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Building Code Requirements for

Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)


Design of Structures with High-Strength
Concrete by ACI 318

David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)

Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

December 12-16, 2011


This morning

Slender columns
Walls
High-strength concrete
High-strength concrete
Background
ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength
concrete
Background
High strength concrete = ?
fc
1920s > 20 MPa

1950s > 35 MPa

1990s > 60 MPa


> 70 MPa
100 135 MPa
High-strength concrete

Small %
Important
Columns in high-rise buildings
The tallest building in the world is
constructed of reinforced concrete
Compressive behavior
cylinder size

100 x 200 mm vs.


150 x 300 mm molds
f'c(4x8 in.) = 1.016f'c(6x12 in.)
f'c(100x200 mm) = 1.016f'c(150x300 mm)
End condition
Stress-strain curves
Behavior in compression tests
Strength versus age
Strength gain - example
28 days 91 days % gain absolute
gain

20 MPa 35 MPa 75 % 15 MPa

64 MPa 92 MPa 44 % 28 MPa


Tensile and fracture behavior
Relationship between tensile and compressive
strength


fc vs. fc23
Fracture

The energy required to open a crack once


the tensile strength has been reached
Fracture energy vs. compressive strength
250

225

200
Fracture Energy (N/m)

175

150
Basalt
Limestone
125 Linear (Limestone)
Linear (Basalt)
100

75

50

25

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Compressive Strength (MPa)


Structural behavior
Bond
Shear
Bond

1.83 m
4.88 m
Splices w/o confining reinforcement
Splices w/ confining reinforcement
Asfs/fc1/2 (Test), in.2

Asfs/fc1/2 (Prediction), in.2


Asfs/fc1/4 (Test), in.2

Asfs/fc1/4 (Prediction), in.2


Shear
Creep and shrinkage
Specific creep
Creep coefficient
Shrinkage
ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-
strength concrete
Required average strength
Evaluation and acceptance of concrete
Stress block parameter
Limits that apply to shear, torsion, and bond
Transmission of column loads through floor
systems
Required average strength

fcr required average strength


ss standard deviation of test results
Evaluation and acceptance of concrete
(a) Arithmetic average of all sets of three
consecutive strength tests* equals or exceeds
fc
(b) No strength test* falls below by more than
3.5 MPa when is 35 MPa or fc less; or by
more than fc when is more than 35
MPa 0.10fc fc

*Test = average strength of three 100 200 mm


cylinders or of two 150 300 mm cylinders
Stress-block parameter 1

1 0.85 for 17 MPa fc 28 MPa

For fc between 28 and 56 MPa, 1


decreases by 0.05 for each 7 MPa
increase in fc

1 0.65 for fc 56 MPa


Limits that apply to shear, torsion, and
bond

Shear and torsion

The value of fc is limited to a maximum


of 8.3 MPa unless minimum transverse
reinforcement is used
Bond

Development and lap splice lengths of


bars are inversely proportional to fc

The value of fc is limited to a maximum


of 8.3 MPa
Transmission of column loads through floor
systems

Concrete in a floor system


often has a compressive strength
below that that of the columns,
especially for high-rise buildings
If fc for column 1.4fc for floor system
(fcc 1.4fcs ), one of three requirements
must be satisfied:

1. Place concrete with fcc in the floor out to 600 mm


from column faces and integrate with floor concrete

2. Treat column as if its strength fcs within the


depth of the floor
3. Treat column strength as 0 .75fcc 0 .35fcs
fcc fcs must not be taken 2.5
Summary
Background
ACI 318 provisions that apply to high-strength
concrete
51
Figures copyright 2003 by
Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ USA

Figures copyright 2010 by


McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York, NY 10020 USA

Figures copyright 2011 by


American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331 USA

Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.


The University of
Kansas

David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.


Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor
Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering


2142 Learned Hall
Lawrence, Kansas, 66045-7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu