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N G

E E NI
C R
/ S
I N G IN G
S H V E Y
R U ON
C C PLANT DESIGN
D CONSTRUCTION
AN AND OPERATION
PLANT
OPTIMISATION
Basdew Rooplal
AND ENERGY
Mining & Metallurgical Consultant
http://mineralprocessingconsultant.com/
EFFICIENCY
2

CONTENTS
Plant Design Construction
and Operation

Bench scale and pilot scale design for comminution


Selection and sizing of secondary and tertiary
circuits
crushers
Factors influencing the selection of comminution
circuits o Optimising the
Types and characterisation of crusher equipment
and circuit flowsheet Eccentric speed of
Selection and sizing of primary crusher

o Computer aided design cone crusher


of Jaw Crusher

Selection and sizing of High pressure roll crushers
Advancement in Screening Technology.

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CONTENTS
Plant optimisation and energy
efficiency considerations

Optimising lumps to fines ratio in Iron Ore


Characterisation Understanding the ore body and processing
the Metallurgy
Reducing fines generation in Coal Mining
Ore dressing studies what is involved.
Profit based comminution controls
Blasting for improved mining and comminution
productivity Increasing the energy efficiency of Processing

Production planning for the combined mine and


comminution operation

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BENCH SCALE AND PILOT SCALE


DESIGN FOR COMMINUTION CIRCUITS
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BENCH SCALE
TESTWORK
Introduction

Grindability tests are a compromise between test


The resistance of ore samples to breakage (or costs and its deliverables.
hardness) is measured through grindability tests.
The highest degree of deliverables and certainty is
Several grindability tests have been developed over achieved in a pilot plant, which is also the most
the years for different applications and each test reliable test procedure to determine the resistance
has its own strengths and weaknesses of ore samples to grinding or hardness and is also
the most expensive.

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SUMMARY OF
GRINDABILITY TESTS

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
Bond Ball mill
Grindability

The AG/SAG mill or HPGR circuit products, which


have non-standard particle size distribution. The figure below shows that the Ball Mill work index
is normally distributed with AVG 14.6 and Median
One of the keys of the Bond work index success 14.8
over time has been its reliability and reproducibility.

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
Bond Rod mill work
Index

The rod mill work Index is also normally distributed


with and average and median of 14.8kWh/t The test has been mainly used for the design of rod
It is common to observe difference between the ball mill or primary ball mills.
and rod mill caused by variation in ore hardness

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
Bond low energy
impact test

Consists of an apparatus with two pendulum The test is generally performed on 20 rocks
hammers mounted on two bicycle wheels, so as to One of the strengths of the test is to measure the
strike equal blows simultaneously on opposite sides natural dispersion in the sample.
of each rock specimen.
Another advantage of the test is the coarse size 2
The height of the pendulum is raised until the 3 inches which makes it unique in the series of
energy is sufficient to break the rock specimen tests.

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GRINDABILITY TESTS

SAG power index (SPI)

SPI expressed in minutes , is the time T necessary


to reduce the ore from P80 of 12.5mm to P80 of 1.7
mm SPI is widely used and deposits can be compared in
The SPI has the advantage of requiring low weight terms of hardness and variability, see fig below.
and is suited for geometallurgical mapping of ore
deposits

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
JKTECH drop weight
test
Developed by JKMRC

Divided into 3 components:

Test measures the


resistance to impact Finally the rock density
breakage of coarse of 20 particles is
particles in the range 63 measured to asses the
13.2 mm average ore density as
Then evaluates the well as its dispersion.
resistance to abrasion
breakage in the range 53
37.5 mm
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GRINDABILITY TEST
JKTECH drop weight
test

The test generates the appearance function

E.g. the breakage


pattern of the ore
under a range of
impact and abrasion
breakage conditions
The appearance function can be used in the
JKSimMet modelling and simulation package to
predict the ore response to comminution process

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
JKTECH Drop weight
test

Also part of these procedure is the density


determination of 20 rock samples, using water
displacement techniques.
It affects the bulk density of the charge and
Figure 5 shows an ore displaying a wide range of
associated power draw
densities.

The density distribution of the ore is important in


AG/SAG milling because

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
JKTECH drop weight
test

A great number of rock weight tests have been


performed over the years which allows for
comparison of ore types in a data base.

The frequency distribution of the function A x b


from JKTech is depicted in Fig 6

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
JKTECH drop weight
test

One of the interesting features of the drop weight


test procedure is that it provides a variation in rock
hardness by size from 13.2 to 63 mm. For a very competent ore, the curve will be nearly
horizontal, a non-competent fractured ore will show
Fig 7 illustrates this at 3 different energy levels. a high gradient with increasing size

0.25 1.0 and 2.5 kWh/t

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
SAG Mill comminution
test

This is an abbreviated drop weight test, which can The advantage of the SMC test is that it generates
be performed at low cost on small samples 19 22 the energy versus breakage relationship with as
mm or drill cores. small quantity of sample of a single size fraction.
5 kg of sample is normally sufficient. Because the test can be performed on small rocks,
it is well suited for geometallurgical mapping.

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
MacPherson Autogenous
Grindability tests

100 to 175 kg of sample is required with a top size


This is a continuous test performed in a 46 cm greater than 25 mm.
semi-autogenous mill with an 8% ball charge.
The test is run continuously for 6 hours.
The pilot plant consists of a feed hopper, cyclone,
screen and dust collector with a control system to The importance of reaching a steady state in a
regulate the charge volume and circulating load. grinding mill is widely accepted, this test is the only
small scale test that offers the option.

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
MacPhersons Autogenous
grinding tests

Throughput rates Specific Energy

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GRINDABILITY TEST
Media Competency
test

104 to 165 mm rocks are subjected to a tumble test


using 10 large rock in 5 size fractions.
There has been some variations of media
competency test developed over the years with the The surviving rocks are submitted to fracture
assessment of media survival in autogenous milling energy test procedure.
being the main objective.
This provides the relationship between the first
fracture energy requirement and rock size.

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GRINDABILITY TESTS
High Pressure Grinding
Rolls

HPGR are emerging as an energy efficient


alternative to AG/SAG circuits.

The traditional method for testing is processing


large samples in a pilot scale.
The power input is recorded and presented below.
Several tests are performed to asses the effect of
operating pressure and moisture content on HPGR
performance

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CRUSHABILITY TEST

Impact Crushability

Gives a WI that can be applied to 3 types of


crushers

Gyratory WI can be used to determine the horse


power.

Impactors WI is an indication of hardness

Cone Crusher rate the material to determine the


duty of the crusher

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CRUSHABILITY TESTS

Paddle Abrasion

Results are in the form of Abrasion Index and


chemical makeup of the material

Tests are used to determine whether an Impactor or


cone crusher is suitable.

Can also be used to calculate the approximate liner


life for the crusher

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CRUSHABILITY TESTS
Dynamic
French Abrasion Fragmentation

Gives an Abrasion and Crushability Index Conducted for Impactor application

Mainly used to estimate hammer wear in the Measures the friability of the material
Impactor application
Dynamic fragmentation number will indicate if the
Impactor is feasible for a particular application.

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DISCUSSION POINTS!

Where can I apply Bench scale and pilot scale


programs in my work environment?

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF


COMMINUTION CIRCUITS
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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION


OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS

Geological Interpretation
of Drill core and Bulb
Sample
Mineralogical Analysis
Sampling requirements
Chemical Analysis Contiguous properties

Physical Properties Feed and product Specification

Bond work Indices, Abrasion Index, and specific


Circuit feed Parameters power consumptions

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE


SELECTION OF COMMINUTION
CIRCUITS
Circuit selection
Metallurgical efficiency
Cost Consideration

Water supply

Fine Grinding

Plant layout

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GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF
DRILL CORE AND BULK SAMPLE

Effect on Circuit
Information Gained Selection

Identification and relative abundance of Mineral


content

Degree of Dissemination Provides a guide to the types of circuit required and


the types of samples required based on precedent
Type of Lithology
Determines the necessity of separate plants to
Types of Alteration process sulphide ores

Degree of Oxidation Provides a guide to the selection of autogenous


grinding
Geotechnical Competence

Hardness

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MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Identification of ore and gangue minerals and


middling association Determine Ratios of reduction

Liberation and Modal Analysis Feed and product size analysis in primary ,
secondary and regrind circuits
Quantitative analysis QemScan

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CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Information Gained Effect on Circuit


Selection

Identification of metallic , non-metallic and acid Determining the requirements of pre-washing the
generating constituents ore

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Effect on Circuit Selection
Information Gained

Provides a guide to potential problems in


Crushing Screening and Grinding the ore with
Hardness, Blockiness, Friability, Quantification of
respect to equipment selection and Over grinding
primary fines and clay content
and avoidance of slimes generation with respect to
Specific gravity of mineral constituents softer minerals.

