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20 TH CENTURY THEORY

3. ERICH MENDELSOHN

“EXPRESSIONIST

ARCHITECT”

TOA-2

6 B TOSA BY – AR.NIDHI JOSHI

20 TH CENTURY THEORY 3. ERICH MENDELSOHN “EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECT” TOA-2 6 B TOSA BY – AR.NIDHI

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION September 1953) was a Jewish BORN 21 March 1887 <a href=Allenstein , Prussia DIED 15 September 1953 (aged 66) San Francisco, California, United States NATIONALI German-British-American TY OCCUPATIO Architect N BUILDINGS • Einstein Tower , Potsdam • De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill on Sea • Petersdorff department store, Breslau • Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15 • Weizmann residence, Tel Aviv German PROJECTS Hebrew University of Jerusalem architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s , as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas . • Mendelsohn is a pioneer of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture , notably with his 1921 Mossehaus design . • He became famous for his use of modern materials and construction methods to make what he saw as organically unified buildings . " id="pdf-obj-1-5" src="pdf-obj-1-5.jpg">

September 1953) was a Jewish

BORN

21 March 1887 Allenstein, Prussia

DIED

15 September 1953 (aged 66) San Francisco, California, United States

NATIONALI

German-British-American

TY

OCCUPATIO

 

Architect

N

BUILDINGS

Einstein Tower, Potsdam

De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill on Sea

Petersdorff department store, Breslau

Erich Mendelsohn (21 March 1887 – 15

Weizmann residence, Tel Aviv

German

PROJECTS

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s,

as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for

department stores and cinemas.

Mendelsohn is a pioneer of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture, notably with his 1921 Mossehaus design.

He became famous for his use of modern materials and construction methods to make what he saw as organically unified buildings.

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE

Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.

The term "Expressionist architecture" initially described the activity of the German, Dutch, Austrian, Czech and Danish avant garde from 1910 until 1930.

Subsequent redefinitions extended the term backwards to 1905 and also widened it to encompass the

rest of Europe. Today the meaning has broadened even further to refer to architecture of any date or location that exhibits some of the qualities of the original movement such as; distortion, fragmentation or the communication of violent or overstressed emotion

The style was characterized by an early-modernist adoption of novel materials, formal innovation, and very unusual massing, sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the
FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the

The Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia is one of the most iconic buildings in the world and one of the most recognisable examples of Expressionist architecture

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the

Einstein Tower in Potsdam near Berlin, 1919-22 (Erich Mendelsohn)

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the

Jewish Museum in Berlin, 1989-99 (Daniel Libeskind)

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the

Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, 1964 (Kenzo

Antonio Gaudi-Casa Batllo

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Europe during the

Auditorio de Tenerife, Canary Islands, 2003

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE

Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined with the political turmoil and social upheaval that followed the German Revolution of 1919, resulted in a utopian outlook and a romantic socialist agenda.

Economic conditions severely limited the number of built commissions between 1914 and the mid-1920s, resulting in many of the most important expressionist works remaining as projects on paper, such as Bruno Taut's Alpine Architecture and Hermann Finsterlin's Formspiels.

Ephemeral exhibition buildings were numerous and highly significant during this period. Scenography for theatre and films provided another outlet for the expressionist imagination, and provided supplemental incomes for designers

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined
FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined

Glass Pavilion at the Cologne Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition, 1914 (Bruno Taut)

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined

1824, Caspar David Friedrich's Das Eismeer (The Sea of Ice)

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE • Many expressionist architects fought in World War I and their experiences, combined

1921, Walter Gropius's Monument to the March Dead

JFK International Airport in New York, TWA Terminal, 1956-62 (Eero Saarinen)

Lotus Temple, 1986 (Fariborz Sahba)
Lotus Temple, 1986 (Fariborz Sahba)

FYI: EXPRESSIONIST ARCHITECTURE

CHARACTERISTICS

Expressionist architecture was individualistic and in many ways avoided aesthetic dogma, but it is still useful to develop some criteria which defines it. Though containing a great variety and differentiation, many points can be found as recurring in works of Expressionist architecture, and are evident in some degree in each of its works.

