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Original Title: 20160928170920chapter 1. - Propositional Logic

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20160928170920chapter 1. - Propositional Logic

DISCRETE STRUCTURE CHAPTER 1 PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

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and Proofs

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Chapter Summary

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Propositional Logic

Summary

The Language of Propositions

Connectives

Truth Values

Truth Tables

Applications

Translating English Sentences

System Specifications

Logic Puzzles

Logic Circuits

Logical Equivalences

Important Equivalences

Showing Equivalence

Satisfiability

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Propositional Logic

Section 1.1

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Section Summary

Propositions

Connectives

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Implication; contrapositive, inverse,

converse

Biconditional

Truth Tables

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To understand mathematical reasoning.

mathematical

statements.

distinguish between valid and invalid arguments.

Computer science:

to design computer circuits.

to construct computer programs.

to verify the correctness of programs.

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Logic

Logic is a study of reasoning.

Logic examines general forms which

arguments may take, which forms are

valid, and which are fallacies.

Axiomatic concepts in math:

Equals

Opposite

Truth and falsehood

Statement

Objects

Collections

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Logic

We intuitively know that Truth and

Falsehood are opposites. That statements

describe the world and can be true/false.

That the world is made up of objects and

that objects can be organized to form

collections.

by setting down constructs that behave

analogously.

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Statement

Axiom: False is the opposite to Truth.

A statement is a description of

something.

Examples of statements:

Im 31 years old.

I have 17 children.

I always tell the truth.

Im lying to you.

Both? Neither?

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Statement

Answers:

False : I have 17 children.

I always tell the truth.

Both: IMPOSSIBLE, by our Axiom.

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Statement

Neither: Im lying to you. (If viewed on its

own)

HUH? Well suppose that

S = Im lying to you.

were true. In particular, I am actually lying,

so S is false. So its both true and false,

impossible by the Axiom.

Okay, so I guess S must be false. But then I

must not be lying to you. So the statement

is true. Again its both true and false.

In both cases we get the opposite of our

assumption, so S is neither true nor false.

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Propositions

To avoid painful head-aches, we ban

such silly non-sense and avoid the

most general type of statements

limiting ourselves to statements with

valid truth-values instead.

problems.

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Propositions

Basic building blocks of logic.

Propositions a statement / declarative

sentence (sentence that declares a fact)

which is either TRUE or FALSE, but not

BOTH. It may also change according to

certain circumstances (ex: Today is Friday).

Atomic proposition a statement with

none values (statements without first

having to determine the truth or falsity of

other propositions)

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Propositions

Examples of propositions:

a) The Moon is made of green cheese.

b) Trenton is the capital of New Jersey.

c) Melaka is the capital of Malaysia.

d) 1+0=1

e) 0+0=2

Examples that are not propositions.

a) Sit down!

b) What time is it?

c) x+1=2

d) x+y=z

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Propositions

The value of a proposition is called TRUTH

VALUE (T/1, F/O).

p q p q

p p 1 1 T T

1 0 T F

1 orT or

0 F 0 1 F T

0 0 F F

sentences are NOT propositions.

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Propositions - Opinions

Opinions:

2.You should bring along your umbrella to

class.

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Propositions Interrogative

Statement

Interrogative statement:

- who, whom, whose, what, when, where,

why, which, how.

- Question tag: doesnt he?

1. Do you love me?

2. Who used my computer?

3. Which color that suits me best?

4. She loves chatting, doesnt she?

5. You didnt abuse drugs, did you?

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Propositions Imperative

Sentence

Imperative sentence:

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Propositions Examples

Examples:

1.2 + 3 = 5.

2.4 * 4 = 8.

3.Perak is the capital of Malaysia.

4.There are 12 months a year.

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Propositions Examples

Answers:

1. 2 + 3 = 5. (True)

2. 4 * 4 = 8.

