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Fluid Mechanics

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(Fall 06/07)

Tutorial 1

1

MECH 221 Fluid Mechanics

(FallSemester 2006/2007)

Instructor: Prof. C. T. Hsu, Mechanical Engineering

Email:mecthsu@ust.hk

Tel: 2358-7188 ; Office: Rm 2561

Office hour to be arranged

Classroom: Rm 1403

Classroom: Rm 2503

SIN Ka Fai, Kelvin (meskf@ust.hk) CHAU Man Hei (mehei@ust.hk)

2

Assessments

#

Homework = 10 points

Mid term Exam = 30 points

Final Exam = 45 points

*Others = 15 points

#

Home works distributed through website every week on

Wednesday. Due one week after distribution (collected

after tutorial)

https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

3

Course Focus

Fundamental Concepts

Fluid Statics

Equations of Fluid Flows

Dimensional Analysis

Pipe Flows, Open Channel Flows

4

Course Notes

5th or 4th edition B.R. Munson, D.F.

Young and T.H. Okiishi, Wiley and

Sons, 2005 or 2002

https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

useful to take notes as the instructor explains

concepts and elaborates on the handout

5

Syllabus

1. Introduction (Chapter 1) Week 1

2. Fluid Statics (Chapter 2) Weeks 2-3

3. Fluids in Motions (Chapter 3) Weeks 3 -4

4. Kinematics of Fluid Motion (Chapter 4) Weeks 4-5

5. Integral and Differential Forms of

Equations of Motion (Chapters 5 & 6) Weeks 6-8

Mid-term Week 8

7. Inviscid Flows (Chapter 6) Week 10

8. Boundary Layer Flows (Chapter 9) Weeks 11-12

9. Flows in Pipes (Chapter 8) Weeks 12-13

10. Open Channel Flows (Chapter 10) Weeks 13-14

6

Historic Background

Prandtl

Fluid Mechanics is the modern

science developed mainly by (1875-1953)

Prandtl and von Karman to study

fluid motion by matching

experimental data with

theoretical models. Thus,

combining Aero/Hydrodynamics

with Hydraulics.

employ mathematicians, (1881-1963)

physicists, engineers and

technicians, who working in

teams to bring together both view

points: experiment and theory.

7

Do you know.?

Tsien Hsue-shen ( )

Father of Chinese Rocketry

Student of von Karman in

1936

Ludwig Prandtl, H.S. Tsien,

Theodore von Krmn

8

Fluid Mechanics

Definition

Fluid: a substance that deforms continuously

when acted on by a shearing stress of any

magnitude.

Mechanics: the branch of applied

mathematics that deals with the motion and

equilibrium of bodies and the action of forces,

and includes kinematics, dynamics, and statics.

that studies the mechanics of those free

moving particles.

9

Mechanics of Particle

Liquid Gas

10

Fluid Modeling

Microscopic:

Study the behavior of molecules

VERY complicated!!!

Mesoscopic:

Statistical physics

Macroscopic:

Continuum assumption

Navier-Stokes Equation

11

Continuum Assumption

A fluid particle is a volume large enough to

contain a sufficient number of molecules of the

fluid to give an average value for any property

that is continuous in space, independent of the

number of molecules.

How can we determine??

12

Continuum Assumption

Knudsen number: Kn = / L

L - characteristic length

13

Continuum Assumption

For continuum assumption: Kn << 1

- B.C.s: no velocity slip

- No temp. jump

- Classical fluid mechanics

- Continuum with slip B.C.s

- No continuum, kinetic gas

- Molecular dynamics

14

Example 1

For air duct:

Characteristic scales for standard air:

-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

-> Diameter of the duct (D) = 1 inch (25.4mm)

(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)

D

w

Air flo

15

Example 2

For airplane:

Characteristic scales for standard air:

-> mean free path, (h=sea level) ~ 10-7 m

-> Length of the airplane = 10m

(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)

L

16

Example 3

For micro-channel:

Characteristic scales for standard air:

-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

-> Width of the micro-channel = 1m = 10-6m

Kn = 10-7/(10-6) = 0.1

(Slip fluid flow? Transaction flow? Or others?)

17

Properties

Thermodynamical

Mean free time - n

Convection time scale - s

Mach number M

Physical

REV Representative Elementary Volume

Density -

Viscosity -

18

Viscosity

Power law:

= k ( u/ y)m

Non-Newtonian fluid: m1

Bingham plastic fluid:

= 0 +u/y

: dynamic viscosity [kg/(m.s)]

: kinematic viscosity: = / [m2/s]

19

Dimensional Analysis (MLT)

Primary quantities:

Mass: M

Length: L

Time: T

Example:

Velocity: Length/Time = LT-1

Momentum: Mass x Velocity = MLT-1

Density: Mass/Volume = ML-3

20

Unit conversion

Length Mass

1 inch = 25.4mm 1 lbm = 0.4536kg

Volume Force

1 L = (10cm)3=0.001m3 1 lbf = 4.448N

Energy Pressure

1 Btu = 1055.056J 1 bar = 100,000Pa

1 kcal = 4186.8J 1 psi = 6894.757Pa

1 kWh = 3,600,000J 1 mmHg = 133Pa

(Hg = 133kN/m3)

Power

1 hp(UK) = 745.7W

21

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