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Tutorial:

Electronics Cooling with


Natural Convection and
Radiation

Introduction to CFX

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Goals Workshop Supplement

This workshop models the heat dissipation from a hot electronics


component. The chip (IC) is installed on printed circuit board (PCB). A
finned heat sink is attached to the top of the chip to help cool it. Air can
flow between the fins of the heat sink as well as in the narrow gap
between the heat sink and the PCB. The PCB is fitted into a rectangular
casing, which is open at the top and bottom.

Heat transfer via convection, conduction, and radiation will be modelled.

Heat Sink

PCB
IC

Air Gap Air Gap

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Electronics Cooling
Loading Mesh (Workbench) Workshop Supplement

1. Open a new Workbench project and save it as HeatSink.wbpj


2. Look in the Component Systems section of the toolbox and drag a CFX
system onto the Project Schematic
3. Double-click Setup to start CFX-Pre
4. In CFX-Pre, right-click Mesh and select Import Mesh > ANSYS
Meshing
5. Browse to the input mesh file HeatSink.cmdb and click Open

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Electronics Cooling
Options Workshop Supplement

1. In the Tree in CFX-Pre, expand Case Options near the bottom of the
Tree, double-click General and ensure that Automatic Default Domains
is switched on and Automatic Default Interfaces is active.
2. Set the Interface Method to One Per Domain Pair. Click OK.

Separate interfaces are required for each domain because


when radiation is added, emissivity will be set differently at
each domain interface
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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Create Fluid Domain Workshop Supplement

You will first create and specify the settings for the
domain for the fluid region. The effects of buoyancy must
be included, as the flow is driven by natural convection.
The buoyancy reference density represents the density
at the ambient conditions.

1.Right-click on Flow Analysis 1 in the Tree and insert a


new domain named Fluid
2.On the Basic Settings tab for Fluid, set the Location to
Fluid
3.Edit the Material for Fluid 1 and set it to Air Ideal Gas
4.Switch the Buoyancy option to Buoyant and set the
directional components to (0, -g, 0)
Click on the expression button to enter g
5.Set the Reference Density to 1.1093 [kg m^-3]
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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Setting the Fluid Models Workshop Supplement

You will now set the Fluid Models for the Fluid Domain
1.On the Fluid Models tab for Fluid, set the
Heat Transfer option to Thermal Energy
2.Set the Turbulence Option to None (Laminar)
3.Set the Thermal Radiation Option to Discrete
Transfer and set the Transfer Mode to Surface
to Surface. This uses the ray tracing method of Shah
for the radiation analysis and neglects volumetric
absorption of radiation in the fluid domain. This
assumption is valid for transparent fluids such as
air
4.Click OK to complete the definition of the Fluid
Domain. Note that there are now two domains in the
Tree the fluid domain which you just created and the
defualt domain which includes all meshes not otherwise
assigned to domains. As you create new domains,
meshes will be removed from the Default Domain and
interfaces will be automatically created based on your
Case Options settings.
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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Creating a Solid Material for Component Workshop Supplement

CFX offers a built-in material library, but we will create user materials for the
solids that comprise the Component
and Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
1. In the Tree right-click on Materials and select
Insert > Material. Name it ComponentMat
2. On the Basic Settings tab, define the
material as a Pure Substance and assign it
to the CHT Solids Material Group. Enable
Thermodynamic State and select Solid
This must be set to allow it to be used in a
solid domain
3. Click the Material Properties tab and set
Density to 1120 [kg m^-3]
4. Select Specific Heat Capacity and set it to
1400 [J kg^-1 K^-1]
5. Expand Transport Properties and set Thermal
Conductivity to 10 [W m^-1 K^-1]
6. Select OK to complete creation of the
Component material
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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Creating a Solid Material for the PCB Workshop Supplement

7. Repeat steps 1-6 to create a material for the PCB solid.


Name the material PCBMat and set the following
properties:
Density = 1250 [kg m^-3]
Specific Heat Capacity = 1300 [J kg^-1 K^-1]
Thermal Conductivity = 0.35 [W m^-1 K^-1]

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Creating a Solid Domain for the Heat Sink Workshop Supplement

This case contains three different solid parts that use


different materials. Each part will be created as a
different solid domain. The Heat Sink solid shown
below is created first.
1.Insert a new domain and name it HeatSink
2.On the Basic Settings tab, set the Location to
HeatSink
3.Set the Domain Type to Solid Domain with the
Material for Solid 1 set to Aluminium
4.Click OK to create the domain. Note that an interface
between the fluid and solid domains is automatically
created.

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Electronics Cooling
Creating a Solid Domain for the Component Workshop Supplement

You will now create a solid domain for the


Component (IC) which is a thin chip as shown below
1.Insert a new domain and name it Component
2.On the Basic Settings tab, set the Location to IC
3.Set the Domain Type to Solid Domain with the
Material for Solid 1 set to ComponentMat
4.Click OK to create the domain. Note that
interfaces between the fluid and solid domains are
automatically created and updated.

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Creating a Solid Domain for the PCB Workshop Supplement

You will now create a solid domain for the printed


circuit board (PCB) which is the thin solid at the
bottom of the geometry as shown below
1.Insert a new domain and name it PCB
2.On the Basic Settings tab, set the Location to
PCB
3.Set the Domain Type to Solid Domain with the
Material for Solid 1 set to PCBMat
4.Click OK to create the domain. Note that
interfaces between the fluid and solid domains are
automatically created and updated.

Also notice that the Default Domain


vanishes once all meshes have been
assigned to domains

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Adding a Solid Domain Energy Source Workshop Supplement

The Component solid represents an IC. It is generating 75 [W] of heat which must be
added to the simulation. To add this energy source in CFX, a subdomain must be
created for the Component solid.

1. In the Tree, right-click on the


Component domain and select
Insert > Subdomain, and name
the subdomain Chip
2. On the Basic Settings tab, set
the Location to IC so the
subdomain occupies the whole of
the Component domain
3. Switch to the Sources tab and
check the Sources box and the
Energy toggle boces
4. Set the Option to Total Source,
enter 75 [kg m^2 s^-3] (or W)
then click OK to complete the
definition of the subdomain

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Electronics Cooling
Domain Interfaces Workshop Supplement

Note that three interfaces are created


connecting the Fluid Domain to the
three solid domains. Note also that two
inerfaces are created which connect the
solid domains to each other. You can
double-click each interface to show that:

Default Fluid Solid Interface connects


the Fluid Domain to the Component
Default Fluid Solid Interface 1 connects
the Fluid Domain to the Heat Sink
Default Fluid Solid Interface 2 connects the
Fluid Domain to the PCB board.
Default Solid-Solid Interface connects the
Heat Sink to the Component
Default Solid Solid Interface 1 connects the
Componet to the PCB board

These connections are colored coded at right


so that you can see which domain boundaries
correspond to which interface connections

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Electronics Cooling
Emissivities at Fluid Walls and Interfaces Workshop Supplement

Different materials will have different radiation emissivity values. These can be set
at each of the boundaries around the Fluid domain The emissivity of a surface is a
function of the material, surface finish and any coatings that may have been applied
as well as local temperature and the radiation wavelength.

Emissivities must be set at fluid walls as well as fluid-solid interfaces, which are
also solid boundries for the fluid domain

Radiation settings are also set for flow boundaries, where the fluid may see the
local temperature or an external balck body temperature

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Adiabatic Boundary for Fluid Walls Workshop Supplement

For this case all of the heat from the solids will be extracted by the air passing over
them, so all external fluid and solid wall boundaries will be defined as adiabatic.
Within the simulation, heat can pass between all of the solid and fluid domains
because interfaces have been automatically created.

