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# MECH 221 FLUID MECHANICS

(Fall 06/07)
Tutorial 1

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MECH 221 Fluid Mechanics
(FallSemester 2006/2007)
Instructor: Prof. C. T. Hsu, Mechanical Engineering
Email:mecthsu@ust.hk
Tel: 2358-7188 ; Office: Rm 2561
Office hour to be arranged

## Lecture Time: Tue & Thu; 12:00 13:20

Classroom: Rm 1403

## Tutorial Time: Wed; 09:00 09:50

Classroom: Rm 2503

## Leading TA: Second TA:

SIN Ka Fai, Kelvin (meskf@ust.hk) CHAU Man Hei (mehei@ust.hk)

## Tel: 2358-8808 ; Office: Rm 1213; Office hour: Wed; 15:00 16:30

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Assessments

#
Homework = 10 points
Mid term Exam = 30 points
Final Exam = 45 points
*Others = 15 points
#
Home works distributed through website every week on
Wednesday. Due one week after distribution (collected
after tutorial)
https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

## * Including short quiz, attendance, classroom behavior, etc

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Course Focus
Fundamental Concepts

Fluid Statics

## Fluid Kinematics, Integral and Differential

Equations of Fluid Flows

## Conservation of Mass, Momentum and Energy

Dimensional Analysis

## Inviscid Flows, Boundary Layer Flows,

Pipe Flows, Open Channel Flows

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Course Notes

## Text Book: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,

5th or 4th edition B.R. Munson, D.F.
Young and T.H. Okiishi, Wiley and
Sons, 2005 or 2002

## Most materials are available from course web

https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

## Reading the handout may not be sufficient. It is

useful to take notes as the instructor explains
concepts and elaborates on the handout

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Syllabus
1. Introduction (Chapter 1) Week 1
2. Fluid Statics (Chapter 2) Weeks 2-3
3. Fluids in Motions (Chapter 3) Weeks 3 -4
4. Kinematics of Fluid Motion (Chapter 4) Weeks 4-5
5. Integral and Differential Forms of
Equations of Motion (Chapters 5 & 6) Weeks 6-8

Mid-term Week 8

## 6. Dimensional Analysis (Chapter 7) Week 9

7. Inviscid Flows (Chapter 6) Week 10
8. Boundary Layer Flows (Chapter 9) Weeks 11-12
9. Flows in Pipes (Chapter 8) Weeks 12-13
10. Open Channel Flows (Chapter 10) Weeks 13-14

## Final According to the University Schedule

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Historic Background
Prandtl
Fluid Mechanics is the modern
science developed mainly by (1875-1953)
Prandtl and von Karman to study
fluid motion by matching
experimental data with
theoretical models. Thus,
combining Aero/Hydrodynamics
with Hydraulics.

## Indeed, modern research facilities Von Karman

employ mathematicians, (1881-1963)
physicists, engineers and
technicians, who working in
teams to bring together both view
points: experiment and theory.

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Do you know.?
Tsien Hsue-shen ( )
Father of Chinese Rocketry
Student of von Karman in
1936

## From left to right:

Ludwig Prandtl, H.S. Tsien,
Theodore von Krmn
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Fluid Mechanics
Definition
Fluid: a substance that deforms continuously
when acted on by a shearing stress of any
magnitude.
Mechanics: the branch of applied
mathematics that deals with the motion and
equilibrium of bodies and the action of forces,
and includes kinematics, dynamics, and statics.

## Fluid mechanics: a branch of science

that studies the mechanics of those free
moving particles.
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Mechanics of Particle

Liquid Gas

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Fluid Modeling
Microscopic:
Study the behavior of molecules
VERY complicated!!!

Mesoscopic:
Statistical physics

Macroscopic:
Continuum assumption
Navier-Stokes Equation
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Continuum Assumption

A fluid particle is a volume large enough to
contain a sufficient number of molecules of the
fluid to give an average value for any property
that is continuous in space, independent of the
number of molecules.

## What does large enough mean??

How can we determine??

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Continuum Assumption
Knudsen number: Kn = / L

## - mean free path

L - characteristic length

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Continuum Assumption
For continuum assumption: Kn << 1

## Kn < 0.001 - Non-slip fluid flow

- B.C.s: no velocity slip
- No temp. jump
- Classical fluid mechanics

## 0.001< Kn < 0.1 - Slip fluid flow

- Continuum with slip B.C.s

## 0.1< Kn< 10 - Transition flow

- No continuum, kinetic gas

## 10<Kn - Free molecular flow

- Molecular dynamics

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Example 1
For air duct:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

## Characteristic length (L):

-> Diameter of the duct (D) = 1 inch (25.4mm)

## Kn = 10-7/(0.0254) = 3.937x10-6 < 0.001

(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)

D
w
Air flo
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Example 2
For airplane:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (h=sea level) ~ 10-7 m

## Characteristic length (L):

-> Length of the airplane = 10m

## Kn = 10-7/(10) = 10-8 < 0.001

(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)
L

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Example 3
For micro-channel:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

## Characteristic length (L):

-> Width of the micro-channel = 1m = 10-6m

Kn = 10-7/(10-6) = 0.1
(Slip fluid flow? Transaction flow? Or others?)

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Properties
Thermodynamical
Mean free time - n
Convection time scale - s
Mach number M

Physical
REV Representative Elementary Volume
Density -
Viscosity -

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Viscosity
Power law:
= k ( u/ y)m

## Newtonian fluid: k = , m=1

Non-Newtonian fluid: m1
Bingham plastic fluid:
= 0 +u/y

## : Shearing stress [N/m2]

: dynamic viscosity [kg/(m.s)]
: kinematic viscosity: = / [m2/s]

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Dimensional Analysis (MLT)
Primary quantities:
Mass: M
Length: L
Time: T

Example:
Velocity: Length/Time = LT-1
Momentum: Mass x Velocity = MLT-1
Density: Mass/Volume = ML-3

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Unit conversion
Length Mass
1 inch = 25.4mm 1 lbm = 0.4536kg
Volume Force
1 L = (10cm)3=0.001m3 1 lbf = 4.448N
Energy Pressure
1 Btu = 1055.056J 1 bar = 100,000Pa
1 kcal = 4186.8J 1 psi = 6894.757Pa
1 kWh = 3,600,000J 1 mmHg = 133Pa
(Hg = 133kN/m3)
Power
1 hp(UK) = 745.7W

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