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INTRODUCTION TO SPED 2:

MIDTERM

INTRODUCTION TO SPED 2:
SPED22FA1
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
Inclusive Education is defined as a learning environment that promotes the

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full personal, academic and professional development of all learners irrespective
of race, class, color, gender, disability, sexual preference, learning styles and

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language.

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Principles

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No discrimination with students, Equal educational opportunity to all, School

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adapt to the need of student, Equal educational benefits for all students, The

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students views are listened to and taken seriously and Individual differences

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between students are a source of richness and diversity, and not a problem.
Aims and Objectives

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Education for all, Protection of rights, Identification of skills, Development of

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social consciousness, To prepare for new challenges, Development of
brotherhood and To improve quality of education.
Reference:
http://www.slideshare.net/meenuch/inclusive-education-5197
MODELS FOR INCLUSIVE SPECIAL
EDUCATION ZA
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Full Inclusion Model-The student is placed in a regular education classroom 100 % of

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the day. The special education staff provides support to the regular education teacher
by team-teaching and collaboration. Support in discovering the comprehensive

technology.
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curriculum is also provided to students through accommodations and assistive

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Pull-Out (Resource) Model- Although law requires that students with disabilities be

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placed in the least restrictive environment, it is not mandated that students be in a full

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inclusion setting. For example, a full inclusion model may be restrictive for a student
that requires intense remediation in reading. It is for this reason that a variety of

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service options must be made available to a disabled student. The special education

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staff may provide instruction and support to the student on a one-to-one/small group
basis outside the regular education classroom for no more than 40% of the
instructional day. This small group would be directed toward the minutes on the
students IEP; regular students may not be included during this time. This model is
supported by the inclusion teachers to close the academic gaps presented by the
students on her/his class roll. The primary goal is to address the comprehensive
curriculum. The parents must be involved in this decision. It is the school systems
responsibility to provide Inclusion opportunities for students with disabilities.
Social Mainstreaming Model-The student is included during regular education classroom
instruction to provide him or her with appropriate interaction with non-disabled peers. This

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student may have shortened assignments. Materials may be adapted for this student.
Alternate assessment students are the students that benefit the most from this model.

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Non-academic Model-The student participates only in nonacademic class activities such as

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art, music, physical education, and other electives. This model may be more appropriate

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for our lower functioning, alternate assessment students.
Self-contained Model-The student stays in the special education classroom for more than

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curriculum through the extended standards.
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60% of the instructional day. These classrooms are now addressing the comprehensive

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Home- bound program- A student with a medically diagnosed physical condition that

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restricts him/her to the home for a significant amount of time and has receive a medical

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referral form signed by a physician qualifies for a homebound teacher to come to their

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home and provide instruction.

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Community-based program- As a student reaches the age for moving from school to the
work force, the transition facilitators for Lincoln Parish Schools will assist with community-
based vocational instruction. Upon receiving a written agreement between the community
business and the school system, students may begin working at selected businesses in the
community. Some work experiences may be unpaid for training purposes.
Reference: http://
images.pcmac.org/Uploads/MarionCountySD/MarionCountySD/Departments/DocumentsCate
gories/Documents/INCLUSION%20Handbook.pdf
INTENSIVE AND SUSTAINED SERVICES AND
SUPPORTS
12 Inclusion Supports for Success
Individual Education Plans

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Universal Design for Learning

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Peers

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Modifications

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Assistive Technology

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Learning Materials

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Differentiation
Teacher Training

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Parents
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Accommodations
Paraprofessionals Reference:
Mojdeh Bayat
Teaching Exceptional Children by
SETTING OF PLACEMENT e s
OPTIONS
School Placement Options
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Early Intervention
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General Education
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Collaborative Classroom
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Self-Contained Classroom

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Home Schooling

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Residential School
Alternative High School
Talented & Gifted Program
Reference: Teaching Exceptional Children by
Juvenile Detention Facility
Mojdeh Bayat
HIGHLY QUALIFIED SPECIAL
EDUCATORS e s
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Highly qualified means that the teacher: B
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Has obtained full State certification as a teacher or passed the State

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teacher licensing examination and holds the license to teach in the

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State, and does not have certification or licensure requirements
waived on an emergency, temporary and provisional basis.

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Holds a minimum of a bachelors degree.

