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You are on page 1of 65

Process Capability

What We're Going To Talk About

Concept of Process Capability

(Short-Term and Long-Term)

Improvement Methodology

Process Variation

Types of Limits

Capability Index

Process Capability Indices (Normal Distribution Data)

Process Performance Indices (Normal Distribution Data)

MINITAB Software capability data analysis out-put

Five key assumptions

Steps to study process capability & Process Controls

Process Understanding

Process Capability

What is process?

Process consists of a combination of Machine, Method,

Material, Man, Environment and Gauge measurement

(optional) engaged in production. (i.e. 4 Ms and 1E)

variables and quantify the effect of them into the

measurement. (e.g, temp. setting 40-50C, work

instructions, material tensile strength, calipers)

Capability of the process refers to an ability, based on

test performance results , to achieve the desired

specification of the process. (e.g. Specs =4 0.3mm)

Improvement Methodology

Improvement methodology

Controllable Inputs ( machine setting, flow rate, feed quantity, cutting speed, feed rate)

X1 X2 X3

Output

Input Variables: Characteristics:

Raw materials, Output Variables (mm , psi, colouring)

The Process

components,

Y1, Y2, etc.

equipment,

tooling,

Operation

N1 N2 N3

methods, etc.

Uncontrollable Inputs ( humidity, temperature , skills, wear & tear)

[KPIV]

Key

Centering The Process

Process Is On Target Input

Variables

minimum process variation Reduce

Process Capability

Concept of Process Capability!

In quality planning, it is ensured that the process should

be stable and capable to produce parts that meets the

specifications, customers requirements.

Process capability is a concept that provides a

quantified prediction of process effectiveness and

adequacy

Quantitative prediction ability resulted in a widespread

adoption of the concept as a major element of quality

planning.

It is the measurement of variation on the product turned

out by a process.

This a machine accuracy study.

Process Capability Overview

Key point :-

Man, Method, Material, Machine

(i.e. 4Ms) and Environment (1E)

uncontrolled inputs

Customers requirement.)

more stable process with lesser variation and that is what

the customers demand every time.

Why Process Capability Study

Process capability provides a basic understanding for the

production personnel on how the process behaves in

relative to the process specifications.

process and gives us some measurement metrics for

quantifying that variability.

could do under its best operating conditions, by making

improvement to the process to aim for its desired target .

Process Variation

Process variation is the differences among individual

measurement or units produced by a process

Types of variation in a manufacturing process

diameter at various positions along the shaft.

different shafts diameters.

operators working on different shifts (i.e. Day, afternoon and

night shifts)

different operators (i.e reproducibility) with the same measuring

equipment (i.e. repeatability) on the same identified parts.

Understanding of Process Variation

Variation exists in everywhere even the best machine cannot make

every unit exactly the same.

In many processes, nonconforming product can be produced due

to excessive variability cause by human errors. (e.g. missing parts,

wrong information , processing errors, inaccurate gauges, tool

wear) measuring instruments).

Improved process capability becomes a necessity due to;

Design changes for improvement.

All of this leads to the need for tighter control of tolerances with

lower variation.

This means the ability to operate within tight specification limits,

without producing defects becomes a competitive advantage.

Causes of Variation

1. Natural cause/ Common Cause of variation

Due to the cumulative effect of some unavoidable

causes.

e.g. wear and tear of a cutting tool due to long usage

A process operating within natural or chance variation is

said to be in statistical control. (i.e. all measurement

readings are within the control limits of the control chart).

Assignable causes have been eliminated.

Examples on natural causes

Natural causes

* Vibration in the machine during running

* Ambient temperature and humidity of the working

environment

* Normal wear and tear of machine parts due to prolong usage

* Shifting of machine settings in a process

* Computer response time.

* Different human response to a traffic light system

Reduction of common causes

* Change in process technology by the owner of the process.

* Introduce Poka Yoke ( Error avoidance) system in the

processes. to prevent operator mistakes.

Types of Variation

2. Special or Assignable causes

Examples

(a)Incorrect setting adjustment on machine

(b)Operators not following instructions

(c)Defective or substandard raw material

(d)Broken part due to fatique

(e)Equipment malfunction

(f) Wrong procedures adopted by operators

(g)Poor product design

(h)No maintenance on machines

(i) Lack of understanding on operating procedures

(j) Poor working conditions, e.g. poor lighting, noisy, dirty

and non ventilation

Types of Variation

An upward trend with the presence of assignable

causes of variation look as follows.

