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Neeraj Sharma
Mphil ( Mangement)
Roll no 14240157002
Meaning and
Leadership is the important element of
directing function of management.
Leadership is a process of influencing that
stimulates subordinates to do their
best willingly towards the achievement
of desired goals.

Koontz and O`Donnell defined

leadership as the ability of a manager to
induce subordinates to work with
confidence and zeal.
Characteristics of Leadership

1) Personal quality
2) Exists with followers
3) Willingness of people to follow makes a leader
4) Process of influence
5) Exists for realisation of common goals
6) Involves readiness to accept complete
responsibility in all situations
7) Function of stimulating followers to strive willingly
to attain organisational objectives.
8) Not bossism.
Leadership Functions
Setting Goals


Initiating action


Direction and Motivation

Link between Management
and Workers
Qualities of A Good Leader
1. Good Personality
2.Emotional stability
3.Communication Skills
4.Self Confidence and diligence
5.Ability to guide and teach
6.Honesty and integrity of character
7.Objective and flexile approach
9.Sense of purpose and responsibility
Initiatives and creative thinking
Importance of Leadership in
The importance of leadership in any group
activity is too obvious to be over-emphasised.
Wherever, there is an organized group of
people working towards a common goal, some
type leadership becomes essential.
1. Improves motivation and morale.
2. Acts as a motive power to group efforts.
3. Acts as an aid to authority.
4. Needed at all levels of management.
5. Provides the basis for co-operation.
Process or techniques of Effective
1. The leader should consult the group in framing the policies
and lines of action and in initiating any radical change
2. He should attempt to develop voluntary co-operation from
his subordinates in realising common objectives.
3. He should exercise authority whenever necessary to
implement the policies. He should give clear, complete and
intelligible instructions to his subordinates.
4. He should build-up confidence and zeal in his followers.
5. He should listen to his subordinates properly and
appreciate their feelings.
6. He should communicate effectively.
7. He should follow the principle of motivation.
Theories of Leadership

The Trait Theory.

Charismatic Leadership Theory.
The Behavioural Theory.
The Situational Theories.
The Follower Theory.
The Trait
According to this theory, there are certain personal
qualities and traits which are essential to be a
successful leader.
Leadership traits are in-born and cannot be acquired
by learning
List of traits given is different by different
s,affection,mental and moral etc.

Advocates of this theory are of the opinion that

persons who are leaders are psychologically better
adjusted to display better judgement. They seek and
give more information and take lead in interpreting
up a situation.
Some shortcomings of this theory were:
1. Cannot hold good for all sets of circumstances.
2. List of traits are not uniform and are differently
given by different authors.
3. Fails to take into account the influence of other
factors on leadership.
4. Fails to indicate comparative importance of
different traits.
5. There are many persons who were not good
leaders although they had traits as specified for
Charisma is a Greek word which
means gift. So charisma is a God
given gift to a person which makes
him a leader irrespective of the
situation in which he is placed.
Leaders is born and not made

It is a form of interpersonal attraction

of a leader that inspires support and
acceptance from others.
1. Leaders have some exceptional inborn leadership qualities which
are a gift from God.
2. These qualities cannot be enhanced through education and training.
3. Qualities of a leader are of personal nature, these cannot be shared
by others.
4. These qualities make a leader effective and situational factors dont
have any influence.
. If we assume that leadership qualities are inborn in a person then it
implies that nothing can be done in an organisation to develop
. It is a fact that leaders can be developed, though not great leaders,
through proper education, training, development programmes etc.
. A charismatic leader may fail in changed situation.
The Behavioural
According to this approach, leadership involves an
interpersonal relationship between a leader and
subordinates in which behaviour of leader towards the
subordinates is the most important element.
Its actual behaviour and actions of leader which matters
than personal traits or qualities
The good behaviour of leader raises the morale, builds up
confidence and spirit among the team members and the
lack of good behaviour will discard him as a leader.
A particular behaviour or action of a leader may be
effective at only one point of time.
The Situational Theories

This theory emphasise upon the situation in

which leader operates.
According to this theory, leadership is greatly
affected by a situation and maintain that
leadership pattern is the product of situation at a
particular time. A good leader is one who moulds
himself according to the situation.

It fails to consider the fact that in leadership,
individual qualities and traits of leader play an
important role.
The Follower
According to this theory, the essence of
leadership is followership and it is the
willingness of people to follow that makes
a person a leader.

