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Chapter 15

Rizals Second Sojourn

in Paris and the
Universal Exposition of
By Jasmine Rose A.
Paris in the spring of 1889 was bursting with gaiety and
excitement because of the Universal Exposition. Thousands
of visitors from all corners of the world crowded every
hotel, inn, and boarding house. Everywhere in the
metropolis, the hotel rates and house rents were soaring
sky high, Rizal, fresh from London, was caught in the whirl
of gay Parisian life. Despite the social parties and the
glittering lights of the city, he continued his fruitful artistic,
literary, and patriotic labors. He published his annotated
edition of Morgas Sucesos; founded three Filipino societies
and wrote Por Telefono, a satire against Fr. Salvador Front.
During the exposition, Rizal lived in the house of
his friend VALENTIN VENTURA, at No. 45 Rue
He transferred several times.
Finally, he lived in a little room, together with two
other Filipinos Capitan Justo Trinidad former
gobernadorcillo of Sta. Ana Manila, and a refugee
from Spanish tyranny, and Jose Albert, a young
student from Manila.
Life in Paris
Mostly at Bibliotheque Nationale (Natinal Bookstore)
checking up historical annotations on Morgas book
Writing letters to his family and friends
At the gymnasium for his daily exercise
Visiting his friends
Would dine at the homes of his friends :
- Pardo de Taveras ( Dr. Trinidad a physician &
philologist, Dr. Felix a phusician & an artist/sculptor, and Paz
wife of Juan Luna)
- Venturas
- Lunas
June 24, 1889 daughter of Juan Luna & Paz Pardo de
Tavera was born. She was their second child, their
first was named Andres(Luling). Rizal became her
baptismal godfather(ninong) who chose her name:
Maria de la Paz, Blanca, Laureana, Hermenegilda
Juana Luna y Pardo de Tavera.
Rizal and Paris Exposition
May 6,1889
The greatest attraction of this exposition was the Eiffel
Tower, 984 feet high, built by Alexander Eiffel,French
One of the features of the Exposition was the international
are competition:
Felix Hidalgo = 2nd prize
Juan Luna & Felix Pardo de Tavera = 3rd prize
Rizals bust = no prize
Universal Exposition of 1889
Kidlat Club
Founded by Rizal on March 19, 1889,
the same day when he arrived at
Purely a social society of a
temporary nature
Rizal to bring together young
Filipinos in the French capital so that
they could enjoy their sojourn in the
city during the duration of the
Universal Exposition
It will disappear like lightning
- Antonio and Juan Luna
- Gregorio Aguilera
- Fernando Canon
- Lauro Dimayuga
- Julio Llorente
- Guillermo Puatu
- Baldemoro Roxas Kidlat Club
Indios Bravos
Rizal and the members of the Kidlat Club
were amazed to see the Buffalo Bull show
which featured the American Indians
These Red skinned Indians were proudly
riding their sturdy ponies, elegantly
dressed in their native attire and wearing
their war feathers and paints.
Rizal told his friends:
Let us be proud of the name Indio and make
our Spanish enemies revise their conception
of the term
We shall be Indios Bravos
The Indios Bravos (brave Indians) replaced
the ephemeral Kidlat Club.
Members pledged to excel in intellectual
and physical prowess in order to win the
admiration of the foreigners, particularly
the Spaniards.
They practiced with great enthusiasm the use
of the sword and the pistol.
Rizal taught them judo, an Asian art of self-
defense that he learned in Japan.
R.D.L.M Society
Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption
of the Malays)
founded by Rizal in Paris during the
Universal Exposition of 1889
patterned after Freesmasonry
Rizal was inspired by a famous book
entitled Max Havelaar written by Multatuli
This book exposed the miserable
conditions of the oppressed Malay
inhabitants of the Netherlands East
inspired by a
Indies under Dutch Rules famous book
entitled Max
AIM: the propagation of all useful Havelaar (1860)
written by
knowledge scientific, artistic, literary, Multatuli
R.D.L.M Society
Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal (grandnephew)
To have freedom of action to attain the
aims of R.D.L.M which means the
Redemption of the Malay Race
Novemeber 23, 1892 Rizals writing to
Blumentritt from Hongkong >>> revealed
his intention to be a leader of FREEDOM,
if not in the Philippines, then in other lands
Trusted friends of Rizal (some members)
Gregorio Aguilera, Jose Ma. Basa, Julio
Llorente, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano
Ponce, Baldomero Roxas & Father Jose Map of BORNEO
Maria Changco (Filipino priest
Annotated Edition of Morga
Rizals outstanding achievement in Paris (1980)
wrote in the British Museum
printed by Garnier Freres
Professor Blumentritt wrote the Prologue
Rizals errors:
1. Rizal commits the error of many historians in
appraising the events of the past in the light
of present standards
2. Rizals attacks on the church were unfair and
unjustified because the abuses of the friars
should not be construed to mean that
Catholicism is bad.
Rizal published Morgas Sucesos = best of the many
histories of the Philippines written by the early Spanish
Dedicated new edition of Morga to the Filipino people TT
>> to know their glorious past : TO THE FILIPINOS
omment on Morgas Publication Date
Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos,
1890 title page of Rizals annotated edition
of Morga
Documentary evidence to show that Rizals
edition of Morga must have come off the press
in 1889 not 1890.
3 Letters:
October 12, 1889 Blumentritt
received the edition (Leitmeritz)
December 28, 1889 Rizal sent copies
to Dr. Baldomero Roxas from Paris to
December 31, 1889 Mariano Ponce MARIANO PONCE
received the book

