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THE ENERGY SYSTEM OF THE BODY

ENERGY REQUIREMENT:

Energy is required for muscular work.

Immediate source of energy is Adenosine Triphosphate


(ATP).

ATP is only stored in small amount in muscle cells and


supplies energy for only a few seconds.

Body produces ATP at the rate at which it is required.


ENERGY SYSTEM
There are three energy system which produce ATP
for muscular contraction. They are:

Anaerobic alactic system


lactic acid system

Aerobic ( meaning the use of oxygen).


ANAEROBIC SYSTEM
1. Alactic System

The stored starting up energy system ATP is the


quickest source of energy for muscle movement for
maximum intensity for about 10 seconds.

It uses another energy rich compound phosphocreatine


(PC) stored in the muscle to regenerate itself.

It does not require oxygen and does not produce


lactic acid.
2. Lactic Acid System

The breakdown of glycogen, stored in the muscle,


in the absence of oxygen, also supplies energy (ATP)
for muscular contraction.

This process is called anaerobic glycolysis.

Does not require oxygen but does produce lactic acid.

Repeated actions lasting between 10 to 60 seconds


use this form of energy.
Biomechanical process leading to energy supply

few seconds 10 120 seconds 2 3 minutes

ATP CP GYCLOGEN GLUCOSE


a lactic lactic a lactic

ANAEROBIC AEROBIC
The graph below shows the 4 phases of energy provision:

1. ATP ADP + P1 + energy

(for the first 1 3 muscle contractions the ATP store is utilized.)

2. CP + ADP C + ATP
(within first 10-20 seconds, the CP store is utilized for charging of ATP battery.

3. Glycogen + P + ADP lactate + ATP


(energy for recharging ATP battery is provided mainly through
anaerobic glycolysis up to 120 seconds.

4. Glycogen &/or free fatty acids+P+ADP+O2 ATP+CO2+H2O


(this time the ATP battery is mainly recharged by aerobic oxidation process.)
these individual phases of energy provision are continues
and overlapping.

the body is capable of using just one or any combination


of the three systems to power muscle contractions that
causes movement.
AEROBIC SYSTEM

aerobic means there is sufficient oxygen available


to metabolize the energy producing materials
e.g. glycogen.
the breakdown of stored carbohydrate and fat in the
presence of oxygen supplies ATP.
this system is used repeatedly as long as the player
works within his aerobic capacity.
conditioning the overall system to accept more work
is known as AEROBIC TRAINING.
the best way to train the aerobic system is to run for
a sustained period of time.
AEROBIC TRAINING

Aim:
to improve the capacity of the cardiovascular system
to transport oxygen.

to improve the capacity of muscles to utilize oxygen


and to oxidize fat during prolonged periods of exercise.

improving the ability to recover after a period of high


intensity exercise.
FACTORS INFLUENCING AEROBIC, LONG TERM
ENDURANCE:

sufficient levels of glycogen stores.


- glycogen is stored in muscle fibers and liver.
- training can increase the amount of glycogen in the liver.

sufficient level of enzyme activity which guides the


breakdown of glycogen and fat.
improvement of the cardio-vascular system.
- increasing the size of the heart muscle.
- increasing the number of capillary blood vessels in
muscles.

endurance training almost doubles the oxygen exchange


surface.
- sufficient amount of blood for oxygen transportation.

improvement of the intake and use of oxygen.


ANAEROBIC SYSTEM

breakdown of glycogen stores produces energy to rebuild


ADP into ATP but at the same time also produces lactic
acid in the process of resynthesis:

GLYCOGEN + P + ADP ATP


LACTIC ACID REMAINS = FATIGUE/ PAIN

Lactic Acid accumulates so that after 45 50 seconds


maximum effort , this energy system becomes ineffective.
ANAEROBIC TRAINING

Aim:
improve abilities to act quickly and produce power
rapidly during high intensity exercise.

improve the capacity to produce power and energy


continuously via the anaerobic energy producing
pathways.

improve the ability to recover quickly after a period


of high intensity exercise able to perform high
intensity exercise more frequently during a game.
COMPONENTS OF ANAEROBIC TRAINING

Speed training

Speed endurance - production training


- maintenance training

Intermittent work principle is the basis of


anaerobic training efficiency.

Intensity of effort must be kept high.


EXERCISE:

Work achieved by a footballer depends on:


- efficiency of body to produce energy.
- efficiency of body to recover quickly.

fitness is determined by how efficiently the body


supplies and re-supplies the energy needs.
CONTINUOUS MAXIMAL EFFORT

ENERGY 10 1M 2M 4M 10M 30M 60+


SYSTEM S
PERCENTAGE
ANAEROBIC
85 65 50 30 10 5 2

PERCENTAGE
AEROBIC
15 35 50 70 90 95 98
PERCENTAGE EMPHASIS 0F ENERGY SYSTEM
SPORT ATP/PC LA/O 0
BASKETBALL 85 15 0
GOLF 95 5 0
HOCKEY 60 20 20
FOOTBALL 60 20 20
SPRINTS 90 10 0
SWIMMING 30 40 30
LONG DISTANCE 10 20 70
RUNNING