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K.

13 RP 2015-2016
Plant Organisation

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Plant organisation:
Labour: direct and indirect
operating labors
Man power
Fair job position
Logical job/position and
responsibility
Shift time table
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Operating Labor
In general, operating labor may be devide
into skilled and inskilled labour.
In preliminary costs analysis, the quantity
of operating labor can often be estimated
either from company experience with
similar processes or from published
information on similar processes.
If a flow sheet and drawings of the
process are available, the operating labor3
Consideration must be given to such items as
the type and arrangement of equipment,
multiplicity of units, amount of
instrumentation and control for the process,
and company policy in establishing labor
requirements.
Table 21 indicates some typical labor
requirements for various types of process
equipment.
Labour needed can also be estimated per ton
of product. Because the relationship between
labor requirements and production rate is not
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Table 21 Typical labor requiremnts for
process equipment
Type of equipment Workers/unit/shift

Dryer, rotary

Dryer, spray 1

Dryer, tray

Centrifugal separator

Crystallizer, mechanical

Filter, vacuum

Evaporator

Reactor, batch 1

Reactor, continuous

Steam plant 3

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Table 22
Operating labor, fuel, steam, power, and
water requirements for various Power and utilities, per or capacity
Operating Maintenance
processes Capacity
thousand
labor and
supervision
labor and
supervision Fuel Steam
Power
Power
kWh
Water
Water
gph
kWh gph
Chemical plants
Acetone Chemical plants
100 0.518 0.315 . . . . 1.73 310 5.18
Acetic acid
Acetone 10 1.483 0.984 . . . . .... 180 0.58
Butadiene 100 0.518 0.315 . . . . 1.73 310 5.18
Acetic acid 100 0.345 0.285 . . . . 0.012 130 0.73
Ethylene oxide 10 1.483 0.984 . . . . .... 180 0.58
Butadiene 100 0.232 0.104 . . . . 4.88 140 0.148
Formaldehyde 100 0.345 0.285 . . . . 0.012 130 0.73
Ethylene oxide 100 0.259 0.328 . . . . 34.6 200 0.029
Hydrogen 100 0.232 0.104 . . . . 4.88 140 0.148
Formaldehyde 100 0.288 0.352 . . . . 2.62 160 0.186
peroxide 100 0.259 0.328 . . . . 34.6 200 0.029
Hydrogen 100 0.230 0.325 . . . . 0.81 710 0.001
Isoprene 100 0.288 0.352 . . . . 2.62 160 0.186
peroxide 10 1.85 0.442 . . . . 0.18 40 0.03
Phosphoric acid 100 0.230 0.325 . . . . 0.81 710 0.001
Isoprene 100 0.259 0.295 . . . . 0.23 450 0.0004
Polyethylene 10 1.85 0.442 . . . . 0.18 40 0.03
Phosphoric acid 100 0.238 0.215 . . . . 0.33 135 0.0002
Urea 100 0.259 0.295 . . . . 0.23 450 0.0004
Polyethylene 100 0.432 0.528 . . . . 1.34 275 0.27
Vinyl acetate 100 0.238 0.215 . . . . 0.33 135 0.0002
Urea
100 0.432 0.528 . . . . 1.34 275 0.27
Vinyl acetate
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Refinery units
Thousa
nd
....
Alkylation
0.00
Coking . .7. .
Alkylation 10.8
(delayed) 0.00
0.01 3
Coking (fluid) 10 0.007 0.0895 7 10.8 0.07 1.48
(delayed) 2 1.85
Cracking (fluid) 10 0.011 0.0096 0.01 3 0.07 ....
Coking (fluid) 10 0.007 0.0895 .... 2.55 0.07 1.48
Cracking 0.0096 0.0058 2 1.85 0.06 0.64
Cracking 0.01 (4.7
(thermal) (fluid) 10 0.011
0.0122 0.0096
0.0115 . .2. . 2.55
0.07
0.02 .0.33
...
Cracking 10 0.0096 0.0058 3) 0.06 0.64
Distillation 0.0025 0.01 (4.7
(thermal) 10 0.0122 0.0115 0.00 (2.5 0.02 0.33
(atm) 0.0048 0.0042 2 3) 0.03 0.16
Distillation 10 0.0096 0.0025 4 5) 0.06 0.64
0.0024 0.0154 0.00 (2.5 0.04 0.18
(atm) 10 0.0048 0.0042 0.25 0.03 0.16
(MC) 0.0028 4 5) 0.01 0.14
Distillation 0.0024 0.0154 3 0.95 0.04 0.18
Hydrotreating 10 0.0048 0.0078 0.25 0.23 0.28
(MC) 0.0048 0.0028 0.00 0.92 0.01 0.14
Reforming 10 0.0024 0.0158 3 0.95 0.07 0.43
Hydrotreating 10 0.0048 0.0078 6 1.38 0.23 0.28
catalyt. 0.00 0.92
Reforming 10 0.0024 0.0158 4.85 0.07 0.43
Polymerizatio 6 1.38
catalyt. 2
n 0.00 4.85
Polymerizatio ....
2
n 7
....
Because of new technological developments including
computerized controls and long-distance control
arrangements, the practice of relating employee-hour
requirements directly to production quantities for a given
product can give inaccurate results unless very recent data
are used.
As a general rule of thumb, the labor requirements
for a fluids-processing plant, such as an ethylene oxide
plant or others as shown in Table 22, would be in the low
range of 5 to 2 employee-hours per ton of product;
for a solid-fluids plant, such as a polyethylene plant, the
labor requirement would be in the intermediate range of 2
to 4 employee-hours per ton of product;
for plants primarily engaged in solids processing such as a
coal briquetting plant, the large amount of materials 8
Another method of estimating labor requirements as a
function of plant capacity is based on adding up the
various principal processing steps on the flow sheets.
In this method, a process step is defined as any unit
operation, unit operation, unit process, or combination
there of, which takes place in one or more units of
integrated equipment on a repetitive cycle or
continuously, e.g., reaction, distillation, evaporation,
drying, filtration, etc.
Once the plant capacity is fixed, the number of
employee-hours per step is obtained from Fig. 6.8 and
multiplied by the number of process steps to give the
total employee-hours.
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Figure 6-8 Operating labor requirements for chemical process
industries
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Example Estimation of labor
requirements.

