING
SUCKER ROD PUMP CONSIST
OF SIMPLE COMBINATION OF A
SEATING NIPPLE CYLINDER AND PISTON OR
INSERT PUMP
PLUNGER WITH SUITABLE
INTAKES AND DISCHARGE
3.5 OD PERFORATED SUB VALVES.

THE PRODUCTION RATE


2.875 TUBING AS TAIL PIPE
DEPENDS ON WELL
DELIVERABILITY AND ON
STROKE LENGTH.

BULL PLUG
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Reciprocating Rod Lift
System Advantages

High system efficiency


Sucker Rod
Tubing Anchor
Catcher
Optimization controls available
Economical to repair and service
Sucker Rod
Positive displacement / strong
Pump
assembly drawdown
Upgraded materials reduce
corrosion concerns
Flexibility - adjust production
through stroke length and speed
High salvage value for surface and
downhole equipment
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Reciprocating Rod Lift


System Limitations

Sucker Rod
Tubing Anchor
Catcher
Potential for tubing and rod wear
Sucker Rod
Gas / oil ratios
Pump
assembly Most systems limited to ability of
rods to handle loads - volume
decreases as depth increases
Environmental and aesthetic
concerns
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Rod Lift System
Application Considerations

Typical Range Maximum*


Operating
Sucker Rod Depth 100 - 11,000 TVD 16,000 TVD
Tubing Anchor
Catcher Operating
Volume 5 - 1500 BPD 5000 BPD
Operating
Temperature 100 - 350 F 550 F
Sucker Rod
Pump
Wellbore 0 - 20 Landed 0 - 90 Landed
assembly Deviation Pump Pump -
<15/100
Build Angle
Corrosion Handling Good to Excellent
w/ Upgraded Materials
Gas Handling Fair to Good
Solids Handling Fair to Good
Fluid Gravity >8 API
Servicing Workover or Pulling Rig
Prime Mover Type Gas or Electric
Offshore Application Limited
System Efficiency 45%-60%
ARTIFICIAL LIFT - ROD PUMPING
Wireline (Bridle)
Pumping Unit
Polished Rod Clamp
Wireline Hanger
(Carrier Bar)
Polished Rod
Stuffing Box
Flowline
Tubing Head
Casing Head
Polished Rod
Sub-Coupling
Surface Pipe
Oilstring (Casing)
Tubing
Coupling Sucker Rod
Tubing Bushing
Guide
Lift Nipple Barrel
Coupling Con-
nector Valve Rod
Barrel Cage, Sucker
Coupling Top Open Rod Barrel Cage (Open)
Barrel Ball & Seat Coupling
See Pump
Barrel Plunger Details Plunger
Coupling Cage
(Closed) Tubing
Coupling Cage Cage (Closed)
Extension
Nipple Ball & Seat Ball &
Per- Ball & Seat
Tubing Standing Seat
forated Plug Seat
Coupling Valve Nipple Mandrel
Puller Cup
Seating Tubing Spacer
Nipple Coupling Locknut
Tubing Pump Gas Coupling
Anchor
Insert Pump
Mud Anchor
Bull Plug
Bottom End of
Oilstring (Casing)
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Typical ESP Vfd Transformers

Installation Amp Wellhead


Meter
Drain Valve
Surface
Cable

Vent Box
Check Valve
Tubing Cable - Round
Splice
Flat Cable
Pump
Casing Intake

Seal Section

Motor
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Motor Control ESP


Vent
Box System Advantages
Produced
Hydrocarbon out
Production
Tubing
High volume and depth capability
High efficiency over 1,000 BPD
Pump
Low maintenance
Flat Cable
Minor surface equipment needs
Extension

Seal Section
Good in deviated wells
Adaptable to all wells with 41/2
casing and larger
Motor
Use for well testing
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

ESP System
Motor Control

Vent

Produced
Box
Limitations
Hydrocarbon out
Production
Tubing

Available electric power


Pump
Limited adaptability to major
Flat Cable
Extension
changes in reservoir
Seal Section Difficult to repair in the field
Free gas and / or abrasives
High viscosity
Motor Higher pulling costs
ESP ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Motor Control

Vent
Application Considerations
Box

Produced Typical Range Maximum*


Hydrocarbon out
Operating
Production Depth 1,000 - 10,000 TVD 15,000 TVD
Tubing
Operating
Volume 200 - 20,000 BPD 30,000 BPD
Pump Operating
Temperature 100 - 275 F 400 F
Wellbore 10 0 - 90 Pump
Flat Cable Deviation Placement -
Extension
<10 Build
Seal Section Angle
Corrosion Handling Good
Gas Handling Poor to Fair
Solids Handling Poor to Fair
Fluid Gravity >10 API
Motor Servicing Workover or Pulling Rig
Prime Mover Type Electric Motor
Offshore Application Excellent
System Efficiency 35%-60%
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Power-Fluid
Jet Pump System Storage