(False)

3. Perak is the capital of Malaysia.

(False)

4. There are 12 months a year. (True)

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Propositions Exercise 1

Consider the following sentences:

2. When is the pretest?

3. How many students are in the class?

4. Do your homework.

5. Please close the door.

6. Do not spit out of the bus.

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Propositions Exercise 1

Consider the following sentences:

8. x + 1 = 2.

9. x + y = z.

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Propositions Exercise 1

Answers:

Questions 1 3

Not propositions because it is not a declarative sentences. It is a

question.

Questions 4 6

Not propositions because it is not a declarative sentences. It is an order.

Question 7

Not propositions because it is not a declarative sentences. It is a

statement (either True, False, or Both).

Questions 8 9

Not propositions because it is neither True or False. No initial value for

x, y and z.

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Propositions Exercise 2

Friday is the day after Thursday.

It is raining.

The grass is green.

The sun orbits the earth.

Please close the windows.

I am happy.

10 < 15.

x + 7 = 10 where x = 3.

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Propositional Logic/Variables

(Statement Variables)

Variables that represent atomic

propositions such as p, q, r, s, .

true, denoted by T.

false, denoted by F.

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Propositional Logic/Variables

(Statement Variables)

Propositional logic (propositional calculas) is

a static discipline of statements which lack

semantic content.

the study of how simple propositions can

come together to make more complicated

propositions.

meaning and they will be very soon then the

complicated proposition would have meaning as

well, and then finding out the truth value is

actually important!

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Propositional Logic/Variables

(Statement Variables)

Constructing Propositions

Propositional Variables: p, q, r, s,

The proposition that is always true is denoted by T

and the proposition that is always false is denoted

by F.

Compound Propositions; constructed from logical

connectives and other propositions

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Implication

Biconditional

Exclusive OR

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Logical

Connectives/Operators

Connectives or operators are used

to create a compound proposition from

two or more other propositions.

Negation.

Conjunction/logical conjunction/and.

Disjunction/logical disjunction/or.

Exclusive or/XOR.

Implication/imply.

Biconditional.

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Logical

Connectives/Operators

Operator Symbol Usage

Negation not

Conjunction and

Disjunction or

Exclusive or xor

Conditional if,then

Biconditional if

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Example

Example 1:

minister.

q = The list of Malaysian prime ministers

includes Tun Dr. Mahathir.

r = Lions like to sleep.

r are, in propositional calculus. They are both

equally related as all three statements are true.

Semantically, however, p and q are the same!

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Compound Propositions

Compound propositions

using logical operators/connectives

to construct mathematical statements/

propositional molecules.

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Compound Propositions -

Example

p = Ferry only sails on sea.

q = Ferry sails in Penang Island.

r = Penang Island is a sea.

r = Penang Island is not a sea.

p q = Ferry only sails on sea and sails

in Penang Island.

p q r = If ferry only sails on sea and

sails in Penang Island, then the Penang

Island is a sea.

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

A proposition can be negated.

Negation just turns a false proposition to true and

vice versa.

Example:

p = 23 = 15 +7

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

The negation of a proposition p is denoted

by p and has this truth table:

p p

T F

F T

round., then p denotes It is not

the case that the earth is round, or

more simply The earth is not round.

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

Negation is a unary operator (the only

non-trivial one possible).

Logical operators are defined by truth

tables.

tables which give the output of the operator

in the right-most column.

p p p p

1 0 T F

0 1

orF T

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

Exercise:

p = Today is Monday.

Find p.

2.It is not the case that today is Monday.

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

Exercise:

of memory.

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

Answers:

smartphone has at least 32GB of memory.

least 32GB of memory.

of memory.

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Compound Propositions:

Negation

Find the negation of the proposition

i. Michaels PC runs Linux and

express this in simple English.

least 32 GB of memory and express

this in simple English.

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Conjunction

Conjunction is a binary operator in that it

operates on two propositions when creating

compound proposition.

happens when we use the word and in English.

instead of and.

The sun is shining, but it is raining.

The sun is shining, and it is raining

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Conjunction

For p and q to be true, it must be

the case that BOTH p is true, as well

as q.

compound statement is false as well.

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Conjunction

Example:

not dead.

2.It is raining and it is warm.

3.(2 + 3 = 5) (2 < 2).

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Conjunction

The conjunction of propositions p and q is

denoted by p q and has this truth table:

p q pq

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

and q denotes It is raining. then p q

denotes I am at home and it is raining.

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Conjunction

p q pq p q pq

1 1 1 T T T

1 0 0 T F F

0 1 0 F T F

0 0 0 F F F

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Conjunction - Exercise

Exercise:

p = Today is Monday.

q = Tomorrow is Friday.

r = 3 + 5 = 8

Out of pq, pr, qr which is true?

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Disjunction

Conversely, disjunction is true when

at least one of the components is

true.

The disjunction of propositions p and

q is denoted by p q.

Example: If p denotes I am at

home. and q denotes It is raining.

then p q denotes I am at home or it

is raining.

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Disjunction

p q pq p Q pq

1 1 1 T T T

1 0 1 T F T

0 1 1 F T T

0 0 0 F F F

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Disjunction - Example

Example:

Students who have taken discrete or

computer science can take this class.

- Take both (T T = T).

- Take discrete (T F = T).

- Take computer science (F T = T).

- Not taken (F F = F).

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Disjunction - Exercise

Find the conjunction of the

propositions p and q where p is

proposition Rebeccas PC has more

than 16 GB free hard disk space and

q is proposition The processor in

Rebeccas PC runs faster than 1

GHz.

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In English or has two distinct

meanings.

Inclusive Or - In the sentence Students who have

taken MTK3013 or MTS3073 may take this class, we

assume that students need to have taken one of the

prerequisites, but may have taken both. This is the

meaning

p of disjunction.

q For p q to

p be

q true, either one

or both of p and q must be true.

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

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Disjunction : Caveat

Note: English version of disjunction

or does not always satisfy the

assumption that one of p/q being true

implies that p or q is true.

example?

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Disjunction : Caveat

A: The entre is served with

soup or salad.

to get both soup and salad so that the

statement is false when both soup and salad

is served.

introduced next.

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Exclusive Or (XOR)

XOR of two propositions is true when exactly

one of its propositions is true and the other

one is false.

Example:

2.You may have cake or ice cream, but not both.

3.Let ab < 0, then either a< 0 or b < 0 but not

both.

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Exclusive Or (XOR)

p q P q p q P q

1 1 0 T T F

1 0 1 T F T

0 1 1 F T T

0 0 0 F F F

Note:

In this course any usage of or will connote the

logical operator as opposed to the exclusive-or.

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Exclusive Or (XOR) -

Example

Example:

science, but not both, can enroll in this class.

- Take discrete (T F = T).

- Take computer science (F T = T).

- Not taken (F F = F).

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Exclusive Or (XOR) -

Example

Rebeccas PC has more than 16 GB

free hard disk space or the

processor in Rebeccas PC runs faster

than 1 GHz

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Conditional (Implication)

The proposition that is false when p is

true and q is false and true otherwise.

p = hypothesis/antecedent/premise

q = conclusion/ consequence.

false. In the final case (p is true while q is

false) p q is false.

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Conditional (Implication)

This one is probably the least intuitive. Its

only partly akin to the English usage of

if,then or implies.

Semantics: p implies q is true if one can

mathematically derive q from p.

Example:

1.If it rains, the grass gets wet.

2.If the sprinklers operate, the grass gets wet.

3.If you buy your air ticket in advance, then it

is cheaper.

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Conditional (Implication)

In p q there does not need to be any connection between

the antecedent or the consequent. The meaning of p q

depends only on the truth values of p and q.

These implications are perfectly fine, but

would not be used in ordinary English.