Distortion of form for an emotional effect Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience. An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary.

Profusion of works on paper, and models, with discovery and representations of concepts more important than pragmatic finished products.

Often hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept.

Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations.As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau.

Uses creative potential of artisan craftsmanship.

Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical. Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the Romanesque and the rococo than the classical.

Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western. It draws as much from Moorish, Islamic, Egyptian, and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek.

Conception of architecture as a work of art.

FYI: ART DECO

Art Deco is an elegant style of decorative art, design and architecture which began as a Modernist reaction against the Art Nouveau style

Art Deco is an influential visual arts design style that first appeared in France just before World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II.

It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) held in Paris in 1925.

It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials.

The style is often characterized by rich colours, bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation.

Deco emerged from the interwar period when rapid industrialization was transforming culture.

One of its major attributes is an embrace of technology. This distinguishes Deco from the organic motifs favoured by its predecessor Art Nouveau.

Historian Bevis Hillier defined Art Deco as "an assertively modern style that ran to symmetry rather than asymmetry, and to the rectilinear rather than the curvilinear; it responded to the

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FYI: ART DECO • Art Deco is an elegant style of decorative art, design and architecture

The Chrysler Building in Manhattan is a classic example of Art Deco architecture, and features a number of these design elements.

FYI: ART DECO

The style was essentially one of applied decoration. Buildings were richly embellished with hard-edged, low-relief designs: geometric shapes, including chevrons and ziggurats; and stylized floral and sunrise patterns.

Although some buildings utilized expensive hand- crafted decoration, others made do with machine- made repetitive decorations.

To keep costs down, ornamental treatment was often limited to the most visible parts of the building.

Art Deco projects produced dynamic collaborations between architects, painters, sculptors, and designers—sometimes resulting in complete Art Deco environments like Old Miami Beach, Florida.

Art Deco was first applied to public and commercial buildings in the 1920s.

In classic Art Deco, rectangular blocky forms were often arranged in geometric fashion, then broken up by curved ornamental elements. But always the aim was a monolithic appearance with applied decorative motifs.

Art Deco materials included stucco, concrete, smooth-faced stone, and Terracotta. Steel and aluminum were often used along with glass blocks and decorative opaque plate glass

Art Deco designers adorned flat roofs with parapets, spires, or tower-like constructs to ti

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FYI: ART DECO • The style was essentially one of applied decoration . Buildings were richly

Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo, New York, Dietel, Wade & Jones, 1931.

FYI: STREAMLINE MODERNE

Streamline Moderne, or Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art Deco architecture and design that emerged in the 1930s. Its architectural style emphasized curving forms, long horizontal lines, and sometimes nautical elements.

As the Great Depression of the 1930s progressed, Americans saw a new aspect of Art Deco—i.e., streamlining, a concept first conceived by industrial designers who stripped Art Deco design of its ornament in favor of the aerodynamic pure-line concept of motion and speed developed from scientific thinking. Cylindrical forms and long horizontal windowing also may be influenced by constructivism. As a result, an array of designers quickly ultra-modernized and streamlined the designs of everyday objects. Manufacturers of clocks, radios, telephones, cars, furniture, and many other household appliances embraced the concept.

The style was the first to incorporate electric light into architectural structure. In the first-class dining room of the SS Normandie, fitted out 1933–35, twelve tall pillars of Lalique glass, and 38 columns lit from within illuminated the t

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FYI: STREAMLINE MODERNE • Streamline Moderne, or Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art

The Normandie Hotel, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was inspired by the ocean liner SS Normandie and displays the ship's original sign

FYI: STREAMLINE MODERNE • Streamline Moderne, or Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art

Greyhound bus terminal, Cleveland, Ohio

FYI: STREAMLINE MODERNE

The Streamline Moderne was both a reaction to Art Deco and a reflection of austere economic times; Sharp angles were replaced with simple, aerodynamic curves. Exotic woods and stone were replaced with cement and glass.