Prime Mover

Triplex

Central Battery
Installation Control
Station

Wellhead
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
JET PUMP
PRINCIPLE :
HYDARULIC JET PUMPING SYSTEM
OPERATES EMPLOYING VENTURY EFFECT
OF FLUID DYNAMICS. JET PUMP SYSTEM
APPLIES THIS PRINCIPLE IN PUMPING OIL
WELLS BY TRANSMITTING FLUID PRESSURE
FROM A SURFACE SOURCE TO ONE OR
MORE SUBSURFACE POINTS (WELLS).

AT THE SUBSURFACE POINT, THE POWER


FLUID, UNDER PRESSURE, IS DIRECTED
THROUGH A NOZZLE WHICH CREATES A
LOW PRESSURE AREA DOWNSTREAM OF
THE NOZZLE AND THEREBY SUCKS THE
FLUID FROM THE FORMATION. MOREOVER,
THE VENTURY EFFECT ALSO CONVERTS
THE PRESSURE ENERGY OF THE FLUID TO
VELOCITY ENERGY THAT CARRIES THE
FLUID OUT.
Jet Pump ARTIFICIAL LIFT

System Advantages
Surface Power
Fluid Package

Production
Casing
No moving parts
High volume capability
Packer Nose
High Pressure
Power Fluid
Free pump
Bottom Hole
Assembly Deviated wells
Piston or Jet
Multi-well production from
Free Pump
single surface package

Standing Valve
Low pump maintenance
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Jet pump
Surface Power
Fluid Package
System Limitations

Production
Casing Producing rate relative to
bottomhole pressure
Packer Nose
High Pressure
Power Fluid Some require specific bottomhole
Bottom Hole
Assembly
assemblies
Lower horsepower efficiency
Piston or Jet
Free Pump
High-pressure surface line
requirements
Standing Valve
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Gas Lift System

Gas Lift Valves

Mandrels

Latches

Kick Over tools

Surface Controls

Coiled Tubing

Gas Lift Equipments

Pack Off Equipments


ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Gas Lift System

High Degree of Flexibility and Design Rates

Wire line Retrievable

Handles Sandy Conditions Well


Allows For Full Bore Tubing Drift

Surface Wellhead Equipment Requires


Minimal Space

Multi-Well Production From Single


Compressor

Multiple or Slim hole Completion


ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Gas Lift System


Limitations
Needs high Pressure Wells or Compressors

Fluid Viscosity

Bottom hole Pressure

High back Pressure


PCP - Components ARTIFICIAL LIFT
PRODUCTIVE STAGES OF A COAL BED METHANE WELL
Coal bed methane exists as a
monomolecular layer, adsorbed
on the internal surface of the
coal matrix
During the first stage, as
pressure drops, the reservoir
dewaters and methane
(2) production increases
Stable
(1) Production (3)
During the second stage, as the
Stage
Dewaterin Decline reservoir is depressurized, the
g Stage Stage gas production will increase
and reach its peak.
Volume

The third stage mirrors


Gas
conventional gas production as
the driving pressure in the
reservoir declines
Water
CBM wells typically have long
producing life (~20 years)
Time
Difference between Coal bed Methane Gas
Production and Conventional Natural Gas Production

Coal bed Methane Natural Gas


Per well Gas productivity is generally Per well Gas productivity is normally

low (5000 - 20000 SCMD) high. (50000 - 70000 M3 /d)


Overall gas recovery 50-90%
Overall gas recovery 30-50%.
Less wells with larger spacing.
More wells drilled at closer spacing.
HF may be required at later stages
(8-10 times more)
when production declines.
Almost all wells require Hydraulic
Less quantity of produced water.
Fracturing (HF)
High CAPEX due to deeper well
Large quantity of water has to be depths
produced
Low CAPEX due to shallow well depths
CBM WELL COMPLETION
Why PCP in CBM??

Good solid handling capacity.