If the moon is made of green cheese, then I have

more money than Bill Gates.

If the moon is made of green cheese then Im on

welfare.

If 1 + 1 = 3, then your grandma wears combat

boots.

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Conditional (Implication)

The implication p q can be

equivalently read as:

if p then q

p implies q

if p, q

p only if q

q if p

q when p

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Conditional (Implication)

The implication p q can be

equivalently read as:

q whenever p

p is a sufficient condition for q

q is a necessary condition for p

q follows from p

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q

if p, then q p implies q

if p, q p only if q

q unless p q when p

q if p q when p

q whenever p p is sufficient for q

q follows from p q is necessary for p

a sufficient condition for q is p

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Conditional (Implication)

Some of the ways reverse the order of p

and q but have the same connotation:

inserting is true after every variable:

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Conditional (Implication)

p q P q p q P q

T T T

1 1 1

1 0 0 T F F

0 1 1 F T T

0 0 1 F F T

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Conditional (Implication)

Example 1:

- Elected, not lower taxes (T F = F)

- Not elected, lower taxes (F T = T)

- Not elected, not lower taxes (F F = T)

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Conditional (Implication)

Example 2:

A.

= T)

- Not get 100%, may or may not receive an A

depending on other factors.

- Not get 100%, not get A, cheated (F F

= T)

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Conditional (Implication)

One way to view the logical conditional is to

think of an obligation or contract.

If I am elected, then I will lower taxes.

If you get 100% on the final, then you will

get an A.

taxes, then the voters can say that he or she

has broken the campaign pledge. Something

similar holds for the professor. This corresponds

to the case where p is true and q is false.

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Conditional (Implication)

Exercise:

3. If sin x = 0, then x = 0.

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Conditional (Implication)

Answers:

Question 1 2:

matter what the conclusion, the implication

holds.

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Conditional (Implication)

Answers:

Question 3:

we let x = 2 then clearly sin x = 0, but x 0.

integer k is True.

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Why F F is True?

Remember, all of these are mathematical

constructs, not attempts to mimic English.

Mathematically, p should imply q

whenever it is possible to derive q by from

p by using valid arguments.

For example consider the mathematical

analog of no. 4:

If 0 = 1 then 3 = 9.

Q: Is this true mathematically?

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Why F F is True?

A: YES mathematically and YES by the

truth table.

1. 0 = 1 (assumption)

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Why F F is True?

A: YES mathematically and YES by the

truth table.

1. 0 = 1 (assumption)

2. 1 = 2 (added 1 to both sides)

3. 3 = 6 (multiplied both sides by 3)

4. 0 = 3 (multiplied no. 1 by 3)

5. 3 = 9 (added no. 3 and no. 4) QED

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Why F F is True?

As we want the conditional to make

sense in the semantic context of

mathematics, we better define it as

we have!

table can also be justified in a similar

manner.

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Inverse

From p q we can form new conditional

statements .

q p is the converse of p q

q p is the contrapositive of p q

pq is the inverse of p q

Example: Find the converse, inverse, and

contrapositive of It raining is a sufficient

condition for my not going to town.

Solution:

converse: If I do not go to town, then it is raining.

inverse: If it is not raining, then I will go to town.

contrapositive: If I go to town, then it is not raining.

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Biconditional

If p and q are propositions, then we can form the

biconditional proposition p q , read as p if and only if

q . The biconditional p q denotes the proposition with

this truth table:

p q p q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

raining. then p q denotes I am at home if and

only if it is raining.

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Biconditional

For p q to be true, p and q must have

the same truth value.

Else, p q is false:

p q P q p q P q

1 1 1 T T T

1 0 0 T F F

0 1 0 F T F

0 0 1 F F T

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p q pq q p P q

1 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 1 1

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Biconditional

Some common or alternative ways p if

and only if q is expressed in English:

p if and only if q

p is necessary and sufficient for q

if p then q, and conversely

p iff q

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Biconditional

Example:

buy a ticket.

