Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 64

POLYMER PROCESSING

The main goal of polymer processing is to produce a usable


object.
NECESSARY PARAMETERS FOR
PROCESSING.
i. Flow or Deformation (i.e.., rheology).
ii. Transfer of heat and Thermal behavior.
iii. Transfer of mass.
iv. Chemical reaction.
EXTRUSION
Extrusion can be defined as the act of shaping a
material by forcing it through a die.
Polymer conversion operation.

Principle:
It comprises of forcing of a plastic material
through an orifice(die) by means of pressure.
APPLICATION
For compounding plastics
Production of tubes ,pipes ,sheets ,film , wire
coating and other continuous profiles.
It is generally used in case of thermoplastic
polymers and some thermo sets too.
Commonly used polymers are
PE,PP,PV,PS,PVC,polyamide,polyster
EXTRUDER
Extruders are basically helical screw pumps that
convert solid polymer material into melt , which
is then delivered to the die.
TYPES:
Single screw extruder
Twin screw extruder
TYPES OF SCREWS
SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER
VARIOUS SECTIONS
FIG. SHOWS VARIATION IN CHANNEL DEPTH.
ZONES/SECTIONS IN S.S.E
Feed zone
Compression/ plasticizing zone

Melt/Metering zone

Die zone
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF VARIOUS
ZONES
FEED ZONE
In this 1st zone, the polymer pellets are conveyed
to the subsequent zone.
Main function is to preheat the polymer.

Here the screw depth is constant.


COMPRESSION ZONE
Here the screw depth increases.
It repels the air gap between the granules.

Heat transfer from the barrel wall is improved.

Density change is accommodated.


METERING ZONE
Here screw depth is constant.
It homogenizes the melt and supply it to the die.
DIE ZONE
The final zone where the screen pack is located.
It usually comprises of the perforated steel plate

called breaker plate and a sieve pack.


It sieves out the extraneous materials(foreign

particles).
It removes the turning memory from the polymer melt.

It allows head pressure to develop by providing a


resistance for pumping action of metering zone.
VENTED EXTRUDER
The polymers being processed should be
devolatilized or degassed . Such an operation can
be carried out by an vented extruder.
As a result the air bubbles are removed.

It is nothing but an addition of an decompression


zone to the already existing screw.
ADVANTAGES
Low cost tooling and short lead time.
Low cost products.

Reinforcement can be done easily.

Use of multiple parts in varieties.

Slow maintaining.

Also used in co-extrusion , tubular flows,


crossway extruder in similar process.
MAJOR PROBLEMS
Die swelling
Melt Fracture
Spiraling
Bam booing
Regular ripple
Random fracture
WAYS TO REDUCE DIE SWELLING
Decrease the extrusion rate
Increase the length of the die end

Increase the draw down ratio without affecting


the output
By improving design factors
EXTRUSION BASED PROCESS
Cross head
Co-extrusion

Tubular blown films


BLOWN FILM EXTRUSION
Used for specialized plastic films for packing
industry.
It consists of a extrusion tube with thermoplastic
material and is inflated to form thin tubular
product.
There is fixed orientation due to inflation and
pulling.
Commonly used HDPE,LLDPE.,
CO-EXTRUSION
Simultaneous extrusion of two or more polymers
through a single die.
Allows multiple layers extrusion of
films,sheets,pipes and mostly in packing
industry.
ADVANTAGES:
Reduced material

Processing cost improved

Moreuniform distribution temperature.


INJECTION MOULDING
The basic principles is that to inject the molten
polymer into a closed cooled mould where it
solidifies to give the product. The moulding by
opening the mold to release it.
TWO SECTIONS:
I. Injection unit
II. Clamp /Press unit

TWO PHASES:
III. Plasticizing phase

IV. Injection phase


FEATURES
The difference here is that the screw does not
rotate but it reciprocates to and fro thereby
injecting the melt into the mold.
In addition here there is no breaking plate or sieve
plate instead there is chevk valve.
Gating is important in flow systems as they resist
the flow.(Edge,disk,ring,submarine gates)
Parts:
i. Cavity or impression
ii. Channels
iii. Cooling channels

iv. Ejector pins


MOULDING CYCLE
Mold is closed and a shot of melt is ready in
injection unit.
Valve opens and screw forces the melt through
nozzle into mold.
Hold on stage,where pressure is maintained and
released when freezing commences.
Valve closes and reciprocation starts.Pressure
develops against nozzle and screw accumultes
new slot of melt.
When mold is cooled,press is opened and
moulding removed.
CONTROL PARAMETERS IN IM
Temperature of melt
Temperature of mold

Pressure and speed of injection

Hold on pressure

Timings of various parts of process cycle

DEFECTS IN IM:
Short shots

Voids and sinks

Weld lines

Orientation

Shrinkage
SPECIALIZED IM PROCESS
Spruless moulding:
Inorder to reduce scrap:

The nozzle locates directly to mold cavity.

For complex single impression molding.

Sanwich moulding:
The technique injects skin and core melt

seperately.
Skin polymer is generally normal one,

Core polymer is onewhich contains lubricating

agents.
STRUCTURAL FOAM MOULDING
SFM is development of IM where stiffness becomes
prerequistic
Stiffness ,S=E(t)3

Suitable for full product

Here the melt is expandable,contains dissolved gas

which decomposes at melt temperature to give foam.