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CIRCUIT FEED PARAMETERS


Effect on Circuit Selection
Information Gained

ROM top size parameters

Primary crusher discharge size analysis Determines selection of primary crushers and
necessity for pre-crushing can influence this
Throughput requirements and schedules selection by determination of the product size at
the required throughput rate.
Mining Plans , Schedules, methods and equipment
sizes

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SAMPLING REQUIREMENTS

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Preliminary drill core for resource definition and split


Preliminary Assessment of grinding requirements
for bond work indices
and ore variability
Whole core for Autogenous Media Competency
Power based methods for mill sizing using results
Index, Impact crusher work indices and fracture
from Bond , Impact and grinding work indices
frequency
Assist in definition of Pilot plant test program and
Bulk Sample , large diameter drill core, open pit or
ore Variability Characteristics
underground for pilot plant testing

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CONTIGUOUS PROPERTIES

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Determines the utility of equipment with respect to


its Inherent operating behaviour, e.g. Autogenous
Definition of equipment characteristics grinding mills grinding to a natural grain size, SAG
mills breaking across grain boundaries and rod mill
minimizing the creation of fines

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FEED AND PRODUCT


SPECIFICATION

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Influence of Mine to Mill and choke feeding the


primary crusher on subsequent stages Performance
Definition of requirements at each comminution
Maximum feed top size in relation to high aspect
stage
and low aspect primary mills

Use of HPGR

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BOND WORK INDICES, ABRASION INDEX,


AND SPECIFIC POWER CONSUMPTIONS
Effect on Circuit Selection
Information Gained

Calculation of specific power consumption at each


comminution stage for different ore types and Distribution of power Confirmation of specific power
composites. consumption and contingencies for Process design
criteria
Assessment of ore variability
Calculation of estimates for media and liner wear.
Checking on pilot plant test data
Estimation of mill power requirements and
Assessment of risk or contingency based on distribution of power between equipment
samples selected according to the mine plan

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CIRCUIT SELECTION

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Assessment of Overall Power requirements and


power efficiency for different circuit options Determination of the Most economic option on the
basis of NPV of Capital and Operating cost and
Assessment of Overall Operating Availability for circuit availability for a fixed revenue rate.
different circuit options
Power efficiency should be optimised in design for
Determination of unit power cost and demand for each circuit option considered.
different circuit options

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METALLURGICAL EFFICIENCY

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Determination of necessity for stage grinding and


stage concentration to optimise mineral liberation
Definition of Optimum comminution configuration
and recovery.
Definition of feed rate variation
Quantify the effect of feed rate variations on the
Selection of grinding media metallurgical efficiency of down stream processes.

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COST CONSIDERATION

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Effect of efficiency on crushing and grinding


Definition of Largest practical equipment size and equipment E.g. Separation of screening plant from
design crushing plant.

Feed arrangement requirements


Differences between comminution options
Choke feeding crushers

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WATER SUPPLY

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Determination of plant location Namely, Mine


Definition of Process alternatives location, Applicability of dry grinding, Pre-
concentration and use of sea water.

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FINE GRINDING

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Determination of Optimum location of Fine grinding


Determination of test requirements, batch and / or
application within the circuit and definition of the
Pilot scale tests
types of machines used.

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PLANT LAYOUT

Information Gained
Effect on Circuit
Selection

Determination of wet and dry processes


Definition of Geographic location, Climatic
conditions, Accessibility Determination of Physical sizes of equipment and
foot print of the plant
Definition of relative location of Mine vs. Plant
Determination of built-in contingencies that allow
Definition of Operating schedules and manpower
for future expansion
requirements
Consideration for the addition of equipment lines in
Definition of expansion potential
the case of larger plants.

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DISCUSSION POINTS!

Comments on pertinent factors that was involved in


the selection of your plant system.

The pros and cons of the current system, bottle


necks, etc.

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TYPES AND CHARACTERISATION OF


CRUSHER EQUIPMENT AND CIRCUIT
FLOWSHEET
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INTRODUCTION

Standard Equipment New Equipment

Crushing flowsheet and equipment are selected to


prepare ore for downstream purposes. Standard
equipment for the minerals industry has been :
Water flush cone crushers
Jaw crushers
Vertical and horizontal impactors
Gyratory crushers
High pressure grinding rolls
Cone crushers

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FACTORS AFFECTING
CRUSHER SELECTION

Ore characteristics:

Hard rock

Clay

Gravel
Plant throughput, ore delivery schedules
Variability
Size of feed
Climatic conditions
Desired product size for down stream processing
Down stream processes

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PLANT THROUGHPUT AND


ORE DELIVERY SCHEDULES

E.g. A primary Jaw crusher will be better suited for a


conventional underground mining operation because:

Forms the base line for flowsheet design and Tonnages are typically lower
equipment selection
Feed material size is smaller
Size type, number of stages and number of
Less headroom and a smaller excavation is required.
crushers per stage for an application can be
identified.