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Biconditional

Examples:

in.

you

eat your meat.

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Biconditional

Exercises:

0.

3. x 0 if and only if x 0.

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Biconditional

Answers:

Questions 1 -2

True: Both implications hold.

Question 3

False: The converse holds. That is if x 0

then x 0. However the implication is

false; consider x = -1. Then the hypothesis

is true, 1 0 but the conclusion fails.

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Biconditional

Q : Which operator is the opposite of?

A : has exactly the opposite truth table as .

using only negation and exclusive or?

A: No. Notice that and each maintain parity

between truth and false; no matter what combination

of these symbols, impossible to get a truth table with

four output rows consisting of 3 Ts and 1 F (such as

implication and disjunction).

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Propositions

Construction of a truth table:

Rows

Need a row for every possible combination of

values for the atomic propositions.

Columns

Need a column for the compound proposition

(usually at far right)

Need a column for the truth value of each

expression that occurs in the compound

proposition as it is built up.

This includes the atomic propositions

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Construct a truth table for

p q r r pq pq

r

T T T F T F

T T F T T T

T F T F T F

T F F T T T

F T T F T F

F T F T T T

F F T F F T

F F F T F T

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Construct the truth table for the

following compound proposition:

((p q) q)

2.Use the formula 2.

3.Draw the rows and columns.

4.Input the truth value.

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p q p q q ((p q) q)

0

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p q p q q ((p q) q)

1 1

1 0

0 1

0 0

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p q p q q ((p q) q)

1 1 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0

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p q p q q ((p q) q)

1 1 1 0

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

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p q p q q ((p q) q)

1 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 1

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Equivalent Propositions

Two propositions are equivalent if they

always have the same truth value.

Example: Show using a truth table

that the biconditional is equivalent to

the contrapositive.

p q p q p q q

Solution: p

T T F F T T

T F F T F F

F T T F T T

F F T T T T

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Non-Equivalence

Example: Show using truth tables

that neither the converse nor

inverse of an implication are not

equivalent to the implication.

p

Solution:

q p q p q p q p

q

T T F F T T T

T F F T F T T

F T T F T F F

F F T T F T T

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Problem

How many rows are there in a truth table

with n propositional variables?

in Chapter 6.

propositional variables, we can construct 2n

distinct (i.e., not equivalent) propositions.

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Precedence of Logical

Operators

Operator Precedence

1

2

3

4

5

p q r is equivalent to (p q)

r

If the intended meaning is p (q r )

then parentheses must be used.

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Applications of

Propositional Logic

Section 1.2

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Applications of Propositional

Logic: Summary

Translating English to Propositional

Logic

System Specifications

Boolean Searching

Logic Puzzles

Logic Circuits

AI Diagnosis Method (Optional)

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Translating English

Sentences

Steps to convert an English sentence to

a statement in propositional logic

Identify atomic propositions and represent

using propositional variables.

Determine appropriate logical connectives

If I go to Harrys or to the country, I will

not go shopping.

p: I go to Harrys

If p or q then not r.

q: I go to the country.

r: I will go shopping.

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Example

Problem: Translate the following sentence

into propositional logic:

You can access the Internet from campus

only if you are a computer science major or

you are not a freshman.

One Solution: Let a, c, and f represent

respectively You can access the internet

from campus, You are a computer science

major, and You are a freshman.

a (c f )

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System Specifications

System and Software engineers take

requirements in English and express them in a

precise specification language based on logic.

Example: Express in propositional logic:

The automated reply cannot be sent when the

file system is full

Solution: One possible solution: Let p denote

The automated reply can be sent and q

denote The file system is full.

q p

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Consistent System

Specifications

Definition: A list of propositions is consistent

if it is possible to assign truth values to the

proposition variables so that each proposition

is true.

Exercise: Are these specifications

consistent?