1.Right-click on the Fluid domain in the


tree and insert a new boundary called Walls
2.Set the Location to Wall on the Basic
Settings tab and set the Boundary Type to
Wall
3.Switch to the Boundary Details tab. Set
Heat Transfer to Adiabatic and the Emissivity
to 0.9. Click OK to complete the boundary
definition.

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Flow Boundary Conditions for the Fluid Workshop Supplement

The fluid boundaries which are not interface or


wall boundaries allow air to enter or leave the domain
which will be modeled using Openings
1. In the Fluid domain rename Fluid Default
to Openings and check that the Location
is set to be the two ends of the fluid domain
2. In the Basic Settings tab change
the Boundary Type to Opening
3. In the Boundary Details tab set the
Mass and Momentum option to
Opening Pres. and Dirn with a
relative pressure of 0 [Pa]
4. Set Heat Transfer to Opening Temperature
at 45 [C] and click OK to create the boundary.
The Opening Pressure and Opening Temperature options set
Total values when flow is entering the domain and Static values
when flow is leaving. This is appropriate when the flow outside the
domain is accelerated from rest before entering the domain but
will have a velocity when leaving.
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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Radiation Emissivity at Interface Boundaries Workshop Supplement

Note that each interface object


is shown at the flow analysis
level. There are two interface
boundaries (at the domain
level) associated with each
interface object. We will be
editing the emissivity values
for the interface boundaries in
the fluid domain. The interface
boundaries in the solid
domains do not have an
emissivity, because there is no
radiation in the solid domain
(they are opaque!).

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Radiation Emissivity for the Heat Sink Workshop Supplement

Different materials will have different radiation emissivity values. These can be set at
each of the boundaries around the Fluid domain. The emissivity of a surface is a
function of the material, surface finish and any coatings that may have been applied
as well as local temperature and the radiation wavelength.
1.In the Fluid domain find the
interface boundary that
connects the HeatSink to the
fluid
Hint: boundaries are
highlighted in the viewer
when selected. You can refer
to the color coding shown
earlier
2.Open up that boundary and in the Boundary
Details tab change the Emissivity to 0.3. Note that
Mass and Momentum is set to a No Slip
Wall and the Heat Transfer Option to Conservative
Interface Flux. Click OK to complete definition
of the interface boundary.

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Electronics Cooling
Radiation Emissivity for PCB Board Workshop Supplement

You will now set the emissivity for the PCB fluid interface boundary
1.In the Fluid domain find the
interface boundary that
connects the PCB board to
the fluid
Hint: boundaries are
highlighted in the viewer
when selected. You can refer
to the color coding shown
earlier
2.Open up that boundary and in the Boundary
Details tab change the Emissivity to 0.9. Note
that the Mass and Momentum Option is set to
No Slip Wall and the Heat Transfer Option to
Conservative Interface Flux. Click OK to
complete definition of the interface boundary.

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Adiabatic Boundary for PCB Wall Workshop Supplement

There is also an external wall at the bottom


of the PCB domain which will be defined as
adiabatic to simulate insulation.
1.Right-click on the boundary PCB Default
in the PCB Domain and rename it PCBwalls
2.On the Boundary Details tab, set the
Heat Transfer Option to Adiabatic. No
Emissivity is set because this is a boundary
for a solid wall that is opaque to radiation.
Click OK to complete the boundary
definition.

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Radiation Emissivity for Component Workshop Supplement

You will now set the emissivity for the Component fluid interface boundary
1.In the Fluid domain find the
interface boundary that
connects the Component to
the fluid
Hint: boundaries are
highlighted in the viewer
when selected. You can refer
to the color coding shown
earlier
2.Open up that boundary and in the Boundary
Details tab change the Emissivity to 0.9. Note that
Mass and Momentum is set to a No Slip
Wall and the Heat Transfer Option to Conservative
Interface Flux. Click OK to complete definition
of the interface boundary.

