You are on page 1of 21

MECH 221 FLUID MECHANICS

(Fall 06/07)
Tutorial 1

1
MECH 221 Fluid Mechanics
(FallSemester 2006/2007)
Instructor: Prof. C. T. Hsu, Mechanical Engineering
Email:mecthsu@ust.hk
Tel: 2358-7188 ; Office: Rm 2561
Office hour to be arranged

Prerequisites: MATH 100/101 & MATH 150/151

Lecture Time: Tue & Thu; 12:00 13:20


Classroom: Rm 1403

Tutorial Time: Wed; 09:00 09:50


Classroom: Rm 2503

Leading TA: Second TA:


SIN Ka Fai, Kelvin (meskf@ust.hk) CHAU Man Hei (mehei@ust.hk)

Tel: 2358-8808 ; Office: Rm 1213; Office hour: Wed; 15:00 16:30

2
Assessments

#
Homework = 10 points
Mid term Exam = 30 points
Final Exam = 45 points
*Others = 15 points
#
Home works distributed through website every week on
Wednesday. Due one week after distribution (collected
after tutorial)
https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

* Including short quiz, attendance, classroom behavior, etc

3
Course Focus
Fundamental Concepts

Fluid Statics

Fluid Kinematics, Integral and Differential


Equations of Fluid Flows

Conservation of Mass, Momentum and Energy

Dimensional Analysis

Inviscid Flows, Boundary Layer Flows,


Pipe Flows, Open Channel Flows

4
Course Notes

Text Book: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics,


5th or 4th edition B.R. Munson, D.F.
Young and T.H. Okiishi, Wiley and
Sons, 2005 or 2002

Most materials are available from course web


https://teaching.ust.hk/~mech221/

Reading the handout may not be sufficient. It is


useful to take notes as the instructor explains
concepts and elaborates on the handout

5
Syllabus
1. Introduction (Chapter 1) Week 1
2. Fluid Statics (Chapter 2) Weeks 2-3
3. Fluids in Motions (Chapter 3) Weeks 3 -4
4. Kinematics of Fluid Motion (Chapter 4) Weeks 4-5
5. Integral and Differential Forms of
Equations of Motion (Chapters 5 & 6) Weeks 6-8

Mid-term Week 8

6. Dimensional Analysis (Chapter 7) Week 9


7. Inviscid Flows (Chapter 6) Week 10
8. Boundary Layer Flows (Chapter 9) Weeks 11-12
9. Flows in Pipes (Chapter 8) Weeks 12-13
10. Open Channel Flows (Chapter 10) Weeks 13-14

Summary Review Week 14

Final According to the University Schedule

6
Historic Background
Prandtl
Fluid Mechanics is the modern
science developed mainly by (1875-1953)
Prandtl and von Karman to study
fluid motion by matching
experimental data with
theoretical models. Thus,
combining Aero/Hydrodynamics
with Hydraulics.

Indeed, modern research facilities Von Karman


employ mathematicians, (1881-1963)
physicists, engineers and
technicians, who working in
teams to bring together both view
points: experiment and theory.

7
Do you know.?
Tsien Hsue-shen ( )
Father of Chinese Rocketry
Student of von Karman in
1936

From left to right:


Ludwig Prandtl, H.S. Tsien,
Theodore von Krmn
8
Fluid Mechanics
Definition
Fluid: a substance that deforms continuously
when acted on by a shearing stress of any
magnitude.
Mechanics: the branch of applied
mathematics that deals with the motion and
equilibrium of bodies and the action of forces,
and includes kinematics, dynamics, and statics.

Fluid mechanics: a branch of science


that studies the mechanics of those free
moving particles.
9
Mechanics of Particle

Liquid Gas

10
Fluid Modeling
Microscopic:
Study the behavior of molecules
VERY complicated!!!

Mesoscopic:
Statistical physics

Macroscopic:
Continuum assumption
Navier-Stokes Equation
11
Continuum Assumption

A fluid particle is a volume large enough to
contain a sufficient number of molecules of the
fluid to give an average value for any property
that is continuous in space, independent of the
number of molecules.

What does large enough mean??


How can we determine??

12
Continuum Assumption
Knudsen number: Kn = / L

- mean free path


L - characteristic length

13
Continuum Assumption
For continuum assumption: Kn << 1

Kn < 0.001 - Non-slip fluid flow


- B.C.s: no velocity slip
- No temp. jump
- Classical fluid mechanics

0.001< Kn < 0.1 - Slip fluid flow


- Continuum with slip B.C.s

0.1< Kn< 10 - Transition flow


- No continuum, kinetic gas

10<Kn - Free molecular flow


- Molecular dynamics

14
Example 1
For air duct:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

Characteristic length (L):


-> Diameter of the duct (D) = 1 inch (25.4mm)

Kn = 10-7/(0.0254) = 3.937x10-6 < 0.001


(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)

D
w
Air flo
15
Example 2
For airplane:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (h=sea level) ~ 10-7 m

Characteristic length (L):


-> Length of the airplane = 10m

Kn = 10-7/(10) = 10-8 < 0.001


(Continuum and non-slip fluid flow)
L

16
Example 3
For micro-channel:
Characteristic scales for standard air:
-> mean free path, (sea level) ~ 10-7 m

Characteristic length (L):


-> Width of the micro-channel = 1m = 10-6m

Kn = 10-7/(10-6) = 0.1
(Slip fluid flow? Transaction flow? Or others?)

17
Properties
Thermodynamical
Mean free time - n
Convection time scale - s
Mach number M

Physical
REV Representative Elementary Volume
Density -
Viscosity -

18
Viscosity
Power law:
= k ( u/ y)m

Newtonian fluid: k = , m=1


Non-Newtonian fluid: m1
Bingham plastic fluid:
= 0 +u/y

: Shearing stress [N/m2]


: dynamic viscosity [kg/(m.s)]
: kinematic viscosity: = / [m2/s]

19
Dimensional Analysis (MLT)
Primary quantities:
Mass: M
Length: L
Time: T

Example:
Velocity: Length/Time = LT-1
Momentum: Mass x Velocity = MLT-1
Density: Mass/Volume = ML-3

20
Unit conversion
Length Mass
1 inch = 25.4mm 1 lbm = 0.4536kg
Volume Force
1 L = (10cm)3=0.001m3 1 lbf = 4.448N
Energy Pressure
1 Btu = 1055.056J 1 bar = 100,000Pa
1 kcal = 4186.8J 1 psi = 6894.757Pa
1 kWh = 3,600,000J 1 mmHg = 133Pa
(Hg = 133kN/m3)
Power
1 hp(UK) = 745.7W

21