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FEED SIZE

A balance between the plant capacity and the size


The crusher selected must be sized for throughput
of the crusher must be reached.
as well as top size expected from the mine.
In multi stage crushing circuits the products of the
Smaller the crusher the smaller the dimension of
preceding stage will be the determining factor in
the feed material that can enter the crusher
the selection of the size of the crusher and the
chamber.
crusher liner configuration.

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PRODUCT SIZE

To produce a 15 mm product a two stage crushing


The target product size required from the crushing may be required.
circuit will determine the number of crushing The ability to crush finer has been required for
stages and types of crushers to be used for a specific application.
specific application.
For fine product sizes in dry process application
E.g.. To produce a coarse product a single stage flowsheet have incorporated vertical shaft impact
crusher may be required. crushers operated in closed circuit with vibrating
screens.

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ORE CHARACTERISTICS

When selecting equipment for inclusion in a


crushing flowsheet the following factors should be
considered: Geologists should provide info with regards to:

Hardness Rock types

Toughness Abundance of various rock types LOM

Abrasiveness Short and long term delivery schedules should then


be provided mining to adapt circuit configuration for
Moisture content LOM

mineralisation

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CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

A dry warm climate will allow for an unenclosed


installation. An enclosed crushing plant also posed dust
Colder wet climates will require enclosures for extraction challenges.
operator protection and moisture problems.

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DOWNSTREAM
PROCESSES

Heap Leaching Milling

Crusher product size Type of grinding circuit


will be specified for will influence the
optimum recovery number of crushing
stages.

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APPLICATION

Primary Crusher

Typical crushers used are

Jaw
Purpose
Gyratory
To reduce the ore to a size amenable to secondary
crushing, SAG mill feed or heap leach product Horizontal impactors

Usually operated in open circuit. Rotary breakers

Ratio of reduction 8:1

Some form of scalping screen may be installed in


the case of Jaw and Impact crushers

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APPLICATION
Secondary
Crushers

Purpose
Crusher types:
To produce an intermediate or final product
Standard cone crusher traditionally
Feed Size typically between 200 & 75 mm
depending on primary crusher Horizontal Impact crusher as alternative

Vibrating screen may be installed ahead to remove HPGR recently for diamond and iron ore
product size material.

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APPLICATION

Tertiary Crushers

Crusher type:

Short head cone crusher


Purpose: Produce the final product Longer crusher chamber and more even size
distribution
Feed : 37 mm
Usually operated in closed circuit with a vibrating
Product : 12 mm
screen

HPGR and Nordberg Water Flush crushers have also


been used.

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APPLICATION

Quaternary Crushing

Purpose:

To produce fine dry product for downstream


Nordbergs Gyradisc crusher uses a combination of
processing
impact and attrition to effect particle size reduction.
Vertical Impact Crusher has been used at
Applied in the industrial minerals and sand industry
Newmonts heap leaching operation in Uzbekistan.
to produce finished products to 800 microns.
High speed crusher that used high speed impact to
effect particle reduction

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CRUSHER TYPES

Jaw

Gyratory
Cone crushers
Horizontal shaft impact crushers
Gyradisc crushers
Rotary breakers
Vertical impact crusher
Roll Crushers

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FLOWSHEET TWO STAGE


CRUSHING (FINE PRODUCT)

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TWO STAGE CRUSHING


(COARSE PRODUCT)

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THREE STAGE
CRUSHING

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THREE STAGE
CRUSHING

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THREE STAGE
CRUSHING

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TWO STAGE WITH


WATER FLUSH CRUSHER

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THREE STAGE CRUSHING


GOLD HEAP LEACH

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THREE STAGE CRUSHING


AND WATER FLUSH CRUSHER

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WATER FLUSH
CRUSHING

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SABC CONFIGURATION

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THREE STAGE CRUSHING WITH


VERTICAL SHAFT IMPACTORS

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DISCUSSION POINTS!
What are the Problem areas of current equipment
installation?

