Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

AQUACULTURE

ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 4
ADJUSTMENT OF pH
*pH
-is the measure of acidity or alkalinity in the
water.


*pH

faeces CO2
(Ammonia)
NH3
*pH
*pH and Hardness
Soft water:
Hardness

GH KH pH
General Carbonate
Hardness (GH) Hardness (KH)
Hard water:

Ex: Ca2+,
Na+, Mg2+,
Ex: HCO3-, GH KHpH
CO32-
Mn2+
*PROBLEMS WITH LOW pH
*pH ADJUSTMENT
*LIME (CaCO3)
1. LIMESTONE
POWDER

Can increase turbidity


*pH ADJUSTMENT
*LIME (CaCO3) 1. LIMESTONE
POWDER
*pH ADJUSTMENT
*LIME (CaCO3)

2. SHELL-SAND FILTER

Simple system
Low cost
*pH ADJUSTMENT
*SEA WATER 2-4%
addition of
Hashigh buffering capacity and contains seawater
free carbonate ions () and/or bicarbonate 14
ions ()
Basic pH

Disadvantage:
-contains pathogenic micro-organisms,
7
poisonous algae and other substances Conduc-
tivity
Remedy:
Acid
-pump from large depth
-pump from groundwater wells
-disinfect 0
*pH ADJUSTMENT
*LYE OR HYDROXIDES
NaOH
3% solution

Disadvantage:
-prone to overdosing, results to too high
pH and toxic to fish
-corrosive