Good gas handling capacity.
Economics

25
Pumping Action
Positive displacement
pump consisting of a
stator (Elastomer) and a
rotor.
Geometry is such that it
constitutes two or more
series of spiral,
separate cavities.
Cavities move from inlet
to outlet creating the
pumping action.
Pressure increases in a
linear fashion from inlet
to outlet.
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

PCP System Advantages


Vertical
Electric
Wellhead
Drive
Low capital cost
Low surface profile for visual and
height sensitive areas
Casing
High system efficiency
Production Tubing
Simple installation, quiet operation
Sucker Rod
Pumps oils and waters with solids
Low power consumption
Sucker Rod Coupling

Tubing Collar Portable surface equipment


Stator
Rotor
Low maintenance costs
Use in horizontal / directional wells

Tubing Collar

Tag Bar Sub


ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Vertical
PCP System Limitations
Electric
Wellhead
Drive

Limited depth capability


Casing Temperature
Sensitivity to produced fluids
Production Tubing
Low volumetric efficiencies in high-
Sucker Rod
gas environments
Sucker Rod Coupling Potential for tubing and rod
Tubing Collar
coupling wear
Stator
Rotor Requires constant fluid level above
pump
Tubing Collar

Tag Bar Sub


ARTIFICIAL LIFT
PCP
Vertical
Electric
Application Considerations
Wellhead
Drive
Typical Range Maximum*
Operating
Depth 2,000 --4,500 TVD 6,000 TVD
Operating
Casing Volume 5 - 2,200 BPD 4,500 BPD
Operating
Temperature 75 -150 F 250 F
Production Tubing
Wellbore N/A 0 - 90 Landed
Deviation Pump -
Sucker Rod
<15/100
Build Angle
Corrosion Handling Fair
Sucker Rod Coupling
Gas Handling Good
Tubing Collar
Solids Handling Excellent
Stator
Rotor Fluid Gravity <35 API
Servicing Workover or Pulling Rig
Prime Mover Type Gas or Electric
Offshore Application Good (ES/PCP)
Tubing Collar
System Efficiency 40%-70%

Tag Bar Sub


ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Basic Elimination Process


35,000

High Volume
Barrels per Day 30,000
Hydraulic Jet
ESP Gas Lift
Pumps,
25,000
Electric
Submersible 20,000
Pumping
and 15,000
Hydraulic
Gas Lift Jet Pump
10,000

5,000
3,000

5,000

6,000

9,000
2,000

4,000

7,000

8,000

10,000

14,000

15,000

16,000
1,000

11,000

12,000

13,000
Lift Depth
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Basic Elimination Process


4,500
Low Volume
4,000
Reciprocating
Hydraulic 3,500
Pumps,
3,000
Barrels per Day

PC Pumps, 2,500

Rod Pumps
2,000
& Recip. Hydraulic
1,500
Plunger Lift Recip. Rod Pump
1,000
PC Pumps
500
Plunger Lift
2,000

11,000

14,000

16,000
7,000

10,000
3,000

13,000

15,000
1,000

5,000

9,000

12,000
4,000

6,000

8,000

Lift Depth
ARTIFICIAL LIFT - COMPARISION
ROD LIFT PCP GAS LIFT PLUNGER JET PUMP ESP
LIFT
Operating depth 100 2000 5000 6,000 6,000 1,000
(ft) 8,000 6000 10,000 19,000 15,000 15,000

Operating 5 5000 5 4500 200 30,000 Below 1000 300 15,000 200 30,000
volume (bpd)

Operating temp 100 500 75 250 100 400 120 600 100 600 100 - 400
(f)

Corrosion Good to Fair Good to Excellent Excellent Good


handling excellent excellent

Gas handling Fair to good Good Excellent Excellent Good Poor to fair

Solids handling Fair to good Excellent Good Poor to fair Good Poor to fair

Fluid gravity > 8 0 API < 35 0 API > 15 0 API GLR required - > 8 0 API > 10 0 API
300 SCF/BBL/
1000 depth
Servicing Workover Workover Workover / Wellhead Hydraulic / Workover
wireline catcher / wireline wireline

Prime mover Diesel / Gas / Diesel / Gas / Compressor Wells natural Diesel / Gas / Diesel / Gas /
Electricity Electricity (Diesel / Gas / energy Electricity Electricity
Electricity)

Offshore Limited Good Excellent N/A Excellent Excellent


application

Overall system 45 -60 % 40 70 % 10 30 % N/A 10 30 % 35 60 %


efficiency
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

System Selection Criteria


Rules of Thumb are only a Starting Point;
many other factors must be considered.

System Lift Efficiencies


Production Rate requirements for field optimization
Energy Sources available
Safety / Environmental concerns
Field Support availability
Capex and Opex limits / financial constraints ( over the
whole life of a well Capex accounts for < 4% of costs )
Planning for the life of the well, or just the next 5
years
Thank You