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West Virginia University

MAE 343
Intermediate Mechanics of Materials

Xingbo Liu
Office: ESB 509
Phone: 293-3339
Email: Xingbo.Liu@mail.wvu.edu

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What did you learn in MAE 241?

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What did you learn in MAE 243?

Compression Tension (stretched) Bending Torsion (twisted) Shearing

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What will you learn in MAE 343?

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Case I: Challenger Explosion

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Case I: Challenger Explosion

Crew Members of Challenger

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Case I: Challenger Explosion

Reason of the Tragedy

"January 28, 1986,11:38:00 a.m. EST. First Shuttle liftoff scheduled from
Pad B. Launch set for 3:43 p.m. EST, Jan. 22, slipped to Jan. 23, then
Jan. 24, due to delays in mission 61-C. Launch reset for Jan. 25 because
of bad weather at transoceanic abort landing (TAL) site in Dakar,
Senegal.... Explosion 73 seconds after liftoff claimed crew and vehicle.
Cause of explosion was an O-ring failure in right SRB. Cold weather was
a contributing factor."

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Case II: Aircraft Engines

GP7200 Engine (General Electric)

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Working Conditions for Aircraft Engines

High Temperature
High Pressure
Corrosive
Long-term
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Turbine Materials

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Case III: How to make perfect fried chicken?

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Case IV: Speedo Swim Suite

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5DdwgJ5qOzY&e

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Materials Science

Properties

Composition
Processing

Microstructure

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Classification of Materials
Metals

Polymers Ceramics

Composites

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Classes of Materials
Metals Polymers
Iron and Steels PE
Aluminum and Alloys PMMA
Copper and Alloys Nylon (PA)
Nickel and Alloys PS
Titanium and Alloys PU
PVC
Ceramics and Glasses PET
Alumina PEEK
Magnesia EP
Silica NR
Silicon Carbide Composites
Silicon Nitride GFRP
Cement and Concrete CFRP

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Classes of Property
Economic Price and availability
Recyclability

General Physical Density

Mechanical Modulus
Yield and tensile strength
Hardness
Fracture toughness
Fatigue strength
Creep strength
Damping

Thermal Thermal conductivity


Specific heat
Thermal expansion coefficient

Electrical and Magnetic Resistivity


Dielectric constant
Magnetic permeability

Environmental Interaction Oxidation


Corrosion
Wear

Production Ease of Manufacture


Joining
Finishing

Aesthetic Color
Texture
Feel

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Metals

Metals are typically split into ferrous (iron


containing) and non-ferrous
Most widely used metals are alloys except for
aluminum and precious metals
Metals are in general are good thermal and electrical
conductors. Many metals are relatively strong and
ductile at room temperature, and many maintain
good strength even at high temperature.

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Iron
Iron was the third of the prehistoric
materials ages (stone, bronze, iron).
Iron began to be used once furnaces
could be made hot enough to melt iron.
Iron quickly became the metal of choice
because of its abundance in the earths
crust.
Iron however has two major problems:
1) Corrosion
2) Brittleness
These problems are partially overcome
by alloying iron to make steel

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Steel
Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a
carbon content between 0.02% and 1.7 or
2.04% by weight (C:100010,8.67Fe),
depending on grade. Carbon is the most cost-
effective alloying material for iron, but various
other alloying elements are used such as
manganese and tungsten.[1] Carbon and other
elements act as a hardening agent, preventing
dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from
sliding past one another. Varying the amount of
alloying elements and form of their presence in
the steel (solute elements, precipitated phase)
controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility,
and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel
with increased carbon content can be made
harder and stronger than iron, but is also more
brittle. The maximum solubility of carbon in iron
(in austenite region) is 2.14% by weight,
occurring at 1149 C; higher concentrations of
carbon or lower temperatures will produce
cementite. Alloys with higher carbon content
than this are known as cast iron because of their
lower melting point.[1]
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Steel

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Aluminum (Aluminium)
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery and ductile member of the poor metal group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its
atomic number is 13.
Aluminium is found primarily in bauxite ore and is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion (due to the phenomenon of
passivation) and its light weight. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry
and very important in other areas of transportation and building.

Although aluminium is the most


abundant metallic element in Earth's
crust (believed to be 7.5% to 8.1%), it
is very rare in its free form, occurring in
oxygen-deficient environments such as
volcanic mud, and it was once
considered a precious metal more
valuable than gold. Napoleon III,
Emperor of France, is reputed to have
given a banquet where the most
honoured guests were given
aluminium utensils, while the other
guests had to make do with gold ones.
20th century metallurgists developed
improved processes for extraction.

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Aluminum

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SuperAlloys

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an


alloy able to withstand extreme
temperatures that would destroy
conventional metals like steel and
aluminum. Superalloys exhibit excellent
mechanical strength and creep resistance
at high temperatures, good surface
stability, and corrosion and oxidation
resistance. Superalloys typically have an
austenitic face-centered cubic crystal
structure. A superalloy's base alloying
element is usually nickel, cobalt, or nickel-
iron. Superalloy development has relied
heavily on both chemical and process
innovations and has been driven primarily
by the aerospace and power industries.
Typical applications are in the aerospace
industry, eg. for turbine blades for
jet engines.
Examples of superalloys are Hastelloy,
Inconel, Haynes alloys, Incoloy, MP98T,
TMS alloys, and CMSX single crystal
alloys.

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Variety of ceramic applications

Furnace linings, heat sinks, capacitors, fuel cells,

magnets (hard and soft), superconductors,

windows, optical fibers, nuclear fuel, artificial hip

joints, cutting tools, turbine blades, bearings

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What is a Ceramic?

Solid compounds formed by heat or heat and


pressure that contain
At least one metal and one non-metal or one non-metal elemental
solid (NMES) [MgO, Al2O3, YBa2Cu3O7]

At least two NMES [SiC]


At least two NMES and a non-metal

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My name is Bond..

In ceramics bonding is a mixture of ionic and


covalent
If ionic bonding dominates crystal structures occur
that are typically based on FCC and HCP
If covalent bonding dominates rings and tetrahedral
units are often seen

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Ceramics: crystalline and glassy

Continuous random Zinc blende (ZnS)


network oxide glass structure
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Repeat units of some common polymers


CH2CH2
n
Poly(ethylene)

CHCH2 Poly(propylene)
n
CH3

CHCH2 Poly(styrene)
n

Poly(ethylene-terephtalate)

CO COO(CH2)2O
n

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Conformation of Polymers
Amorphous thermoplastic
Semi-crystalline thermoplastic

Crosslinked thermoset
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Plastics use in BMW 5 Series

PA PE PP UP-GF
PBT+PC PVC ABS PPO
PBT ABS+PC POM OTHERS
PMMA PUR

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Elastomers

(a) (b) (c)

Entropy springs
Lightly crosslinked
Typically non-linear elastic

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Polyethylene
Polyethylene is classified into several different categories based mostly
on its density and branching. The mechanical properties of PE depend
significantly on variables such as the extent and type of branching, the
crystal structure, and the molecular weight.
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
Ultra low molecular weight polyethylene (ULMWPE - PE-WAX)
High molecular weight polyethylene (HMWPE)
High density polyethylene (HDPE)
High density cross-linked polyethylene (HDXLPE)
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)
Medium density polyethylene (MDPE)
Low density polyethylene (LDPE)
Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)
Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE

Polyethylene is one of the most widely used polymers because of its cost and
versatility.

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Spectra fiber is one of the worlds strongest and lightest
fibers. A bright white polyethylene, it is, pound-for-pound, ten
times stronger than steel, more durable than polyester and has
a specific strength that is 40 percent greater than aramid
fiber.
Spectra fiber is made from ultra-high molecular weight
polyethylene that is used in a patented gel-spinning process.
Polyethylene is a remarkably durable plastic, and scientists at
Spectra Technologies have captured the tremendous natural
strength in the molecular backbone of this everyday plastic to
create one of the worlds strongest and lightest fibers. The gel-
spinning process and subsequent drawing steps allow
Spectra fiber to have a much higher melting temperature
(150C or 300F) than standard polyethylene.

With outstanding toughness and extraordinary visco-elactic


properties, Spectra fiber can withstand high-load strain-rate
velocities. Light enough to float, it also exhibits high resistance
to chemicals, water, and ultraviolet light. It has excellent
vibration damping, flex fatigue and internal fiber-friction
characteristics, and Spectra fibers low dielectric constant
makes it virtually transparent to radar.

Spectra fiber is used in numerous high-performance


applications, including police and military ballistic-resistant
vests, helmets and armored vehicles, as well as sailcloth,
fishing lines, marine cordage, lifting slings, and cut-resistant
gloves and apparel. Honeywell also converts Spectra fiber
into the Spectra Shield family of specialty composites for
armor and other applications.

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Composite Materials
Polymer matrix Metal matrix Ceramic matrix
composite composite composite
(PMC) (MMC) (CMC)

Carbon fiber Silicon carbide Silicon carbide


reinforced particulate monofilament
epoxy crossply reinforced reinforced
laminate aluminum glass ceramic

After D. Hull and T. W. Clyne, An introduction to composite materials, 2nd Edition,


Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, (1996)
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Homework

http://www.wvusoftmatter.blogspot.com/

http://www.whystudymaterials.ac.uk/students/fun/cardgame/cardgame.asp

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