The members of a group tend to follow

only those whom they recognise as
providing means for achieving their
personal desires, wants and needs.
1. What is a leadership style?
A. For many years leadership
has been thought of as a
combination of personality
B. A leadership style is a
particular pattern of
behavior exhibited by the

Manipulati Leadership Laisseez-

ve Styles Leader

Bureauceat Democra
ic tic
Autocratic Style Leader
Tells employees what they want
done and how to do it (without
getting the advice from others).
Leader makes decisions without
reference to anyone else
High degree of dependency on
the leader
Can create de-motivation and
alienation of staff
May be valuable in some types of
business where decisions need to
be made quickly and decisively
Democratic Style Leader
The leader involves one or more
employeess in the decision
making process (to determine
what to do and how to do it).
Leader maintains the final
decision making authority.
Allows everyone to be part of a
teameveryone feels that they
have participated and
Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the
Can delay decision making
Laissez-Faire Style Leader
Leader allows employees to
make the decisions.
Can be very useful in businesses
where creative ideas are
Can be highly motivational,
as people have control over
their working life
Can be successful when
emplyoees are sincere and self
Relies on good team work and
interpersonal relations
Paternalistic Style Leader
Leader acts as a
father figure
Paternalistic leader
makes decision but
may consult
Believes in the need
to support staff and
guide them
Manipulative Leadership Style

This style of leadership is based on

the belief that employees are
persons who should be manipulated
by the leader so that his goal may
be attained.
Employee needs and desires are
viewed as tools to extract
It exploits the aspirations of the
employees or followers.
Under this style of leadership the
followers know that they are being
manipulated and thus become
resentful and bitter.
Bureauceatic Leadership
Rules centred leadership. They follow
rules rigorously, and ensure that their
people follow procedures precisely.
Decisions are taken in a framework of
rules and procedure.
There is too much of paper work and
always a desire to play safe.
Subordinates perform jobs in a
mechanical way.
Leadership styles in Indian
There may be different styles of different leaders since they are
working under different organizations and situations.
1. Family-Managed traditional organizations:- There are the
organizations which are managed by he members of a family.
There is no consideration of competency, experience, skills etc.,
the only factor is the continuation of blood relation and
inheritance. These are highly centralised in structure.
2. Professionally managed organisations:- These are
organisations managed professionally. These have democratic
and participative styles of leadership. The persons are properly
qualified and competent to manage their work are assigned
managerial jobs.
3. Public sector organisations:- These organisations are working
under different Govt. Departments. These are managed by civil
The Managerial Grid
Robert R. Brake and Jone S. Mounton developed the Managerial Grid which
has been used as a means of managerial training and of identifying
combinations of leadership:-
1. Impoverished Management:- The first style (11) is the impoverished
management under which the manager is least concerned with either
people or production.
2. Country Club Management:- leaders have great concern for their people
but lack production orientation.
3. Task Management:- The leaders with high concern for production fall
under this style.
4. Team Management:- The leaders having the high concern for production
as well people fall under this style.
5. Middle of the Road:- The leaders of this style have medium concern for
both people and production and try to maintain a balance in the two.
The Managerial Grid implies that the most desirable leader behavior is
Team management in which the leader has high concern for production as
well as people.
Likerts Systems of Leadership
Organisation of System 1 System 2 System 3 System 4
variable Exploitative Benevolent Consultative Democratic
Authoritativ Authoritative
e system
1. Extent to which Has no trust Has Substantial but Complete
superiors have and condescending not complete confidence and
confidence and confidence in confidence and confidence and trust in all
trust in subordinates. trust such as trust, still matters.
subordinates. master has on wishes to keep
servant. control of
2. Extent to which Subordinates Subordinates Subordinates Subordinates
superiors behave do not feel at do not feel very feel rather free feel completely
so that all free to free do discuss to discuss free to discuss
subordinates feel discuss things things about things about things about
free to discuss about the job the job with the job with the job with
important things with their their superior. their superior. their superior.
about their jobs superior.
with their
3. Extent to which Seldom gets Sometimes Usually gets Always gets
immediate ideas and gets idea and ideas and ideas and
superior generally opinions of opinions of opinions and opinions and
tries to get subordinates subordinates in tries to make tries to make
subordinates in solving job solving job constructive constructive
ideas and problems. problems. use of them. use of them.