Art Deco and Streamline Moderne were not necessarily opposites. Streamline Moderne buildings with a few Deco elements were not uncommon but the prime movers behind streamline design

Common characteristics of Streamline Moderne and Art Moderne Horizontal orientation Rounded edges, corner windows Glass brick walls Porthole windows Chrome hardware Smooth exterior wall surfaces, usually stucco (smooth plaster finish) Flat roof with coping Horizontal grooves or lines in walls

Subdued colors: base colors were typically light earth tones, off-whites, or beiges;

FYI: STREAMLINE MODERNE • The Streamline Moderne was both a reaction to Art Deco and a

Daily Express Building, Manchester, UK, 1939

ERICH MENDELSOHN: BIOGRAPHY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: BIOGRAPHY

  • 1. In 1915 he married the cellist Luise Maas. Between 1910 and 1953 they corresponded with each other; these materials provide insight into the lives of an artist and couple who experienced a changing international landscape, including their fleeing from the Third Reich in Germany in
    1933.

  • 2. The 2011 documentary film by Duki Dror titled "Incessant Visions" is about Erich Mendelsohn and his wife, in which Dror animates the memoirs of Louise and the letters.

  • 3. While serving in the German army during World War I, he made a series of highly imaginative architectural sketches that attracted widespread attention when they were exhibited in Berlin shortly after the war. His designs showed the strong influence of expressionism in their dynamic and dramatic use of line.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: ARCHITECTURE CAREER

  • 1. Through his relationship with Freundlich, Mendelsohn had the opportunity to design and build the Einsteinturm ("Einstein Tower").

  • 2. From then until 1918, what is known of Mendelsohn is, above all, a multiplicity of sketches of factories and other large buildings, often in small format or in letters from the front to his wife, Louise Mendelsohn (née Maes) (1895–1980).

  • 3. At the end of 1918, upon his return from World War I, he settled his practice in Berlin.

  • 4. Shortly after the Einstein tower Mendelsohn began to turn away from free-flowing designs. An example of this new direction is his Steinberg Hat Factory (1920-1923) in Luckenwalde, Germany.

  • 5. The Einsteinturm and the hat factory (1921) in Luckenwalde established his reputation.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: ARCHITECTURE CAREER

  • 8. During the late 1920s he became more and more attracted to the formal lines of the International Style. At this time he was commissioned to design several branches of the Shocken Department Store.

  • 9. In the one at Stuttgart (1926) he emphasized the horizontal by using continuous-ribbon windows separated with bands of brick. The rounded staircase at the corner of the asymmetrical structure was cantilevered over the entrance. Mendelsohn refined this approach in the design for the Shocken store at Chemnitz (1927-1928). Here, in an imposing curved facade, the windows alternated with opaque white bands, creating a feeling of clarity and lightness.

10.He was also interested in the socialist experiments being made in the USSR, where he designed the Red Banner Textile Factory in 1926 (together with the senior architect of this project, Hyppolit Pretreaus).

11.His Mossehaus newspaper offices and Universum cinema were also highly influential on art deco and Streamline Moderne.

12.In 1926, he bought an old villa, and in 1928, he designed Rupenhorn, nearly 4000 m², which the family occupied two years later. With an

ERICH MENDELSOHN: ARCHITECTURE CAREER

13.In the spring of 1933, in the wake of growing antisemitism and the rise of the Nazis in Germany, he fled first to Brussels and then to England.

  • 14. His fortune was seized by the Nazis, his name struck from the list of the German Architects' Union, and he was excluded from the

15.In England he began a business partnership with Serge Chermayeff, which continued until the end of 1938. Mendelsohn divided his practice between England and Palestine.