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SELECTION AND SIZING OF


PRIMARY CRUSHER
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INTRODUCTION
Family of primary
crushers

Gyratory

Double toggle Jaw

Single toggle Jaw

High speed roll crusher


The rock / ore determines the type of crusher
Low speed sizer
The plant capacity determines the size of crusher
Impactors

Hammer mill

Feeder breaker

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HISTORY

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MECHANICAL
REDUCTION METHODS
Four basic ways to
reduce a material

Impact

Attrition

Shear

Compression

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COMPRESSION

Should be used when

Material is hard and tough

Material is abrasive

Done between two surfaces Material is not sticky

Gyratory and double toggle jaw uses this method Uniform product with a minimum of fines is desired

The finished product is relatively coarse > 38 mm

Material will break cubically

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IMPACT

Conditions

Cubical particles are needed


Refers to sharp , instantaneous impingement of one
moving object against another Finished product must be well graded
Two types Ore must be broken along natural cleavage lines

Gravity When material is too hard and abrasive or high


moisture content
Dynamic

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ATTRITION

Conditions

Scrubbing material between two hard surfaces When material is friable and non-abrasive
Hammer mills operate with close clearance When top size control is not desired
between hammers and screen bars and reduce by
attrition combined with shear and impact reduction. When maximum of fines is required.

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SHEAR

Conditions

When the material is somewhat friable and has low


Consists of trimming or cleaving action silica content
Exploits the fact that the ratio of compressive When material is soft to medium hardness
strength to tensile and shear strength in the
majority or rocks is approximately 10 : 1 For primary crushing with a reduction ratio of 6 : 1

Low speed sizers break the rock in tension and When a minimum of fines is desired
shear by chopping action
When a relative coarse product is desired > 38 mm

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PRIMARY GYRATORY
CRUSHERS

They found that the crushing chamber provides


The main capacity advantage offered is centred more effective volume than a rectangular volume
around the Archimedes principal The shaft grating speed adds a third dimension to
crushing as opposed to two dimensional crushing

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GYRATORY CRUSHER

Advantages Disadvantage

Designed for direct dump from trucks Lowest


maintenance per ton processed of any designed
crusher

Can handle crushing ore hardness up to 600 mPa Highest installed capital cost of any crusher design
Easy handling of tramp material with hydraulic reiief
system

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JAW CRUSHER ANIMATION VIDEO


1
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WORKING PRINCIPLES OF THE


JAW CRUSHER VIDEO 2
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DOUBLE TOGGLE
DESIGN

The swing Jaw of the Standard DT crusher pivots


The hinge pin is located behind the centreline of
from an overhead shaft .
the crusher zone and it causes the swing Jaw to
A Pitman hung from an eccentric shaft transmits move perpendicular to the fixed Jaw.
motion through a pair of toggles at the bottom of
This arrangement provides twice the force in
the swing Jaw
crushing
Swing Jaw motion is greatest at the discharge
Typical duty is 350 MPa
opening.

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DOUBLE TOGGLE JAW

Advantages Disadvantages

Same capacity limitations as the single toggle aw


Lower installed cost than a Gyratory crusher crusher

Can handle high abrasion with low maintenance Substantially higher installed cost than a single
toggle Jaw crusher
Can handle tough crushing application upto 600
MPa nickel ores, iron ores, etc. Same crushing size limitation as single toggle Jaw
crusher

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SINGLE TOGGLE JAW


CRUSHER

The rotation of the eccentric shaft causes the swing At all points in the crushing chamber the crushing
Jaw assembly to move in an elliptical path. action has both vertical and horizontal
components.
Maximum movement of the swing jaw assembly
occurs at the top of the crushing chamber with Due to the rubbing action of this type of jaw, jaw
minimum movement at the discharge opening plate wear is accelerated and power efficiency is
lowered because the swing jaw is lifted on every
stroke.

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SINGLE TOGGLE JAW


CRUSHER
Advantages Disadvantages

Normal economic maximum capacity is 750 MTPH

Lower installed cost than a double toggle Duty of crusher is for light or medium hard material

Lower power usage than a double toggle Does not handle high abrasive material as well as
DT
Can handle sticky, muddy ore easier than a double
toggle or Gyratory Requires feeder

Primary crushing only

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LOW SPEED SIZERS

Used for non-abrasive sticky type material bet 200


- 400 MPa

Application
The low speed sizing principle is the combination of
high torque / low roll speeds.
Medium hard
The interaction of tooth, spacer and roll set up a limestone, bauxite,
sized void which in turn sizes the material
kimberlite, gypsum,
clay, shale and gold
ore.