Consider a highly automated processing plant having a capacity of 100


of product and requiring principal processing steps of heat transfer,
reaction, and distillation.
What are the average operating labor requirements for an annual
operation of 300 days?
Solution:
The process plant is considered to require three process steps. From Fig.
6-8, for a capacity of 100 , the highly automated process plant requires
33 .
Thus, for 300 days annual operation, operating labor required = (3 33
300) = 29,700 .

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The data shown in Fig. 6-8 and Table 22, where
plant capacity and specific type of process are
taken into account, are much more accurate
than the preceding rule of thumb if the added
necessary information is available.

Direct Supervisory and Clerical Labor


A certain amount of direct supervisory and
clerical labor is always required for a
manufacturing operation.
The necessary amount of this type of labor is
closely related to the total amount of
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the given example, it needs operating labor of 33 to
For
produce 100 product using highly automated process with 3
process steps.
For process with 3 steps, the total direct operating labor
needed is:
33 3 = 99 .
Since, a man can only be employed for 8 , the man power
needed for the plant is:
employee.
This is the man power needed to operate the plant at any time,
meaning the man power needed for one shift .

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For
4 shifts available, the total man
power needed to operate the plant is:
4 = 49.5 man 50 man.

As for indirect operating labor, it can be


estimated as normal need for the i.e.
administrative work, general purpose
(administrative work, man power, etc),
security, safety and environment, utility,
and for economics activities (buying, 14
Things to remember:
- A position will only be given if it
necessary.
- When a position is given, the
responsibility as for subordinate, should
be fair with other position of the same
level.

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