16.His most important work in England was the De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill (with Serge Chermayeff, 1933), which had a glass-enclosed, semicircular stairway tower.

18.In 1935 he opened an office in Jerusalem and planned Jerusalem stone

ERICH MENDELSOHN: ARCHITECTURE CAREER

19.In 1938, after dissolving his London office, he took UK citizenship and changed his name to "Eric."

20.In Palestine, Mendelsohn built many now-famous buildings:

•. Weizmann House and three laboratories at the Weizmann Institute of Science

•. Anglo-Palestine Bank in Jerusalem, •. Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus •. Rambam Hospital in Haifa

•. The University Medical Center (1937-1939) on Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem and others.

21.From 1941 until his death, Mendelsohn lived in the United States and taught at the University of California, Berkeley.

22.Until the end of World War II his activities were limited by his immigration status to lectures and publications.

23.However, he also served as an advisor to the U.S. government. For

ERICH MENDELSOHN: ARCHITECTURE CAREER

24.In 1945 he established himself in San Francisco.

25.His American work included many hospitals, synagogues, and community centers. Among the most important was the 14-story Maimonides Hospital in San Francisco (1946); here he emphasized the horizontal with conspicuously cantilevered balconies with small, curved projections.

26.Mendelsohn designed a number of synagogues and community centers in the Midwest, including those in St. Louis, Mo. (1946-1950), Cleveland, Ohio (1946-1952), Grand Rapids, Mich. (1948-1952), and St. Paul, Minn. (1950-1954). The Cleveland design was the most ambitious, successfully harmonizing the central dome of the synagogue with the building's undulating site.

27. Mendelsohn died in San Francisco on Sept. 15, 1953.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)
ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

The Einstein Tower :German- Einsteinturm Type: astrophysical observatory

Location: Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany

Architect: Erich Mendelsohn. Style: German Expressionist Architecture

It was built on the summit of the Potsdam Telegraphenberg to house a solar telescope designed by the astronomer Erwin Finlay- Freundlich.

The telescope supports experiments and observations to validate (or disprove) Albert Einstein's relativity theory.

The building was first conceived around 1917, built from 1919 to 1921 after a fund- raising drive, and became operational in

1924.

This was one of Mendelsohn's first major projects, completed when a young Richard Neutra was on his staff, and his best-known building.

The exterior was originally conceived in concrete, but due to construction difficulties with the complex design and shortages from the war, much of the building was actually realized in brick, covered with stucco

Because the material was changed during

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921) • The Einstein Tower :German- Einsteinturm • Type: astrophysical observatory • Location:

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

CONCEPT

The complexity of shapes that make up the tower reflects on the

one hand, a great sense of artistic freedom and, secondly, follows the ideas of Mendelsohn on what he

called "functional dynamics",

although it never came to define objectively, can be interpreted in their works in general as a clear desire for continuous and integrated forms.

Continuing its forms modulate the light throughout the day by generating a series of unique and original futuristic visions. It is considered not only an advanced lab but also a monument "firmly supported on the ground but also ready to fly or take a leap," a product of the aerodynamic shapes that compose it.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921) CONCEPT • The complexity of shapes that make up the tower reflects

In the climate of an uprising social order, Eric Mendelsohn’s Einstein Tower merged such opposing concepts based on a formal strategy of relating mass and

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

  • 1. The building attracted considerable attention, particularly because of the plastic treatment of form, which made the seven-story tower seem to flow upward from its rounded base to its domed observatory. The materiality adds a plasticity that softens the monumental qualities of the building

  • 2. This structure typifies Mendelsohn’s interest in an architecture of abstract, sculptural expressionism.

  • 3. The scale and materiality that attribute the iconoclastic quality to the tower are balanced by the rhythmic composition of volumes that surround it.

