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Necessity of Cooling

System in IC Engine

Presented By
Prateek Sharma
During the process of combustion the cylinder gas
temperature often reaches quite a high value.
A considerable amount of heat is transferred to
the walls of the combustion chamber.
Thus it is necessary to provide proper cooling
especially to the walls of the combustion chamber.
Due to high temperature the properties of
lubricating oil may also occur thus causing wear of
High temperature may lead to overheated spark
plug causing preignition.
High cylinder wall or cylinder head temp. may
lead to auto-ignition in SI engine.
Variation of Gas
Piston Temperature Distribution
Parameters Affecting Engine
Heat Transfer
Fuel-air Ratio: Change in fuel-air ratio will
change the temperature of the cylinder gases
and affect the flame speed. The maximum heat
rejection will occur for a slightly leaner mixture.
Compression Ratio: As compression ratio
increases there tend to be a marginal reduction
in heat rejection.
Spark Advance: A spark advance more than or
less than optimum will result in increased heat
rejection as the spark timing other than
MBT(min. spark advance for Best Torque)will
reduce the power output and thus more heat is
Preignition and Knocking: Effect of
preignition is the same as advancing the
ignition timing.
Engine Output: Engine designed for high
mep or high piston speeds, heat rejection
will be less.
Cylinder Wall Temperature: The average
cylinder gas temp. is much higher in
comparison to the cylinder wall temperature.
Hence, any change in gas temperature will
have a little effect on temperature difference
and thus on heat rejection.
Need for Cooling System
During Combustion high temperatures are
produced in the cylinder.
`A large portion of heat from the gases of
combustion is transferred to the components of
the cylinder.
Unless the excess heat is carried away and
these parts are and these parts are adequately
cooled, the engine will be damaged.
So a cooling system must be provided to
prevent damage of vital parts and also to keep
temperature of the components in certain limits
to obtain maximum performance from the
Characteristics of an Effective
Cooling system
The cooling system should be capable
of removing 30% of heat generated in
the combustion chamber while
maintaining the optimum temperature
of engine.
It should remove heat at a faster rate
when engine is hot. However during
starting of the engine the cooling
should be minimum, so that the
working parts of the engine reach
their operating temperature in a short
Types of Cooling Systems
In order to cool the engine a cooling medium is
required. There are two types of cooling
1. Liquid or Indirect Cooling System: In this
system mainly water is used and made to
circulate through the jackets provided around
the cylinder, cylinder-head, valve ports and
seats where it extracts most heat.
2. Air or Direct Cooling System: In an air cooled
system a current of air is made to flow past
the outside of the cylinder barrel, outer
surface area on which fins are provided to
increase rate of cooling.
Liquid Cooled
Air Cooled System