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LOW SPEED SIZERS

Advantages

Can handle high tonnages 12 000 MTPH

Low installation cost and minimum head room


Low reduction ratio
required
Peak power loading up to 8 times installed power
Low fines production
Not economic for low tonnage unless the material is
Low power consumption
very difficult to handle
Easy rejection of oversize feed using discharge
gates

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SINGLE TOGGLE VS.


DOUBLE TOGGLE

ST Movement of jaw is in downward rolling


ST has a larger angle of nip, the larger the nip angle direction which gives a force feed action assists in
the harder to grip the material.. handling sticky material

Life of Jaw in ST is less than DT


ST greatest movement at the top

DT greatest movement at the bottom

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IMPACT CRUSHERS

Utilized in soft, non-abrasive application

Crushing availability and maintenance can


economically offset against capital cost

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OPERATION OF AN IMPACT
CRUSHER VIDEO 3
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IMPACTOR ANIMATION VIDEO 4


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IMPACT CRUSHER

Advantages Disadvantages

Requires feeder
Can handle larger size reduction 1000 : 75
Cannot handle tramp metal
High reduction ratio compared to investment cost
Higher power consumption as more fines are
Provides a high degree of fines
produced
Can handle up to 2500 MTPH
High wear due to higher silica content + 8%

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93

FEEDER BREAKERS

Are utilised in soft to medium hard application

Coarsely break material for belt conveying

Frequently used for overburden and underground


duty

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FEEDER BREAKER

Advantages Disadvantage

Avoids costly site preparation and civil work

Can transfer and crush material in a single machine Very low reduction ratio
Handles wet material with ease Crushing takes place in breaker bars and chains
Very low headroom which causes wear.

Can handle upto 2000 MTPH

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PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION CRITERIA

Will it produce the desired product size at required


capacity Is the crusher suited for underground or in-pit duty

Will it accept the largest feed size expected Can it handle tramp material without damage

What is the capacity to handle peak loads How much supervision is required

Will it choke or plug How does the crusher resist abrasive wear

Is the crusher suited to the type of crushing plant What is the power consumption
design

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PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION CRITERIA

Does the crusher operate economically with


minimum maintenance
How does the initial cost of the machine compare
Does the crusher have an acceptable parts
to the long term operating cost.
replacement cost

Does the crusher have easy access to internal parts

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97

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION - CAPACITY

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98

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION FEED SIZE

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99

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION PRODUCT SIZE

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100

PRIMARY CRUSHER SELECTION


COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

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101

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION ABRASION INDEX

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102

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION CLAY CONTENT

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103

PRIMARY CRUSHER SELECTION


UNDERGROUND APPLICATION

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104

PRIMARY CRUSHER
SELECTION MOBILE PLANTS

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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF


JAW CRUSHER
106

COMPONENTS OF A JAW
CRUSHER

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107

MATERIAL FOR COMPONENTS


OF JAW CRUSHER

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108

KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF
JAW CRUSHER
The geometry of the
moving Jaw results in a
movement change
which has a great effect
on the crushing action
and particle breakage. Based on the analysis of the moving jaw movement,
the squeezing process and the crushing force
distribution, the jaw plate wear on a macroscopic
scale level aiming to predict the wear distribution
on the jaw plate can be studied.

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SWINGING JAW
MOVEMENT

The reciprocating jaw MN driven by the eccentric


shaft AB does kind of a periodic plane swing
movement.

Jaw crusher can be considered as a four bar


mechanism in which link AN is the crank and OA is
the fixed link

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MN is the moving jaw and OM is the toggle bar.

In the analysis we are intended to find out the


displacement, velocity and acceleration of various
points on the swinging jaw plate.

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DATA EXTRACTED FROM


STANDARD JAW CRUSHER
Length AN = 172 cm
Length MN = 1085 cm
Length OM = 455 cm
Co-ordinates of A (45.3 ,
815.7)
Crank angle rotates from
0 to 360 degrees
anticlockwise.

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112

CRANK ANGLE VS. ANGLE


MADE BY MOVING JAW

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113

CRANK ANGLE VS. ANGLE


BETWEEN MOVING JAW AND Y
AXIS

The graph shows as the moving Jaw approached its


counterpart which is stationary it tends to be
vertical i.e. the angle between the moving Jaw and
the Y axis decreases as a result the crushed product
slips downwards.

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VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT VS.


HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT

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115

HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT
VS. CRANK ANGLE

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116

DISPLACEMENT VS.
CRANK ANGLE

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POINTS ON THE
MOVING JAW

Every point on the moving Jaw follows an elliptical


path

When it moves towards the fixed Jaw, it goes


vertically down and in the return stroke it moves
vertically up.