  • 4. The arrangement of the curvilinear masses serves to excite a sense of movement within the heavy formations.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921) 1. The building attracted considerable attention, particularly because of the plastic treatment
  • 5. The lower volumes act as a base for the central domed tower balancing the ’

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ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921)

  • 1. The building attracted considerable attention, particularly because of the plastic treatment of form, which made the seven-story tower seem to flow upward from its rounded base to its domed observatory. The materiality adds a plasticity that softens the monumental qualities of the building

  • 2. This structure typifies Mendelsohn’s interest in an architecture of abstract, sculptural expressionism.

  • 3. The scale and materiality that attribute the iconoclastic quality to the tower are balanced by the rhythmic composition of volumes that surround it.

  • 4. The arrangement of the curvilinear masses serves to excite a sense of movement within the heavy formations.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: EINSTEIN TOWER(1919-1921) 1. The building attracted considerable attention, particularly because of the plastic treatment
  • 5. The lower volumes act as a base for the central domed tower balancing the ’

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ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

Construction Time: 1921 –

1923

Architect: Erich Mendelsohn

Address: Industriestraße 2, 14943 Luckenwalde (50km south of Berlin)

Type: Industrial building. Style : Expressionist Architecture

  • 1. The town of Luckenwalde, Germany established a name for itself as a key manufacturer of hats.

  • 2. In 1921, the two biggest hat-making ateliers merged (Herrman and Steinberg). It was decided a large new factory in Luckenwalde would be built on Industrial Road.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY • Construction Time: 1921 – 1923 • Architect: Erich Mendelsohn •
ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY • Construction Time: 1921 – 1923 • Architect: Erich Mendelsohn •

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ARCHITECTURE

On an area of 10,000 square meters, four production halls (in a row) , a boiler and a turbine house, ( energy centre) a dyeing hall and two gatehouses were designed and built.

The whole building is strictly symmetrical from south to north with the dying mill in the center.

The genius of Mendelsohn was particularly evident in the construction of the dyeing hall, the roof shaped with a modern, shaft-like hood.

The dyeing hall funneled the toxic fumes out its chute and it was considered a breakthrough design.

The tower also resembled cross-section of the famous Fedora Hat, eventually becoming a trademark of Luckenwalde.

This shape had a real function and was not only for looking good. There was an innovative venting system for drying the hats placed.

The factory and its construction were considered cutting-edge, using new and modern materials - steel, concrete, glass and wood.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY ARCHITECTURE • On an area of 10,000 square meters, four production

On the industrial estate were two parallel production courses for both hair and wool hats to be made

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: STEINBERG HAT FACTORY

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1926

Erich Mendelsohn may be most known for a series of ground breaking commercial structures for the Schocken Department Store chain In Germany, in the years 1928 to 1933.

The most famous stores are the ones in :

  • A. Nuremberg (Aufseßplatz) (built 1925/26),

    • B. Stuttgart (Schocken Department Store Stuttgart)(1926–28) and

    • C. Chemnitz (1927–30).

•. All three can be seen as milestones in modern architecture.

•. The only one to survive is the one in Chemnitz, formerly Karl Marx Stadt, in the eastern section of Germany.

•. The beautiful structure in Stuttgart, demolished in 1960, was a victim of commercial pressures rather than the result of damage in the Second World War.

•. The Chemnitz and Stuttgart stores were very different, while still have the sweep and curvilinear quality of Mendelsohn's work of the period.

•. Mendelsohn's department stores are, indeed, glories, a record of a brief and shinning moment in German history called the Weimar Republic.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1926

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1926 SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE IN CHEMNITZ Night view emphasizes the horizontal slabs
ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1926 SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE IN CHEMNITZ Night view emphasizes the horizontal slabs

SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE IN CHEMNITZ

Night view emphasizes the horizontal slabs and vertical tower in a Modern idiom. The “tower and slab” form

OCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE IN STUTTGART

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1928

IN STUTTGART

  • 1. The Schocken Department Store (Kaufhaus Schocken, later Merkur Department Store) was a department store in the south German town of Stuttgart.

