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Major Types of Forests

Polar (boreal)
Purpose of Forests

Ecological Services Economic Services

Support energy flow and Fuelwood

chemical cycling Lumber
Reduce soil erosion Pulp to make paper
Absorb and release water Mining
Purify water Livestock grazing
Purify air Recreation
Influence local and regional
Store atmospheric carbon
Provide numerous wildlife

Old-growth forests (frontier forests): uncut or

regenerated forests that have NOT been disturbed by human
activities or natural disasters for at least several hundred
Provide ecological niches for a multitude of wildlife species
Second-growth forests: resulting in secondary ecological
succession after the trees in an area have been removed by
1) Human activities such as clear-cutting for timber or conversion to
2) Natural forces such as fire, hurricanes, or volcanic eruption
Tree plantation (tree farms): Managed tracts with
uniformly aged trees of one species that are harvested by
clear-cutting as soon as they become commercially valuable.
Then they are replanted and clear-cut again on regular cycles.
Cover 5% of worlds tree cover, provide 10% of wood
Types of Forests
Types of Forest Management

As the forest goes through different stages, the total

volume of wood produced by a particular stand of forest
varies as it goes through different stages of growth and
ecological succession.
Have to figure out the best way to produce fuelwood or fiber for
paper production in the shortest time using a short rotation cycle
Type of management depends on economy
Even-aged management: Maintain trees in a given stand the same
age and size. Like a small tree plantation, a old-growth or second-
growth forest is replaced with 1-2 types of fast growing trees that can
be harvested every 6-100 years.
Uneven-aged management: Maintaining a variety of tree species
in a stand at many ages and heights to foster natural regeneration.
Prioritizes biological diversity, sustainability, selective cutting
methods, multiple uses for forests (usually longer term)
Types of Forests
Problems associated with logging:

Increased erosion and sediment runoff

into waterways
Habitat fragmentation and biodiversity
Exposure of forests to invasion by
nonnative pests, diseases, and wildlife
Opening of once-inaccessible forests to
farmers, miners, ranchers, hunters and
ORV users.
If you log, cant protect land and make
it public wilderness
Harvesting Methods

Selective Cutting Shelterwood Cutting

Intermediate-aged or mature For trees that grow best in

trees in an uneven-aged forest full-to-moderate sunlight in
are cut singly or in small medium to large sized
Reduces crowding, removes clearings
diseased trees Removes all mature trees in
Encourages growth of younger
trees 2-3 cuttings over a period of
Maintains an uneven-aged stand about 10 years
of trees of different species
Allow natural regeneration from
surrounding trees
Can help with soil erosion
problems/wind damage
Multi-purpose uses for forests
Harvesting Methods

Seed-tree cutting Clear-cutting

For trees that grow best in For trees that grow best in full-
full-to-moderate sunlight in to-moderate sunlight in medium
medium to large sized to large sized clearings
clearings Removes all trees from an area in

Harvests nearly all a stands

a single cutting
Can be strip-cutting
trees in one cutting, leaving a Increases timber yield per hectare
few uniformly distributed Permits reforesting with genetically
seed-producing trees to improved, fast-growing trees
regenerate the stand Shortens time needed to establish a
new stand of trees
Takes less skill and planning
Max. economic return in shortest time
Types of Harvesting
Issues in Forestry

Need for more sustainable growing

Long rotations of 100-200 years, using selective/strip cutting,
reduce road blocks, minimize fragmentation, reduce soil
erosion, leave boles and snag for wildlife diversity, use tree
Must reduce impact of tree diseases from pathogens
and insects
Ban imported wood, remove/clear-cut infected species,
develop disease-resistant trees, apply pesticides, IPM
Forest fires
Prevention, prescribed burning, presuppression, suppression,
be aware of impact from climate change