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Principles of Sonoscopy

I. Physics

II. Transducer

III. Sonoscope

IV. Image

V. Technique
Physics of Sound Waves
1. Physics
1. Properties
2. Interaction
1. Wavelength
2. Transducer 2. Frequency

3. Sonoscope 3. Velocity

4. Amplitude

4. Image 5. Power/Thermal Index

5. Technique
Velocity = wavelength x frequency

1. Wavelength
2. Frequency
3. Velocity
4. Amplitude
5. Power
Stiffer the Substance Greater the
Velocity

1. Wavelength
2. Frequency
3. Velocity Velocity depends upon compressibility and density

Air =

4. Amplitude Water=

Bone=

5. Power
1. Wavelength
2. frequency
3. Velocity
4. Amplitude
Measures the magnitude of compression and rarefaction of the

5. Power molecules through which the sound wave moves.


1. Wavelength
2. Frequency
3. Velocity
Power = Intensity (amount of energy ependend per unit area in

4. Amplitude unit time) X Area

5. Power
Physics Tissue Interaction
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope 1. Reflection/Scattering

4. Image 2.

3.
Refraction

Absorption/Attenuation

5. Technique 4. Interference

5. Doppler effect
Sound Wave and Tissue Interaction
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
4. Image
5. Technique
Physics 2: Tissue Interaction
1. Reflection/Scattering
2. Transmission/Refraction
3. Absorption/Attenuation
Occurs at interface between two dissimilar media and can be
4. Diffraction/Interference specular or diffuse also called scatter (when the interfaces
are smaller than diameter of the wavelength)

5. Doppler effect Percentage of beam reflected depends upon tissues acoustic


impedance
Tissue Interaction - Impedance
Medium Accoustic
Impedance is measure of Impedance
resistance to sound by the Air 0.0004
medium
fat 1.38

Z(rayls) = density x velocity water 1.54

Liver 1.65
If the impedance is similar in
the two media, sound is bone 7.8
readily transmitted from one
medium to another.
Greater the Acoustic Impedance
Difference More the Reflection

1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
4. Image
5. Technique
1. Reflection/Scattering
2. Refraction
3. Absorption/Attenuation
4. Interference is the change in the direction of sound wave due to different
propogational speed of sound in two adjacent media
5. Doppler effect
o
1. Reflection/Scattering
2. Refraction
3. Absorption/Attenuation
4. Interference Conversion of percentage of sound energy to heat as it
traverses the media and is related to frequency of the beam,
viscosity and relaxation time of the medium
5. Doppler effect
1. Reflection/Scattering
2. Refraction
3. Absorption/Attenuation
4. Interference The property of different waves interfering with each other
that is responsible for the echotexture of the structure of
interest
5. Doppler effect
1. Reflection/Scattering
2. Refraction
3. Absorption/Attenuation
4. Interference Change in the frequency of the wave because of relative
motion between the observer and the source and this
phenomenon is utilized in the Doppler examination
5. Doppler effect
II. Types of Transducer
1. Physics
2. Transducer Transcutaneous

curvilinear
3. Sonoscope linear

4. Image Phased array

Endoluminal

5. Technique Portoscopic

Intravascular

Open
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
4. Image
5. Technique
Image - Resolution
Selection of Transducer
III. Portable Sonoscope

1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
1. Display
2. Knobs
4. Image
5. Technique
3. Knobology

1. Physics Essential

2. Transducer 1. Power button

2. Transducer/Application

3. Sonoscope 3. Gain

4. Depth
1. Display 5. Mode
2. Knob Helpful

6. Measure
4. Image 7. Focus

5. Technique 8.

9.
Freeze

Zoom

10. print
IV. Factors to consider
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope 1. Orientation

4. Image 2.

3.
Echogenicity

Artefact

5. Technique 4. Movement

5. Doppler
IV. Image 1. orientation
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
4. Image
5. Technique
IV. Image 1. orientation

1. Skin/SQ
Tissue
2. Muscles/Tend
ons
3. Nerves/Vessel
s
4. Bones/Joints
5. Viscera-
Hollow/Solid
IV. Image: 2 Echogenicity
Artifacts = image that do not
correspond to real structures
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope Real

Artefact
4. Image 1. Improper setting

2. Improper equipment
5. Technique 3. Physics
Image- artifact
Artefacts
Image 4: Movement
Image 5: Doppler
Technique - Factors to consider
1. Patient
1. Physics 1. Permission
2. Transducer 2. Preparation
3. Position
3. Sonoscope 4. Respiration
4. Image
2. Machine

1. Selection of probe
5. Technique 2. Orientation of probe
3. Selection of settings
3. You

1. Scan windows
2. Scan planes
3. manoeuvres
1. Physics
2. Transducer
3. Sonoscope
4. Image
5. Technique
Technique - Using the transducer
1. Physics
2. Transducer
Manoeuvres
3. Sonoscope 1. Pointing

4. Image 2.

3.
Angling

Rotating

5. Technique 4. Sliding

5. Compressing