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10th Edition

Managing Organizational Behavior


Moorhead & Griffin

Chapter 9
Group and Interpersonal
Behavior

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning Prepared by Charlie Cook


All rights reserved. The University of West Alabama
Chapter Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
Discuss the interpersonal nature of organizations.
Define a group and illustrate their importance in
organizations.
Identify and discuss the types of groups commonly
found in organizations.
Describe the general stages of group development.
Discuss the major group performance factors.
Discuss intergroup dynamics.
Describe group decision making in organizations.
2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 92
The Interpersonal Nature of Organizations

Interpersonal relations and group processes


pervade all organizations and are vital in
managerial activities
Interpersonal dynamicstypes of interactions
Between individuals
Between groups
Between individuals and groups

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Outcomes of Interpersonal Behaviors

Results
Resultsofof
Interpersonal
Interpersonal Relations
Relations

Need
Need Social
Social Synergy
Synergy Conflict
Conflict
Satisfaction
Satisfaction Support
Support

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The Nature of Groups

Group Defined
Two or more people who interact with one another
such that each person influences and is influenced by
each other person
Categorization of Groups
By degrees of formalization
Formal groupsestablished by organization
Informal groupsself-created by members
By degrees of permanence
Permanent
Temporary

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Characteristics of Groups
Members may identify a little or not at all with the groups
goal
Members may satisfy needs just by being members
Behavior of individuals both affects and is affected by the
group
Accomplishments of groups are strongly influenced by the
behavior of their individual members
The work group is the primary means by which managers
coordinate individuals' behavior to achieve organizational
goals
The behavior of individuals is key to the groups success or
failure

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9.1
A General Model
of Group Dynamics

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Types of Groups

Categorization
Categorization of
of
Groups
Groups

Formal
FormalGroups
Groups Informal
InformalGroups
Groups
Command
Command Friendship
Friendship
Task
Task Interest
Interest
Affinity
Affinity

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9.1 Classification Scheme for Types of Groups

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Stages of Group Development

Four-Stage Development Process of Groups


1. Mutual acceptance
2. Communication and decision making
3. Motivation and productivity
4. Control and organization

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9.2 Stages of Group Development

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Group Performance

Factors
FactorsAffecting
Affecting
Group
GroupPerformance
Performance

Composition
Composition Size
Size Norms
Norms Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 912


Group Performance Factors

Group Composition
The degree of similarity or difference among group
members on factors important to the groups work
Homogeneity
Degree to which members are similar in one or several
ways that are critical to the groups work
Heterogeneity
Degree to which members differ in one or more ways that
are critical to the groups work

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 913


Group Performance Factors (contd)

Group Composition (contd)


Variables relating to group composition
Productivity
Type of task
Organizational diversity
Cultural traits: distrust, stereotyping, and communication
Effects of diversity on cooperation and understanding in
organizational alliances across country and culture
boundaries

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Group Performance Factors (contd)

Group Size
Is the number of members of the group
Affects resources available to perform the task
Affects degree of formalization of interactions,
communication, and participation
Can increase the degree of social loafing

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 915


Group Performance Factors (contd)

Factors that Determine Ideal Group Size


Group members ability to interact and influence each
other (maturity of the group)
Maturity of individual group members
Group tasks
Ability of the group leader
to deal with communication,
conflict, task activities

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Group Performance Factors (contd)

Group Norms
Are the standards against which the appropriateness
of the behaviors of members are judged
Determine behavior expected in a certain situation
Result from:
Personality characteristics of members
The situation
The historical traditions of the group
Are enforced only for actions that are important to
group members

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 917


Group Performance Factors (contd)

Purposes of Norms
Help the group survive
Simplify and increase predictability of expected
behaviors of group members
Help the group to avoid embarrassing situations
Express the groups central values for membership
identification and identify the group to others

2012 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 918


Group Performance Factors (contd)

Group Cohesiveness
Is the extent to which a group is committed to staying
together
Results from forces acting on the members
Attraction to the group
Resistance to leaving the group
Motivation to remain a member of the group

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9.3 Factors That Affect Group Cohesiveness and
Consequences of Group Cohesiveness

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9.4 Group Cohesiveness, Goals, and Productivity

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Intergroup Dynamics

Primary
PrimaryFactors
FactorsInfluencing
Influencing
Intergroup
IntergroupInteractions
Interactions

Task
Taskand
and
Characteristics
Characteristics Organizational
Organizational situational
situational
of
ofeach
eachof
ofthe
the setting
settingin
inwhich
which bases
basesofof
groups
groups groups
groupsinteract
interact interaction
interaction

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9.5
Factors That
Influence Intergroup
Interactions

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Group Decision Making

Factors
FactorsAffecting
Affecting
Group
GroupDecision
DecisionMaking
Making

Group
Group
Group
Group Groupthink
Groupthink Problem
Problem
Polarization
Polarization Solving
Solving

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Group Decision Making (contd)

Group Polarization
The tendency for a groups average post-discussion
attitudes to be more extreme than its average pre-
discussion attitudes (risky shift or toward a more
conservative view)
Why Polarization Occurs
Increasing confidence from shared opinions
Persuasive arguments convincing weaker supporters
Individuals substituting group responsibility for
individual responsibility for the decision

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Group Decision Making (contd)

Groupthink
A mode of thinking that occurs when members of a group
are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group and the desire
for unanimity offsets their motivation to appraise
alternative courses of action
Effects of Groupthink
Consideration of and focus on fewer alternatives
Failure to perceive non-obvious risks and drawbacks of
an alternative
Rejection of expert opinions
Ignoring potential for setbacks or actions of competitors
in not developing contingency plans

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Groupthink

Conditions
ConditionsFavoring
Favoringthe
the
Development
Development of
of Groupthink
Groupthink

Leaders
Leaders Insulation
Insulationof
of
Strong
Stronggroup
group promotion
promotionof of the
thegroup
group
cohesiveness
cohesiveness aapreferred
preferred from
fromexperts
experts
solution
solution opinions
opinions

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9.6 The Groupthink Process

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Symptoms of Groupthink

Illusion of invulnerability
Collective efforts to rationalize/discount warnings
Unquestioned belief in the groups inherent morality
Stereotyped views of enemy leaders
Direct pressure on a member
Self-censorship of deviations
Shared illusion of unanimity
Emergence of self-appointed mind-guards

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9.2 Prescriptions for Preventing Groupthink

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Group Decision Making (contd)

Participation
Is the degree to which employees should be involved
in decision process
Benefits of Participation
Helps in judgmental problem-solving situations
Produces more and better decisions
Helps in solving complex problems
Creates a greater interest in the task

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Group Decision Making (contd)

Group Problem Solving Difficulties


Factors limiting the generation-of-alternatives phase
Immediate reactions to alternatives discourages further
proposals of alternatives
Experience, status, and power of some members intimidates
less confident members
Limitations on idea generation imposed by the group leader

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Group Decision Making (contd)

Group
GroupProblem
ProblemSolving
Solving
Techniques
Techniques

Nominal
Nominal
Brain-
Brain- Delphi
Delphi
Group
Group
storming
storming Technique
Technique
Techniques
Techniques

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Organizational Behavior in Action

After reading the chapter:


Which interpersonal behaviors have you seen at work
or in classes that suggest that people have social
needs?
Which of the groups to which students commonly
belong could be defined as command groups?
What conflicts could occur when informal and formal
groups overlap in an organization?

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