Types of Variation

Figure below shows both common cause and special cause

variation

A: Points

dispersed

away from

target with

some lying B: Points

beyond located

control limits beyong UCL

C: Points

shifting away

from target

out of UCL

Process Capability

Process capability is the natural reproducibility of a

processs output. It measures how well the process is

currently behaving with respect to the output

specifications. It refers to the uniformity of the process

output that will be within product specification tolerances.

The frequencies of defectives produced can be

measured:

(a)percentage (%)

(b)parts per million (ppm)

(c)parts per billion (ppb)

Process Capability

Process capability studies can:

1) Indicate the consistency of the process output in terms of

indices i.e. Cp , Cpk

2) Indicate the degree to which the output meets

specification i.e. ppm , % rejection

3) Comparison with other process for improvement

1) Process is highly capable i.e Cpk > 1.33

2) Process is marginally capable i.e Cpk 0.8 to 1.33

3) Process is not capable i.e Cpk < 0.80

Process Capability

Stable vs Unstable Processes

which the key process output and finished

product properties show no signs of assignable

causes.

has assignable (i.e special) causes present.

Process Capability

Control Chart and Control Limits

The control chart is the tool

used to evaluate whether a Control Chart

process is or is not in a state

of statistical control. COMMON UCL

The control limits (i.e. UCL & CAUSE

LCL) represent the variation CL

due to common cause. No

points are beyond the control

limits. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

LCL

Run Order

used to identify special causes of variation.

Process Capability

Specification Limits and Capable Processes

Specification Limits provided by the customer (referred to

voice of the customer) are used to determine if the product

meets a customer requirement. Usually given as LSL and/or

USL. (e.g 4.00 0.05 mm).

ability to meet customer requirements. The process has to be

reviewed from time to time to check for changes in stability and

capability.

spread against the specification tolerance.

Cp = ( USL-LSL) / ( 6 )

towards the control limits in the average chart.

Process Capability

Abnormal variation Out of

due to assignable sources control

UCL

due to chance

LCL

Abnormal variation

due to assignable sources

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sample number

Ifsample readings remained within the control limits, the

process is considered as acceptable otherwise the process is

OUT OF CONTROL

Three types of limits

1. Specification limits (LSL and USL)

These limits are created by design

engineering in response to customer

requirements to specify the manufacturing

tolerance for a products characteristics.

e.g. 4.2 mm (LSL) to 4.8 mm (USL)

2. Process limits (LPL and UPL)

These limits are used to measure the

variation of a process. These are the 6

sigma limits of the measured characteristics.

i.e. 3

Three types of limits

These limits are computed from the

measurements of the samples taken from the

process. It measures the 3 from the center

of the process.

Process capability computation

This requires knowledge of the process average and

standard deviation. These values are usually calculated

based on the data collected from manufacturing process.

using a statistical software or a calculator.

Standard deviation

The standard deviation measures the spread of the data

about the mean value. It is useful for :

1. Comparison of data sets which have different quality

characteristics. e.g. psi , cm, kg etc .

1 covers 68.26% of the normal curve from

2 covers 95.45% of the normal curve from

3 covers 99.73% of the normal curve from

2. To check the consistency of the process

e.g. (A data set) : 15, 15, 15, 14, 16. = 15 , =0.577

(B data set) : 2, 7, 14, 22, 30. = 15 , =9.200

B data set has a higher value. A data set has a low

value and is consistent and better.

Standard deviation

Standard deviation equation for an entire population:

There are 100 parts produced by machine. In statistical terms this means we have a

population of 100.

Standard deviation

Equation used to estimate the population standard

deviation where data is taken from a sample set.

values can be 8, 10, 12, 18, 20..

Standard Deviation Calculation

Case Study: (20 mins)

4, 9, 11, 12, 17, 5, 8, 12, 14

Understanding of the Process capability indices

Definition of the capability indices

It is an index which measures how close a process is

running to its specification limits.(i.e.USL & LSL).

The larger the index, the less likely the process will be

outside the specification limits..

The capability of a process:

Cp is defined as the ratio of the Specification

Tolerance over the actual process spread.(6)

Cpk is defined as the ratio of the distance from the

process center to the nearest specifications limits

divided by (3)

Measurement of Process Capability

Three Measures of process capability

Three common types of indexes used in manufacturing

processes

1. Cp and Cpk,

Used for measurement of process capability, the

minimum requirement is Cp & Cpk 1.33 for the

process to be capable.

2. Pp and Ppk

Used as an indicator for process performance, the

minimum requirement is Pp & Ppk . 1.67

3. Cpm

Used for measurement of a process where the data

set has a non normal distribution with a target

setting on the process.