  • 2. It was built by the Schocken department store chain owned by Salman Schocken.

  • 3. The architect was Erich Mendelsohn, who also built the Kaufhaus Schocken in Nuremberg (1925/26) and Chemnitz).

  • 4. The Stuttgart store was the most significant of the latter's projects in the sphere of retail store construction

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE 1928

IN STUTTGART

  • 1. The building was a department store with a modern style in an urban context.

  • 2. It was constructed of brick and concrete.

  • 3. The shopping area within the building had mainly wooden furnishings and, in the absence of air conditioning, had a large number of windows.

  • 4. Again owing to the absence of air conditioning, the food hall was situated in the basement.

  • 5. The name of the store was displayed in lettering some 7.5' in height and illuminated after dark.

  • 6. The booklet which he designed for the opening features Mendelsohn's coloured sketch.

  • 7. He also created a logo and branding style based on the lettering on the façade of the store.

  • 8. The department store, together with the Tagblatt-Turm of Ernst-Otto Oßwald across the way, constituted an impressive ensemble of modern

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE 1928 IN STUTTGART 1. The building was a department store with

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1928

IN CHEMNITZ

  • 1. Of the three department stores that Erich Mendelsohn built for Salman Schocken between 1925 and 1930, the Chemnitz store was the most fully realized. ( competed in 1930 )

  • 2. Nine stories high and seventy meters long, this massive structure (which is still in use today) achieves dynamic effect in the sweeping curvature of five

bands of windows. Horizontal rows of windows alternate with the exterior cladding .During the day, the windows let sunlight to stream into the store; at night, the illumination projects outward.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1928 IN CHEMNITZ 1. Of the three department stores that Erich Mendelsohn

revamp by architecture firms Auer Weber and Knerer und Lang, with exhibition designer Atelier Brückner, to house the State Museum for Archaeology in Chemnitz (SMAC)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1928

IN CHEMNITZ

  • 1. The restored curved façade (2010-2014), with its ribbon windows and limestone spandrels, seems to float above the fully glazed ground floor, forming an arresting backdrop to a busy intersection in this central German city.

  • 2. The façade was restored in accordance with conservation criteria, the interior walls leave the original ground plan visible, and the different floors of the main archaeological exhibition are connected by three ceiling openings.

  • 3. The façade was restored in accordance with conservation criteria, the interior walls leave the original ground plan visible, and the different floors of the main archaeological exhibition are

ERICH MENDELSOHN: SHOCKEN DEPARTMENT STORE-1928 IN CHEMNITZ 1. The restored curved façade (2010-2014), with its ribbon

revamp by architecture firms Auer Weber and Knerer und Lang, with exhibition designer Atelier Brückner, to house the State Museum for Archaeology in Chemnitz (SMAC)

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

Mossehaus TYPE: office building LOCATION: 18-25 Schützenstrasse in Berlin

, renovated and with a corner designed by

Erich Mendelsohn YEAR: 1921–1923.

The original Mosse building housed the printing press and offices of the newspapers owned by Rudolf Mosse, mainly liberal newspapers

The original building of 1900-1903, by Cremer & Wolffenstein, was a neoclassical sandstone affair, the corner of which was badly damaged by post first world war rioting.

In 1921, on the strength of his Einstein Tower, Mendelsohn was hired to add extra storeys and a new entrance to the building.

Mendelsohn retained most of the building’s main facades, but completely rebuilt the corner, and added two/three additional stories, in a totally original, streamlined expressionist style.