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VERTICAL VELOCITY VS.


CRANK ANGLE

The rate of change of vertical velocity is greater for


the topmost point and decreases downwards

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119

HORIZONTAL VELOCITY
VS. CRANK ANGLE

The rate of change of horizontal velocity is greater


for the bottom most point and decreases upwards

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VELOCITY VS. CRANK


ANGLE

The maximum rate of change of final velocity is


greater for the points away from the crank.

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HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION
VS. CRANK ANGLE

With progress from 0 to 360 degrees crank angle


rotation the horizontal acceleration first increases
then decreases

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122

VERTICAL ACCELERATION
VS. CRANK ANGLE

With progress from 0 to 360 degrees crank rotation


the vertical acceleration first decrease then
increases

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123

ACCELERATION VS.
CRANK ANGLE

The maximum acceleration is observed for the


points farthest away from the crank angle

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124

EFFECT OF SLIDING
MOTION ON JAW WEAR
Breakage Analysis
3 types of Fracture
mechanisms are
observed
Abrasion
Cleavage
Shatter

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BREAKAGE ANALYSIS
The particle fracture
mechanism in the Jaw
crusher chamber is a
mixture of cleavage and
abrasion. The abrasion
fracture is caused with Friction between the Jaw plates and the particle.

the localised too much The induced tensile stress results in the cleavage

energy input to the area fracture.

directly under the


loading points and the

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CRUSHING PROCESS
Theoretically a particle
inside the crusher is
crushed when it is
compressed and fails in
tensile stress.
In practice the particles The forces acting on the element during the
also undergo slipping crushing process is shown below

motion between the jaw


plates

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CRUSHING PROCESS
As the horizontal and
vertical velocities of the
moving jaw changes during
the crushing process, the
forces on the particle
varies at different times.
When the component of
the vertical velocity is
greater than the
components of the
horizontal velocity the
forces on the particle is
shown in Fig. 3.3 (a)

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128

CRUSHING PROCESS
When the component of
the vertical velocity is
less than the
components of the
horizontal velocity the
forces are shown in Fig.
3.3 (b)

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CRUSHING PROCESS
By a resolution of forces
acting on the particle as
shown in figure 3.3. it
can be proved that
conditions for the The chance for the particle to slide is greater with
particle to slip against the fixed jaw than the moving jaw.

the fixed jaw plate is Due to vertical motion irregular geometry of particles,
a classification process before the particle fracture
much greater than with may exist during close process in which the particle
adjustment may take place.
the moving jaw plate.
Condition for slide
between the particle
and the fixed jaw plate
is unavoidable
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WEAR ANALYSIS
Squeezing and sliding are
the two principal factors
affecting the Jaw plates
wear
Squeezing plays the main At the middle lower part of the crusher where the
role at the top of the crusher ratio of the vertical distance to the horizontal
stroke reaches a maximum value resulting in
and the wear is small. maximum wear of the crusher.

As the particles move down The slide between the fixed Jaw and particle is
greater compared to the moving jaw hence the
the crusher the probability wear is dominant in the fixed jaw.
of slip increases and the
wear becomes more
pronounced.

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131

DISCUSSION POINTS!
What are the flaws of
the current primary
crusher installation?
Where can we improve?

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SELECTION AND SIZING OF


SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CRUSHERS
133

INTRODUCTION

Proper size reduction results in better recoveries


Modern crushers have increased in performance
In milling feed preparation, the generation of fines
Evolved to focus greater on the quality of desired and total top size reduction results in maximum mill
product productivity.

More stringent requirements are being placed in Proper understanding of crusher capabilities will
terms of shape and gradation. minimize both installation and operating
capabilities.

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HOW THE SYMONS CONE


CRUSHER WORKS VIDEO 5
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NEW GENERATION OF CONE


CRUSHERS VIDEO 6
136

CONE CRUSHERS

Modern Cone crushers New cone crushers

Safer more reliable hydraulic clamp and clearing


system to protect the crusher from uncrushables and
Increased performance capabilities overload conditions
More power capabilities Adaptation of hydraulic setting adjustment system in
Larger in size the cone crusher design improves overall efficiency
of crushing operation
Higher capacities

Better product shape

Higher percentage of final product yield

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137

NEW CONE CRUSHERS

New generation of cone crushers provide Technology has evolved to include computer
controls to maximize and optimize crusher
ease of operation
performance based on application requirements
Simple maintenance
Modern devises provide real time feedback :
Uniform production throughout the liner life
Power draw, cavity level, crushing force,
High availability temperatures, pressures, etc.