Interpretation of Indices

Process capability and process performance indices

Cp = Process Capability.

A simple and straightforward indicator of process capability.

Adjustment of Cp for the effect of non-centered distribution. Cpk is an

index (a simple number) which measures how close a process is running to

its specification limits, relative to the natural variability of the process.

Example :

A person may be performing with minimum variation, but he can be away

from his target towards one of the specification limit, which indicates lower

Cpk, whereas Cp will be high. On the other hand, a person may be on

average exactly at the target, but the variation in performance is high. In

such case also Cpk will be lower, but Cp will be high. Cpk will be higher

only when you are meeting the target consistently with minimum variation.

Interpretation of Indices

Process capability and process performance indices

Cp and Cpk are capability indices which addressed both

short and long term process capability. Short term implies

the duration of investigation is limited. e.g. using an

operator and a batch of raw material for the study.

addressed long-term process performance for serial

production which takes longer time and resources to

monitor the process.

mean from a target value. These indices are applicable to

the asymmetrical specification interval

e.g 4.00 + 0.3 mm

- 0.2 mm

Process Capability Indices

Two common measures of process capability

1)Potential Capability Cp

An estimate is obtained of what the process can do under certain conditions, i.e.,

variability under short run and defined conditions for a process in a state of

statistical control. The Cp index estimates the potential process capability when

both specification limits are available.

An estimate of process capability provides an insight of what the process is doing

over a series of production run. A state of statistical is assumed. The Cpk is

applicable for computation for single and double sided specification limits .

Increasing the value of Cpk requires a reset of the process average back to the

center of the specification and reduction in the process variation (i.e. standard

deviation ).

Potential Capability Calculation

Potential Capability Index (Cp)

The Cp index assesses whether the actual process

spread (i.e. 6) of a manufacturing process is within

the specification limits.

Cp = ------------------------------- = ---------------

Actual Process Spread 6

between the specification limits e.g. tool wear off , liquid

concentration depletion

Relationship between Process

Variability and

Specification Width

Three possible ranges for Cp

variability just meets

specifications

capable of producing within

specifications

exceeds minimal specifications

process is centered on the specification

range

Wiley 2010

Relation of Cp to Rejection Rate

A Cp index of 1.0 has indicated that a process is judged to

be capable, i.e. if the process mean () is centered within

the specification tolerance, 0.27% of parts produced shall

be rejected .

Cp Reject Rate

1.00 0.270%

1.33 0.007%

1.5 6.8ppm

2.00 2.00ppb

Understanding of Process Capability

Process Capability Index (Cpk)

The Cpk index (i.e. min {cpl, cpu}) relates the deviation

between process mean and the nearest specification limit. It

shall be used for the process within statistical control. The

data used for Cpk calculation should be obtained from the

Average and range control charts. A negative Cpk indicates

the quality characteristic measured is out of specification

LSL USL

Cpl

Cpu

Refer note bookfor diagram

Single Sided Specification

Some manufacturing processes specifications are one

sided.

Example:

1. Purity of a product made from a chemical process

requirement could be 98% concentration, i.e. LSL = 98%

than 0. 3 mm runout on a shaft is allowed. i.e. USL = 0.3

mm.

defining the following two equations.

Single Sided Specification

Process with Lower Specs Limit (LSL)

- LSL

CpL =

USL -

CpU =

R

= R-bar is obtained from range chart and d2 is a constant taken

d2 from the constant table

Double Sided Specification

Process with both LSL & USL

--------- ----------

3 3

Process mean =

Standard deviation = (calculated from R-bar / d2 constant )

Upper Specs Limit = USL

Lower Specs Limit = LSL

Relation of Cpk with Rejection Rate.

Cpk Reject rate

1.0 0.13-0.27% Comment:

1.1 0.05-0.10% Higher Cpk values

1.2 0.02-0.03% yield lower fall

1.3 48.1-96.2ppm

out/reject rates and,

as a result, are

1.4 13.4-26.7ppm

preferable

1.5 3.4-6.8ppm

1.6 794-1589ppb

1.7 170-340ppb

1.8 33-67ppb

1.9 6-12ppb

2.0 1-2ppb

Cpk Interpretation

Cpk < 1 process is not capable (not acceptable)

1.33 to be considered as process capability

acceptable

Cpk Interpretation

Cpk = negative number

Cpk = zero

Cpk = 1

Cpk > 1

Process Performance Indices

Process performance is usually measured by Ppk, which

relates the long term capability of a process to meet

process specifications. The estimated Ppk is defined as

Pp = ------------------------------- = ---------------

Total Process Spread 6s

USL LSL

Ppk min ,

3 s 3s

where S = { ( x 2 ) - ( x ) 2 / n } ]

[ n-1 ]

Comparison between Ppk and Cpk values

For Cp and Cpk computation , the standard deviation ( )

is based on the average ranges of subgroups of the data,

standard deviations of moving ranges, obtained from the

control charts.