The new frontage made prominent use of aluminum and modern typography, and the new upper floors were made from ferro -concrete.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS • Mossehaus • TYPE: office building • LOCATION: 18-25 Schützenstrasse in <a href=Berlin , renovated and with a corner designed by Erich Mendelsohn • YEAR: 1921–1923. • The original Mosse building housed the printing press and offices of the newspapers owned by Rudolf Mosse , mainly liberal newspapers • The original building of 1900-1903, by Cremer & Wolffenstein, was a neoclassical sandstone affair, the corner of which was badly damaged by post first world war rioting. • In 1921, on the strength of his Einstein Tower , Mendelsohn was hired to add extra storeys and a new entrance to the building. • Mendelsohn retained most of the building’s main facades, but completely rebuilt the corner, and added two/three additional stories, in a totally original, streamlined expressionist style. • The new frontage made prominent use of aluminum and modern typography , and the new upper floors were made from ferro -concrete . Mossehaus, September 1923. " id="pdf-obj-46-51" src="pdf-obj-46-51.jpg">

Mossehaus, September 1923.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS

The use of strips and sculpted elements in the fenestration gave it a dynamic, futuristic form, emphasised by the contrast with the Wilhelmine style below.

Mendelsohn’s buildings explored the dynamic of movement; while they became increasingly influenced by modernism, they retained their distinctive expressive qualities. What was also radical for its time was the focus on the corner of the building, seen by Mendelsohn as the dynamic of movement; at the junction of streets, as opposed to a ‘static’ entrance in the middle of a facade.

The emphasized horizontal lines and celebrated curved corner give the building an aerodynamic feeling, helping the building to seem elongated in perspective

It was perhaps the first example of a streamlined building, and hence a great influence on Streamline Moderne.

The effect on American architecture is perhaps unsurprising, as Mendelsohn's partner on the Mossehaus and the designer of the interiors was Richard Neutra.

The building was very close to the Berlin wall, so it became dilapidated after World War Two.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: MOSSEHAUS • The use of strips and sculpted elements in the fenestration gave itfuturistic form, emphasised by the contrast with the Wilhelmine style below. • Mendelsohn’s buildings explored the dynamic of movement; while they became increasingly influenced by modernism , they retained their distinctive expressive qualities . What was also radical for its time was the focus on the corner of the building, seen by Mendelsohn as the dynamic of movement; at the junction of streets, as opposed to a ‘static’ entrance in the middle of a facade. • The emphasized horizontal lines and celebrated curved corner give the building an aerodynamic feeling, helping the building to seem elongated in perspective • It was perhaps the first example of a streamlined building, and hence a great influence on Streamline Moderne . • The effect on American architecture is perhaps unsurprising, as Mendelsohn's partner on the Mossehaus and the designer of the interiors was Richard Neutra . • The building was very close to the Berlin wall , so it became dilapidated after World War Two. Mossehaus in 2006, " id="pdf-obj-47-42" src="pdf-obj-47-42.jpg">

Mossehaus in 2006,

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL

The De La Warr Pavilion is a Grade One listed building, located on the seafront at Bexhill on Sea, East Sussex, on the south coast of England.

The Art Deco and International Style building was designed by the architects Erich Mendelsohn and Serge Chermayeff and constructed in 1935.

Herbrand Sackville, the 9th Earl De La Warr, was the patron and namesake for the project.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL • The De La Warr Pavilion is a GradeBexhill on Sea , East Sussex , on the south coast of England . • The Art Deco and International Style building was designed by the architects Erich Mendelsohn and Serge Chermayeff and constructed in 1935. • Herbrand Sackville, the 9th Earl De La Warr, was the patron and namesake for the project. • Sackville was a refreshing mixture of centuries old aristocracy with relationships to leading intellectuals of his day. • His sympathies toward his fellow man led him to convince the council at Bexhill (of which he was mayor at the time) to " id="pdf-obj-49-35" src="pdf-obj-49-35.jpg">

Sackville was a refreshing mixture of centuries old aristocracy with relationships to leading intellectuals of his day.

His sympathies toward his fellow man led him to convince the council at Bexhill (of which he was mayor at the time) to

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL

The competition announced by Bexhill Corporation attracted 230 entries, and was won by one of the giants of European architecture, a revolutionary and visionary, Erich His local partner would be Serge Chermayeff.