The diagnostic message is stored in the bufer or it is retransmitted.

The diagnostic message is not stored in the bufer.

If the diagnostic message is stored in the bufer, then it is retransmitted.

Solution: Let p denote The diagnostic message is not stored in the

bufer. Let q denote The diagnostic message is retransmitted The

specification can be written as: p q, p q, p. When p is false and q

is true all three statements are true. So the specification is consistent.

What if The diagnostic message is not retransmitted is added.

Solution: Now we are adding q and there is no satisfying assignment. So

the specification is not consistent.

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Logic Puzzles

An island has two kinds of inhabitants, knights, who always

tell the truth, and knaves, who always lie.

You go to the island and meet A and B. Raymond

Smullyan

A says B is a knight.

(Born

B says The two of us are of opposite types. 1919)

Example: What are the types of A and B?

Solution: Let p and q be the statements that A is a knight

and B is a knight, respectively. So, then p represents the

proposition that A is a knave and q that B is a knave.

If A is a knight, then p is true. Since knights tell the truth, q

must also be true. Then (p q) ( p q) would have to be

true, but it is not. So, A is not a knight and therefore p must be

true.

If A is a knave, then B must not be a knight since knaves always

lie. So, then both p and q hold since both are knaves.

Logic Circuits

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12)

Electronic circuits; each input/output signal can be viewed as a 0 or 1.

0 represents False

1 represents True

Complicated circuits are constructed from three basic circuits called gates.

The inverter (NOT gate)takes an input bit and produces the negation of that bit.

The OR gate takes two input bits and produces the value equivalent to the

disjunction of the two bits.

The AND gate takes two input bits and produces the value equivalent to the

conjunction of the two bits.

More complicated digital circuits can be constructed by combining these

basic circuits to produce the desired output given the input signals by

building a circuit for each piece of the output expression and then

combining them. For example:

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Diagnosis of Faults in an

Electrical System (Optional)

AI Example (from Artificial Intelligence:

Foundations of Computational Agents by

David Poole and Alan Mackworth, 2010)

Need to represent in propositional logic the

features of a piece of machinery or circuitry

that are required for the operation to

produce observable features. This is called

the Knowledge Base (KB).

We also have observations representing

the features that the system is exhibiting

now.

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(optional)Outside Power

s1 cb1

w1 wires (w0, w1, w2, w3,

w3 w4), switches (s1, s2,

w2 s3), and circuit

breakers (cb1)

s2 s3

The next page gives the

w0 w4 knowledge base

describing the circuit and

the current observations.

l1

l2

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System in Propositional Logic

We need to represent our common-sense

understanding of how the electrical system works in

propositional logic.

For example: If l1 is a light and if l1 is receiving

current, then l1 is lit.

lit_l1 light_l1 live_l1 ok_l1

Also: If w1 has current, and switch s2 is in the up

position, and s2 is not broken, then w0 has current.

live_w0 live_w1 up_s2 ok_s2

This task of representing a piece of our common-

sense world in logic is a common one in logic-based

AI.

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We have outside power.

live_outside

light_l1 Both l1 and l2 are lights.

light_l2

live_l1 live_w0

live_w0 live_w1 up_s2 ok_s2 If s2 is ok and s2 is in a

live_w0 live_w2 down_s2 ok_s2 down position and w2 has

current, then w0 has

live_w1 live_w3 up_s1 ok_s1 current.

live_w2 live_w3 down_s1 ok_s1

live_l2 live_w4

live_w4 live_w3 up_s3 ok_s3

live_w3 live_outside ok_cb1

lit_l1 light_l1 live_l1 ok_l1

lit_l2 light_l2 live_l2 ok_l2

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Observations (opt)

Observations need to be added to

the KB

Both Switches up

up_s1

up_s2

Both lights are dark

lit_l1

lit_l2

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Diagnosis (opt)

We assume that the components are working ok, unless

we are forced to assume otherwise. These atoms are

called assumables.