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Electronics Cooling
Solver Control Workshop Supplement

1. From the tree right-click Solver Control and


select Edit
2. Increase the Max. Iterations to 500
3. Leave the Fluid Timescale Control set to Auto
Timescale
4. Leave Solid Timescale set to Auto Timescale
Note that solid regions will use a much larger
timescale than fluid regions because only the
energy equation is being calculated within the
solid
5. Click OK to complete the Solver Control
settings

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Running the Simulation Workshop Supplement

1. Select File > Quit to exit CFX-Pre


2. Save the Project
3. In the Project Schematic, right-click on
Solution and select Edit
4. When the Solver Manager appears,
click Start Run to begin the run

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Electronics Cooling
Running the Simulation Workshop Supplement

This run will take a while to run so after a few iterations


stop the run and the results provided will be used. Close the Solver
Manager

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Electronics Cooling
Open CFD-Post Workshop Supplement

The results field in the existing CFX module is associated with the
partially calculated results from your setup. To analyse the existing
results you will add a new results field to the project.

1. From the Component Systems


section of the Toolbox drag a
Results system onto the
Project Schematic

2. Right-click on the Results cell


(B2) and select Edit

3. When CFD-Post opens, select


File > Load Results and select
HeatSink_001.res.

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2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 September 24, 2010
Electronics Cooling
Temperature Workshop Supplement

Temperature will be a key variable for any electronics


cooling application so it will be displayed in several
locations, such as within the flow, on the surfaces of
the solid region and by extracting the maximum
temperature within the component. When these
plots are created they appear in the User Locations
and Plots section of the tree.

1.Create a YZ plane using Location > Plane. Name it


Centre, set X to 0 [m] and colour using the variable
Temperature.

2.Create a contour plot using Insert > Contour or by


clicking on . Use the fluid-solid interfaces as the
location (use the icon and Ctrl key to select
multiple locations from both configurations). Set the
Variable to Temperature using the Global Range.

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Electronics Cooling
Temperature Workshop Supplement

1. Move to the function calculator using the


icon on the toolbar. Set the options to:
Function = maxVal
Location = Component
Variable = Temperature

2. Click Calculate
The cooling of the component is mirrored
with an increase in the temperature of the
walls around the fluid zone. This can be
seen if you plot the temperature on the walls
or use the Function Calculator with the
areaAve function.

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Electronics Cooling
Flow Displays Workshop Supplement

To show the flow patterns a range of methods can be used including


streamlines, vector plots and isosurfaces.
1. Switch off the visibility of the existing plots
2. Insert an isosurface using Location > Isosurface and set the Variable to
Velocity with a value of 0.5 [m s^-1]
3. Gradually reduce the isosurface value to 0.2 [m s^-1]

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Electronics Cooling
Plane for Velocity and Vector Plots Workshop Supplement

Click on Insert/Location
and create a plane using
the Y-Z option with an X-
value of 0.0.
Click on the X-axis in the
display triad to orient the
view normal
to the Y-Plane
You will use this plane for
a velocity and vector plot.
Remember that gravity
acts in the
-y direction (downward
in the plot at right).

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Electronics Cooling
Velocity and Vector Plots Workshop Supplement

Click on the color tab for


the plane you created
and choose Velocity.

Toggle off visibility of the


plane and insert a vector
plot with the plane
specified as the Location.
Set the Sampling to
Equally Spaced with
1000 pts. Click on the
Symbols icon and choose
to normalize them with
the symbol size set to
0.4. Note the upward
flow and high velocities
above the heated
component

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Electronics Cooling
Flow Displays Workshop Supplement

1. Insert a vector plot using Insert > Vector or click on

2. Set the location to Centre. Change the sampling to Equally Spaced


with 1000 points
If you wish to see the pattern in the slow speed sections try going to the
Symbol tab and select Normalize Symbols

1. Insert streamlines using Insert > Streamlines or by clicking on

2. Set Start From to Openings

3. Apply 100 equally spaced points and set the Direction to Forward
and Backward

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