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Has demonstrated subject matter competency in each of the
academic subjects in which the teacher teaches, in a manner
determined by the State and in compliance with Section 9101(23) of
ESEA.
(National Association of Special Education Teachers)Reference:
www.naset.org
COLLABORATIVE MULTIDISCIPLINARY
TEAMS E L
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The Multidisciplinary Team

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Adaptive Physical Education
Teacher

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Evaluation Representative

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Regular Education Teacher

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Interpreter

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Nurse

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Occupational Therapist (OT)

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ODR

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Parent
Physical Therapist (PT)
Principal
Special Education Teacher
Speech and Language Therapist

Reference: http://
images.pcmac.org/Uploads/MarionCountySD/MarionCountySD/Departments/DocumentsCate
gories/Documents/INCLUSION%20Handbook.pdf
CHILDREN WHO ARE:

INTRODUCTION TO SPED 2:
MENTALLY HANDICAPPED
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Mental retardation means substantial limitations in age-

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appropriate intellectual and adaptive behavior. It is seldom a

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time-limited condition. Although many individuals with

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mental retardation make tremendous advancements in
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adaptive skills (some to the point of functioning
independently and no longer being considered under any
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disability category), most are affected throughout their life

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span (Hawkins, Eklund, James & Foose, 2003).
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Reference: https
://www.education.com/reference/article/characteristics-children-mental-retardat
ion
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BEHAVIORALLY DISORDERED
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Basic Concepts about Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

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Most children and youth are disruptive from time to time, but most do

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not require interventions. Some students emotional or behavioral
problems are severe enough to warrant interventions.

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Many problems complicate serving students with EBD, including

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inconsistent definitions of the disorder, the large number of agencies

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involved in defining and treating it, and limited ways to measure

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objectively the extent and precise parameters of the problem.
The estimated prevalence of students with emotional and behavioral
problems ranges from a low of less than 1% (actually found eligible for
special education nationwide) to a high of over 20%.
Students with emotional and behavioral problems are significantly
undeserved in schools.
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BEHAVIORALLY DISORDERED
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Characteristics of Students with Emotional and
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Behavioral Disorders

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Key areas of concern include externalizing (e.g., acting

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out) and internalizing (e.g., social withdrawal) behaviors.
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EBD is frequently also associated with academic

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difficulties, such as in reading and mathematics.
Language difficulties are also commonly noted in this
population of students.
Reference: Tom E. C. Smith, E. A. (2012). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive
Settings. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED
The characteristics of students with physical or health

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disabilities are as unique to the individuals as the conditions
that created their special needs. The health care needs of

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some children are so consuming that everything else

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becomes secondary. Other students, such as some with

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physical disabilities, require substantial alterations to the
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physical environment, so that learning is accessible to them,
but are quite similar to their typical classmates in many

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learning characteristics. For still others, their health

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situation requires intense special accommodations at some
in time,
Reference: httpsbut less so at other times.
://www.education.com/reference/article/characteristics-children-mental-retardat
LANGUAGE DISORDERED
Language disorder is a new category intended to cover
language-related problems including spoken and written language
(even sign language) that are manifested is receptive and

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expressive language ability-though these may be present to

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different degrees. Both vocabulary and grammar are usually
affected. Patients with LD speak later and less than normal

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children, ultimately impairing academic process. Later in life,

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occupational and success may be impaired.
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Beginning early childhood, a patients use of spoken and written
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language persistently lags behind age expectations. Compared to
age-mates, patients will have small vocabularies, impaired use of
words to form a sentences, and reduced ability to employ
sentences to express ideas.
Reference: Annual Edition: Education Children with Exceptionalities by
Karen L. Freiberg
AUTISTIC
Autism was not designated as a separate disability category

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under IDEA until the 1990 reauthorization. Autism can be
described as a lifelong disability that primarily affects

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communication and social interactions. Children with autism
typically related to people, objects, and events in abnormal

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ways; they insist on structured environments and display

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many self-stimulating behaviors (Tyron, Mayes, Rhodes, &

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Waldo, 2006). The number of students served in this category

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is expected to increase dramatically over the next several

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years, as the number of children identified as having autism
has increased to a prevalence of 1 in 110 children (National
CentersTom
Reference: forE.Disease
C. Smith, E. Control, 2009).
A. (2012). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive
Settings. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
VISUAL AND HEARING IMPAIRED
Visual Impairments - This category includes students who are
partially and those who are blind, whose educational performance
may be adversely affected because of impairments in vision , even
with correction (IDEA,2004). Students who are partially sighted can
generally read print, whereas those classified as blind cannot.

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Hearing Impairments - Students with hearing impairment include

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those with permanent or fluctuating impairments in hearing that

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adversely affect their educational performance. This category includes

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those classified as Deaf, who have difficulties progressing linguistic

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information through, with or without amplification (IDEA,2004), and

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those classified as hard of hearing, who can process linguistic
information through hearing with assistance (Stewart & Kluwin, 2001)
Reference: Tom E. C. Smith, E. A. (2012). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive
Settings. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
THANK YOU & GOD BLESS!

Salvacion C. Olinares, Ph.D