A short shot leaves space into which foam

expands.The pressure becomes driving force to fill


mold,which is less than 3Mpa.
Advantages:
Producing large and flexible products;

low process energy:


REACTION INJECTION
MOULDING[RIM]
The technique combines two metered ,well mixed
reactive sreams.(urethane)
One stream contains polyether backbone,a
catalyst and a cross linking agent.
Other stream contains has isocynate,blowing
agent
ADVANTAGES:
Conducted at low temperature(60-90C) for
polyvinyl.
Processing and preparing takes place
simultaneously.
REINFORCED INJECTION
MOULDING[RRIM]
It is an extesion of RIM where there is inclusion
of a reinforced glass fibre.
Here ,two fast reacting liquid streams are
precisely metered and mixed using high pressure
impingement mixing with polymer blowing
agents.
ADVANTAGES:
Moulding ranges from rubbery flexible to semi
flexible materials to rigid unyielding products by
suitable deformation of reactants.
Internal mould pressures are low.
COMPESSION MOULDING
The technique consists of forcing a combination of a
resin and a cross linking agent by means of
pressure.
Pre heating enables the cycle time to be
reduced,which is by convection ,infrared
lamp,dielectric heating.
ADVANTAGE:
Low waste & finishing cost;

Useful for bulky products.

DISADVANTAGE:
Poor tolerance

Not useful for intricate shapes


TRANSFER MOULDING
Similar ,to compression moulding but differs in a way
that the mix of resin and curing agent is first raised in
both temperature and pressure in a holding
device,plasticizing pot or loading well.
Outgassing by venting is done by orifices at the parting

line.
Typical size:0.64cm wide & 0.0025-0.0075cm deep.

ADVANTAGES:
Rapid production rate and faster;

Good dimensional accuracy and intricate parts .

DISADVANTAGES:
Expensive moulds;

Large material loss and size limitation.


BLOW MOULDING
Polymer processing operation that produces
hollow objects(bottles).
Used for producing large volume products.

TYPES:
i. Extrusion blow moulding
ii. Injection blow moulding
iii. Stretch blow moulding
EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING
The semi molten tube called,parison,which is
formed directly from extruder ready hot & soft.
Parison is allowed to descend into mould cavity.

Mold is closed, blowing is carried followed by


inflation and cooling .
The mold opens and hollow product is taken.

Intermittent blow moulding is faster than


continuous extrusion operation
INJECTION BLOW MOULDING
The technique injects melt into one or more
preheated,preform cavities aroud a given core
pin.
Preform mold is opened and heated polymer is
moved using core pin where it is inflated and
ejected.
Drying cycle time is 1.5 s,which includes opening
of mold ,movement of mold unit and close time.
This is followed by exhausting and a blowing
during cycle.
STRETCH BLOW MOULDING
In this method,the molded preform is once
again,molded into a very cooled mold along with
refrigrant coolant.
This quench the amorphous state,the preform is
reheated above its glass transition
temperatureand stretch blown.
This stretches the preform downwards and
simultaneously blowing in radial direction.
Ex:Stretch blow molding of PET bottles.
THERMOFORMING &
VACCUMFORMING
The preform in form of extruded sheet of polymer
is heated untill soft and deformed by a shaping
force into the mold where it is allowed to cool.
4 main methods in variants of thermoforming
Matched mold forming

Slip forming

Air blowing

Vaccum forming.
4 main techniques in variants of vaccum forming
Straight vaccum forming

Vaccum snap back forming

Vaccum drape forming

Plug assists vaccum forming


.
ROTATIONAL BLOW MOLDING
The powdred polymer is loaded into a closed
mold,which is heated while rotating biaxially.
The polymer coats the inner wall of the mold to a
uniform thickness.
After which it is cooled and removed as finished
product.
Four stages:loading,molding,cooling,unloading

Unique features:
Ratio of major & minor axis 1:4

Heating temperature=>250-350C

P.E,Polycarbonate,polystyrene,polyurethane.
ADVANTAGES
Producing large hollow products
Uniform thickness achieved

No waste scrapes

Slow heating and melting of the thermoplastic

powder in a biaxially rotating mold to produce


seamless products(without markings)
DISADVANTAGES
Marix cost high due to fine granules

Not used wall thickness less than 0.003 inches.

Not suitable for small products.

Cycle time longer;no complex shapes can be made.


CALEDERING
It involves laminar flow with heat transfer in a
roll system.
These are process applied to rubbery polymers;&
production of continuous sheet and film.
SPECICATIONS:
1.5 meter in length

1mm thickness

Diameter 0.5-1m

Thickness rate of rotation 1m/s


STEPS INVOLVED
i. Weighing of polymer,additives and ingredients
ii. Compounding them using bambury mixer
iii. Transferring the melt to calendar rolls
iv. Feeding them in between rolls
v. Enclosing can be done
vi. Cooling and winding up
ADVANTAGES:
Very little thermal degradation

Open process

For processing of thermally unstable materials

DISADVANTAGES:
Long time

Capital investment is higher

Economically suitable for larger particles and not


possible for smaller ones.
SPINNING PROCESS
Spinning is that a polymer melt is forced through
a small orifice,called spinner jet which shapes it
into a fibre form.
After this it undergoes a phase transformation to
solid form after which it is wound up or taken up
in a babbin and processed to spun yarn.
TYPES:
a) Melt spinning

b) Dry spinning

c) Wet spinning