Incontrovertible proofs that Morgas Sucesos

Rizal as Historian
Rizals research studies in the British Museum
(London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale
(Paris) enriched his historical knowledge

His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal

to read historical documents:
Pigafettas famous First Voyage Around the
World (Italian)
Works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley, and
Wallace (English)
Writings of Blumentritt, Jagor, and Virchow
Historical Commentaries which qualify Rizal to be a RIZAL
real historian:
Ma-yi (December 6, 1888) and Tawalisi of Ibn
The Philippines Within a
Article in which he expressed his views
on the Spanish colonization in the
Predicted with amazing accuracy the
tragic end of Spains sovereignty in Asia
Beginning = glorious past of the
Filipino people
Middle = economic stagnation and
happiness under the harsh Spanish
Last = peered into the future and
warned Spain of what would happen
to her colonial empire in Asia if she
would not adopt a more liberal &
The Indolence of the Filipinos
Defense of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos
Critical study of the causes why the Filipinos did
not work hard during the Spanish regime
Main thesis: the Filipinos are not by nature
The Indolence of the Filipinos
10 Causes of decline in economic life:
1)Native revolts and other internal disorders
2)Wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain (Dutch, Portuguese, English, etc.)
3)Raids on the coastal towns and village by the Muslim pirates of Mindanao and
4)Forced labor
5)Lack of stimulus to work harder (people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor)
6) Government neglect and indifference (agriculture, industry, and commerce)
7)Bad example shown by Spaniards = despising manual labor
8)Teaching of Spanish missionaries
10)System of Spanish education
International Association of Filipinologists

Universal Exposition of 1889 (Paris)

Letter to Blumentritt January 14, 1889
Prospectus: aim of the association to study the
Philippines from the scientific and historical point of
Their inaugural convention did not materialize
because the French government discouraged the
holding of conferences by private organizations
during the period of the international exposition.
International Association of Filipinologists

President: Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt
Vice-President: Mr. Edmund
Plauchut (French)
Dr. Reinhold Rost (Anglo-German)
Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (Filipino-
Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino)
Project for Filipino College in Hongkong

Planned by Rizal while still in Paris

To establish a modern college in Hong Kong
Wrote to Jose Maria Basa about the matter
Aim: to train and educate men of good family and
financial means in accordance with the demands of
modern times and circumstances
A rich Filipino resident in Paris, Mr. Mariano Cunanan, from
Mexico, Pampanga, promised to help him raise P40,000 as
initial capital for the college.
This project of Rizal to establish a modern college in Hong
Kong did not materialize
Por Telefono
Defended the Noli through satitrical booklets:
La Vision del Fray Rodiguez
Fray Jose Rodriguez
Por Telefono (Barcelona, 1889)
Fr. Salvador Font (banning of Noli)
This satirical pamphlet under the authorship of Dimas Alang is a witty
satire which ridicules Fr. Font.
-It describes in comical vein a telephone conversation between Fr. Font
who was in Madrid and the father provincial of the San Agustin
Convent in Manila.
- Rizal predicted much ahead of his times that people could carry on
overseas telephonic conversations --- 12 years after the publication of
Rizals Por Telefono.
Christmas in Paris
December 25, 1889
With Jose Albert, who ere living
frugally in a small room occupied by
Capitan Justo Trinidad planned to
have a sumptuous Christmas dinner.
They ate fried chicken, rice, and
Rizals last Christmas dinner in Paris
After New Year brief visit to London
(unknown purpose)