The assumables (ok_cb1, ok_s1, ok_s2, ok_s3, ok_l1,

ok_l2) represent the assumption that we assume that the

switches, lights, and circuit breakers are ok.

If the system is working correctly (all assumables are

true), the observations and the knowledge base are

consistent (i.e., satisfiable).

The augmented knowledge base is clearly not consistent

if the assumables are all true. The switches are both up,

but the lights are not lit. Some of the assumables must

then be false. This is the basis for the method to

diagnose possible faults in the system.

A diagnosis is a minimal set of assumables which must

be false to explain the observations of the system.

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See Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents

(by David Poole and Alan Mackworth, 2010) for details on this

problem and how the method of consistency based diagnosis

can determine possible diagnoses for the electrical system.

The approach yields 7 possible faults in the system. At least

one of these must hold:

Circuit Breaker 1 is not ok.

Both Switch 1 and Switch 2 are not ok.

Both Switch 1 and Light 2 are not ok.

Both Switch 2 and Switch 3 are not ok.

Both Switch 2 and Light 2 are not ok.

Both Light 1 and Switch 3 are not ok.

Both Light 1 and Light 2 are not ok.

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Propositional Equivalences

Section 1.3

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Section Summary

Tautologies, Contradictions, and

Contingencies.

Logical Equivalence

Important Logical Equivalences

Showing Logical Equivalence

Normal Forms (optional, covered in

exercises in text)

Disjunctive Normal Form

Conjunctive Normal Form

Propositional Satisfiability

Sudoku Example

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Tautologies, Contradictions,

and Contingencies

P p p p p p

T F T F

F T T F

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Logically Equivalent

p q p p q p q

T T F T T

T F F F F

F T T T T

F F T T T

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Logically Equivalent

Exercises:

Are (p r) v (q r ) and (p q) r logically equivalent? Prove it using

truth table.

p q r pr q (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r r) r

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1

1 1

1 0

1 0

0 1

0 1

0 0

0 0

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0

1 0 1 1

1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 1

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 0

0 0 1 1 1

0 0 0 1 1

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 0 1 1

0 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 1 1

0 0 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 1 1 1

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 1 1 0

0 0 0 1 1 1 0

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p q r pr q r (p r) v (q pq (p q)

r) r

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

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Logically Equivalent

Exercises:

Show that (p q) q is a tautology? Prove it using truth table.

p q pq (p q) q

1 1 1 1

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

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De Morgans Laws

Augustus De Morgan

1806-1871

p q p q (pq) (pq) pq

T T F F T F F

T F F T T F F

F T T F T F F

F F T T F T T

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Identity Laws: ,

Domination Laws: ,

Idempotent laws: ,

Negation Laws: ,

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(cont)

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Equivalences

We can show that two expressions are logically

equivalent by developing a series of logically

equivalent statements.

To prove that we produce a series of

equivalences beginning with A and ending with B.

(represented by a propositional variable) occurs in

the equivalences listed earlier, it may be replaced

by an arbitrarily complex compound proposition.

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Equivalence Proofs

Example: Show that

is logically equivalent to

Solution:

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Equivalence Proofs

Example: Show that

is a tautology.

Solution:

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Equivalence Proofs

Show that

( p q ) p and

q

( p ( p q ))

Show that p and

q

are logically equivalence.

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(optional)

A propositional formula is in disjunctive normal

form if it consists of a disjunction of (1, ,n)

disjuncts where each disjunct consists of a

conjunction of (1, , m) atomic formulas or the

negation of an atomic formula.

Yes

No

Disjunctive Normal Form is important for the

circuit design methods discussed in Chapter

12.

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(optional)

Example: Show that every compound proposition

can be put in disjunctive normal form.