This within-subgroup process variation can be

considerably smaller than the overall standard deviation (s)

estimate used in Ppk computation, especially when there

are long-term trends in the data.

Examples on Process Variation in SPC

Interpretation on Process Variation

Referring to Figure 18.14 above

the specification limits and the corrective actions to be

taken when situation arises.

Note

In all situations , the average of the process has not

drifted from the midpoint of the specification limits.

There is a significant reduction in variation of the

process spread which shows the process has improved

from each of these stages.

Computer Software Application

Process Capability of thickness coat (ppm)

Process Capability of thickness coat (% rej.)

Before Process Improvement

Process Capability of thickness coat (% rej.)

After process Improvement by process centering

Process Capability of coating thickness (% rej.)

After process Improvement by reducing process variation.

Five key assumptions on Capability

Indices

(1) Process stability: Statistical validity of the

manufacturing process requires a statistically

stable process with no shift or drift.

(2) Normal distribution of the quality characteristic

being measured. Normality is required to draw

statistical inference about the sample or

population.

(3) Sufficient data ( min 125) is necessary to

minimize the sampling error for the capability

index.

Five key assumptions continue

Lewis(1991) provides a table of 95 % lower

confidence limits for values of Cp and Cpk

(4) Representative of samples must be random

(5) Independence of measurements. Successive

measurements can not be correlated.

Process Stability Analysis

A process is stable if the process average of the measured quality

characteristic does not drift overtime. This is nomally shown in the

average control chart.

Nominal

LCL

UCL

Nominal

LCL

Process Capability Steps

1. Develop a process flow including inputs,

process steps, and output quality

characteristics

2. Identify critical parameters which are

measurable for study e.g. parameters shown

on the drawing specification i.e. volume,

length, width and height, etc.

3. Data collection by defining clearly the

resolution of each data to be collected. (i.e. #

of sig. Decimal required. e.g. 2 or 3 decimal

points). The quantity o f data required.(i.e. 125

values min.).

Process Capability Steps

4. Ensure the measuring gauge has been calibrated

and has a resolution of 10X the parameter to be

measured

5. Establish control by selecting the appropriate

personnel, equipment and material to be used for

the study.

6. Record and analyze the data collected using a

statistical software

7. Ensure the part characteristics to be measured

is in the middle of the specification prior to

production of parts.

Process Capability Steps

8. Process data is normally distributed with a

minimum sample size of 125 pcs with data

collected in sequence .

9. Analyze source of variation from the average

and range charts to find the process factors that

affect the process mean and spread (Std. dev.)

10. Establish process monitoring: Average chart to

evaluate the stability and range chart to

evaluate capability of the process.

11. Calculate Cp,Cpk before and after process

improvement

Process Controls verification

1. List all corrective actions intended to detect and

eliminate the failure causes. (operator certification,

prev. maintenance)

2. Implement the corrective actions required and

track the effectiveness of these actions on the

failures for a month of continuous production.

3. If the actions are effective, document them into a

procedure for process control. e.g. control plan

4.If not effective, additional measures are required.

i.e. poka yoke, design changes etc.

Some Additional Explanations

Some Additional Explanations (contd)

Thank you

RESOURCES OF THE PRESENTATION:

Websites

1 http://www.asq.org/ American Society for Quality

2 http://www.asq-software.org/ Software Division of the American Society for

Quality

3 http://www.sixsigmaforum.com/ Six Sigma Forum established by the American

Society for Quality (ASQ)

4 http://www.isixsigma.com/ A Web portal devoted to Six Sigma programs.

5 http://www.qualitydigest.com/ Quality Digest. A magazine.

6 http://www2.umassd.edu/SWPI/ Software Process Resource Collection

7 http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/ A page at Clemson University for Continuous

Quality Improvement, including software and tutorials.

8 http://www.statsoftinc.com/textbook/stathome.html An online textbook in

statistics and quality planning & analysis

9The Hong Kong research institute of textile and apparel (HKRITA)

10Quality planning & analysis McGraw-Hill 4th edition

11Creating Quality by William J. Kolarik , McGraw-Hill

12Arved Harding Statistician Eastman Chemical Company

13 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall.

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