Although sometimes claimed to be the first major Modernist public building

in Britain, it was in fact preceded by some months by the Dutch-influenced Hornsey Town Hall.

De La Warr Pavilion was to be the first large scale welded steel-framed building in the UK. Its walls were painted ivory-cream, floors covered in cork or cream terrazzo

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DE LA WARR PAVILION, BEXHILL • The competition announced by Bexhill Corporation attracted 230

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE

  • 1. Eric Mendelsohn’s modernist building,

The Park Synagogue in Cleveland

Heights, Ohio, is one of the most significant post–World War II buildings in the United States.

  • 2. Notable for its magnificent dome and its natural wooded setting, it also has an immense architectural influence on other religious structures in the Midwest.

  • 3. Erected during the late 1940s, the Synagogue was built in response to a large majority of the downtown Cleveland Jewish population moving to the eastern suburbs.

  • 4. In 1934, under the leadership of Rabbi Armond Cohen, the struggling Anshe Emeth Beth Telfio congregation bought the twelve-acre property of the defunct Park School in Cleveland Heights and later purchased an additional twenty-one acres of land adjacent to the Park property owned by John D. Rockefeller.

  • 5. Plans were developed for a new

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE 1. Eric Mendelsohn’s modernist building, The Park Synagogue in Cleveland Heights, Ohio

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE

  • 1. Eric Mendelsohn’s Park Synagogue tells the story of the construction of The Park Synagogue and examines how Mendelsohn consciously sought to express the ideals and traditions of the congregation and Judaism in its architectural forms.

  • 2. From one of the world’s largest copper-clad domes weighing 680 tons

and more than 100’ in diameter to the shape of the sanctuary and spectacular bimah, Mendelsohn sought to incorporate the architecture into Jewish ritual and worship.

  • 3. The outer cladding is copper, which has oxidized over time, while the inner layer is reinforced concrete.

  • 4. He favored dramatic curves of glass walls, circular stairwells, and porthole windows, and he used the circle as a dominant form throughout his career.

  • 5. The Park Synagogue is one of the few Mendelsohn buildings that remains virtually as it was built.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE 1. Eric Mendelsohn’s Park Synagogue tells the story of the construction of
ERICH MENDELSOHN: PARK SYNAGOGUE 1. Eric Mendelsohn’s Park Synagogue tells the story of the construction of

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

  • 1. The architect Erich Mendelsohn’s work seemed to define the spirit of the modern world in the Weimar Republic and 1920s Berlin.

  • 2. Erich Mendelsohn was one of the most prominent and original architects working during the inter-war period.

  • 3. He studied in Berlin and Munich where he became involved with Expressionism. These early experiences generated a personal philosophy of "Dynamism" that demonstrated an attitude that was both expressionistic and personal in nature.

  • 4. He conceived of his building designs through the use of iconic and schematic sketches that became literal roadmaps for the development of all aspects of its exterior form.

  • 5. Mendelsohn used no historical precedents in formulating his designs. As a result, his early buildings avoid the eclectic borrowing that mark so many of his contemporaries.

ERICH MENDELSOHN: DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

  • 8. Erich Mendelsohn was the author of some of the most instantly recognizable buildings of the 1920s: from the extraordinary organic expressionism of the Einstein Tower observatory in Potsdam to the dramatic horizontal curving lines of the Schocken Department store chain across Germany.

  • 9. His buildings seemed to perfectly capture the mood of the moment, expressing in graphic new forms the strange and exciting world of modernity emerging after the First World War

10.Of course his very energy and eclecticism of his work – flirting with

expressionism, constructivism , moderne-luxe, and white box high

modernism – can at times seem to undermine the importance of the work.

11. He had such ease and facility in design that the heart of the work sometimes seems to be missing, and he left no polemical architectural tracts to help fill in the blanks.

12.His projects were never as spatially inventive internally as Corb or Mies, their effect more concentrated on the outside – in the graphic photogenic shapes of their façades.