Solution: Construct the truth table for the

proposition. Then an equivalent proposition is the

disjunction with n disjuncts (where n is the number

of rows for which the formula evaluates to T). Each

disjunct has m conjuncts where m is the number of

distinct propositional variables. Each conjunct

includes the positive form of the propositional

variable if the variable is assigned T in that row and

the negated form if the variable is assigned F in that

row. This proposition is in disjunctive normal from.

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(optional)

Example: Find the Disjunctive

Normal Form (DNF) of

(pq)r

when r is false or when both p and q

are false.

( p q) r

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(optional)

A compound proposition is in Conjunctive Normal

Form (CNF) if it is a conjunction of disjunctions.

Every proposition can be put in an equivalent CNF.

Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) can be obtained by

eliminating implications, moving negation inwards

and using the distributive and associative laws.

Important in resolution theorem proving used in

artificial Intelligence (AI).

A compound proposition can be put in conjunctive

normal form through repeated application of the

logical equivalences covered earlier.

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(optional)

Example: Put the following into CNF:

Solution:

1. Eliminate implication signs:

negation:

laws

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Propositional Satisfiability

A compound proposition is satisfiable

if there is an assignment of truth

values to its variables that make it

true. When no such assignments

exist, the compound proposition is

unsatisfiable.

A compound proposition is

unsatisfiable if and only if its negation

is a tautology.

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Questions on Propositional

Satisfiability

Example: Determine the satisfiability of the

following compound propositions:

assignment of truth values to the propositional

variables and none will make the proposition true.

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Notation

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Sudoku

A Sudoku puzzle is represented by a 99

grid made up of nine 33 subgrids, known

as blocks. Some of the 81 cells of the

puzzle are assigned one of the numbers

1,2, , 9.

The puzzle is solved by assigning numbers

to each blank cell so that every row,

column and block contains each of the

nine possible numbers.

Example

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Encoding as a Satisfiability

Problem

Let p(i,j,n) denote the proposition

that is true when the number n is in

the cell in the ith row and the jth

column.

There are 99 9 = 729 such

propositions.

In the sample puzzle p(5,1,6) is true,

but p(5,j,6) is false for j = 2,3,9

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Encoding (cont)

For each cell with a given value, assert

p(d,j,n), when the cell in row i and column

j has the given value.

Assert that every row contains every

number.

number.

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Encoding (cont)

Assert that each of the 3 x 3 blocks

contain every number.

Assert that no cell contains more than one

number. Take the conjunction over all

values of n, n, i, and j, where each

variable ranges from 1 to 9 and ,

of

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Solving Satisfiability

Problems

To solve a Sudoku puzzle, we need to find an

assignment of truth values to the 729 variables

of the form p(i,j,n) that makes the conjunction

of the assertions true. Those variables that are

assigned T yield a solution to the puzzle.

A truth table can always be used to determine

the satisfiability of a compound proposition. But

this is too complex even for modern computers

for large problems.

There has been much work on developing

efficient methods for solving satisfiability

problems as many practical problems can be

translated into satisfiability problems.

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Bit Strings

Electronic computers achieve their

calculations inside semiconducting

materials.

voltage states are used and so the

most fundamental operations are

carried out by switching voltages

between these two stable states.

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Bit Strings

In logic, only two truth values are

allowed. Thus propositional logic is

ideal for modeling computers.

True, which for brevity we call the

number 1, while low voltage values are

modeled by False or 0.

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Bit Strings

Thus voltage memory stored in a

computer can be represented by a

sequence of 0s and 1s such as:

01 1011 0010 1001

Another portion of the memory might

look like as follows:

10 0010 1111 1001

Each of the number in the sequence is

called a bit, and the whole sequence of

bits is called a bit string.

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Bit Strings

It turns out that the analogs of the logical

operations can be carried out quite easily

inside the computer, one bit at a time.

This can then be transferred to whole bit

strings.

Example, the exclusive-or of the previous bit

strings is:

10 0010 1111 1001

11 1001 1101 0000

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