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A prescription () is defined as a healthcare program implemented by a
physician in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an
individual patient.1 The fact that a prescription instructs someone to take
rather than give, makes it clear that it is directed at the patient, and is not
directly an instruction to anyone else
(Arati S,2013)

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 35 Tahun 2014

Tentang Standar Pelayanan Kefarmasian di Apotek

Undang-Undang Nomor 36 Tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan

( Menteri Kesehatan RI, 2014 )
A prescription has various parts; some of them mandatory (as per the Drugs &
Cosmetics Act and Rules, or the Medical Council of India), and some of them though
not mandatory, important for better understanding of the prescription by the
pharmacist and the patient also.
( Gladstone D'Costa,2011)

Prescription writing used to be an art as well as a science. Unfortunately, times have

changed. More often than not, we find incomplete and illegal prescriptions being
handed over to patients, and, more unfortunately, honored at pharmacies. This has
resulted in a disturbing trend of putting the patients safety at risk; and there is an
urgent need to put things right.
(Gladstone D'Costa,2011)
Latin has been regarded as the language of the learned and the intellectual.
Prescriptions were cloaked in mystery. What the doctor prescribed was a
mystery to the patient, a secret between him and the pharmacist who would
dispense the medicine. That it was recommended to label patients
medicine with its name.) Part of the doctors training would be how to write
a prescription, the pharmacists to read it and interpret the
(Royal pharmaceutical

Entitled wrote prescriptions are doctors, dentists and veterinarians, while

entitled to receive a prescription is pharmacist pharmacy manager whose
duties can be replaced when absent companion Pharmacists / Pharmacists
Pharmacist Assistant Chief Substitute or under the supervision and
responsibility of Pharmacy Pharmacist business
1. Letterheads/prescription blanks should be kept secure to avoid misuse.
2. Overwriting on a prescription should be avoided. In case of overwriting, the
doctor must initial each correction.
3. Prescription may be typed/computer generated, but has to be signed and
dated by Doctor in indelible ink.
4. It is illegal to allow nurses/assistants to write prescriptions/medication orders.
5. Only allopathic doctors (including Dentists, Veterinarians) can prescribe
allopathic medicines.
6. Pharmacies are authorized to refuse to dispense prescriptions which do not
conform to the above format.
7. If Pharmacies dispense prescriptions which do not conform to the above
format are liable to be prosecuted under the Drugs & Cosmetics Act & Rules
there under.
(Gladstone D'Costa,2011)
Contents of the Prescription

Date of the order

Patient Name and Address
Name of the drug
Strength of the drug
Quantity of the drug
Directions for use
Practitioner Name, Address, Telephone number
Latin of Prescriptions

Even though the use of the drug in doctor's prescriptions were

written in the recipe in latin stands for, but because it has been common
abbreviations used by all parties concerned.

The service request on a prescription drug in pharmacies did not

experience any significant errors.
Words Latin Mean
am Ante meridium Sebelum tengah hari
pm Post meridium Setelah tengah hari
a.c. Ante Coenam Sebelum makan
p.c. Post Coenam Setelah makan
ad us. prop. Ad usus proprium Untuk pemakaian sendiri
add. adde Tambakan
agit. agitation Kocok
bid biddum Waktu dua hari
nedet Ne detur Belum diberikan
bdd Bis de die Dua kali
bddc Bis di die cochlear Sehari 2x satu sendok makan
m et v Mane et vespere Pagi dan malam
mod dict. Modo dicto Sesuai resep
det detur diberikan
ext ut Externe untendum Untuk pemakaian luar
febr. dur. Febre durante Di waktu demam
words latin Mean
guut. aur. Guttae auricularies Tetes telinga
h. u. spat. Horae unius spatio Setelah satu jam
haust. haustus Diminum sekaligus
intr.d.sum. Intra diem sumendum Digunakan dalam satu hari
liq. liquid Cairan
m.d.s Misce de signa Campurkan, berikan tanda
m.f. Misce fac Campur dan buat
m.f.pulv. ,isce fac pulveres Campurkan dan buat
noct. Nocturnal Malam hari
o.m. Omni mane Tiap hari
oculent. Oculentum Salep mata
per. trid Per triduum Dalam 3 hari
pulv.adsp Pulvis adspersorius Serbuk tabur
R Recipe Ambillah
s. Signa Tandai atau tulis
tuss Tussis Batuk
Definition of dose
Definition dose of a drug is the number one drug that can be used or
administered to a patient either to be used as a medicine inside and outside
General Provisions FI edition III includes two doses :
1. Maximum dose apply to all and daily usage. The delivery of drugs with doses
exceeding the maximum dose can be initialed doctors prescribing, by a line
under the drug name or number of medications should be written in full.
2. Commonly dose (Usual doses) is an indication which is not binding but are used
as general guidelines (the usual doses / commonly used).

Good practice of Drug Calculation : p 14
Good practice of Drug Calculation : p 15
Usual dose
The usual dose of a drug is the amount that ordinarily produces the
desired therapeutic response in the majority of patients in a
general, or otherwise defined, population group.

Usual doses and dosage regimens are based on the results of

clinical studies conducted during the drug development process as
well as on clinical information gathered following the initial
approval and marketing of the drug.

to be safe and effective in that same population group

provides the prescriber with dosing guidelinesin initially
selecting a drug dose for a particular patient and the flexibility
to change that dose as the patient's clinical response warrants.
Dr. Arati S. Panchbhai, M.D.S.2013.Rationality of Prescription Writing Indian Journal
of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Vol 47 Issue 4. Department of Oral
Medicine and Radiology S P Dental College & Hospital, DMIMS University,Sawangi-
M, Wardha (Maharastra), India
D'Costa, Dr. Gladstone Mr. Raj Vaidya.2011. Guidelines For Prescription Writing
and Handling Of Prescription and Prescription Medicines
Menteri kesehatan RI. 2014. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia
Nomor 35 Tahun 2014 Tentang Standar Pelayanan Kefarmasian Di Apotek . Jakarta
Rahmawati, Fita dan R.A. Oetari. 2002. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia. Prescription
Analysis: An Investigation On Prescription Legality In The Pharmacies Of
Kotamadya Yogyakarta. Vol 13(2)
Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Prescription Reading information sheet 19. Museum
Of The Royal Pharmaceutical Society 1 Lambeth High Street, London SE1 7JN
Good practice of Drug Calculation
Syamsuni,h.2005. Farmasetika Dasar dan Hitungan Farmasi.Jakarta: EGC
Howard C, Ansel. 2013. Pharmaceutical Calculations 14th edition. Athens : Wolters