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138

CONE CRUSHER
SELECTION CRITERIA
Material
Information required characteristics

Specific gravity

Bulk density
Capacity required with consideration for expected
Impact work index
availability
Moisture content
Expected gradation and product size
Abrasion index

How the material breaks

Small scale lab tests and full scale pilot tests

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139

CONE CRUSHER DESIGN


LIMITS
Design limits

Volume limits

Power limits

Force Limits

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Maximum rate of feed to the cone crusher without
overfilling the cone crusher feed hopper 140

Function of

Speed of the crusher DESIGN LIMITS -


Closed side setting CSS
Head angle VOLUME
Material density

Defining variables

Feed gradation

Crusher chamber configuration

Transport of material through the crusher cavity

Fragmentation characteristics

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DESIGN LIMIT - POWER

Power limit is reached when average power draw


kW exceeds the installed motor power of the
crusher. Pilot scale test work can provide information
Ore of high impact work index or strong resistance regarding power consumption
to fragmentation tend to reach or exceed the
power limit easily.

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DESIGN LIMIT FORCE


FACTOR

Force limits may be exceeded due to

uncrushables material entering the crushing


chamber
The force limit of a crusher is reached when the Operating at a small closed side setting
combined forces exerted during crushing exceeds
the force available on the machine to hold the Packing of wet sticky material
desired closed side setting.
High power draws

Incorrect crushing cavity design

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CONE CRUSHER SIZES


AND CAPACITY RANGES

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144

SECONDARY CONE
CRUSHER SELECTION
Example

maximum feed material 200mm

Capacity 500 tph


Ensure the feed material does not exceed the
acceptable maximum size for the crusher Table 1 : HP 300
Determine the capacity requirements at a given At 32 mm CSS the crusher is unable to achieve a
closed side setting based on a 4/6:1 reduction ratio. minimum of 500 tph

Table 1 : HP500

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SECONDARY CONE
CRUSHER SELECTION
Correct cavity
configuration

The cavity configuration has to suit the feed


gradation so that the maximum crushing An improper liner configuration applied can create
performance and liner utilisation is achieved high crushing forces leading to adjustment ring
Several cavity configurations are available for cone movement , exceeding crusher force limit.
crushers to maximise performance.

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146

CASE STUDY: HP700


REPLACING HAMMER MILL
Copper mine in
Portland Results

20% gain in energy efficiency


Hammer mill used to prepare rod mill feed By reducing the rod mill feed from 80% passing 30
Hammer mill replaced by HP700 cone crusher mm to 80% passing 14 mm.

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147

CASE STUDY: HP700


REPLACING HAMMER MILL

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148

CASE STUDY: HP700


REPLACING HAMMER MILL

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149

THE PRE-CRUSHER
OPTION

The most recent evolution for pebble crushing finds


a basis in the presumption that the most Coarse material serves as impact media and fines
appropriate primary mill feed contains a minimum as transport medium for down stream processing.
amount of critical size material.
Pre-crushing targets to convert the middling to fine
The initial feed of the primary mill should fraction.
dominantly consist of fine and coarse material.

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150

CASE STUDY: PRE-


CRUSHING
Troilus Mine Kidston Mine

All primary crusher ore is pre -screened to remove


150 50 mm is pre-crushed using an HP 700 cone fines
crusher
All +50 mm oversize is crushed at maximum
Production increase and operating cost decreased. reduction ratio to deliver maximum fines.

Proved effective in boosting milling productivity and


lowering operating cost.

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151

TYPICAL PRE-CRUSHER
INSTALLATION

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TRACK MOUNTED CONE


CRUSHER VIDEO 7

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
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CASE STUDY : INFLUENCE OF ECCENTRIC SPEED


OF CONE CRUSHER PRODUCTION AND
OPERATION

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
154

CASE STUDY : PILOT


TEST PROGRAM

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
The research was performed in Tampere, Finland
using an HP 200 cone crusher

The study can be separated into three groups of


test:

Base tests The base tests were used to measure the crushers
maximum performance for a given eccentric speed.

Fixed tonnage tests The fixed tonnage tests simulated operating


conditions where the feed rate to the crusher is
Feed size distribution limited below the maximum capacity based on the
base eccentric speed and CSS
tests

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155

CASE STUDY : PILOT


TEST PROGRAM

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
A third set of tests utilized a different feed size in
The tests in each group used the same homogenous
order to verify results as well as reducing the effect
feed of known characteristics with feed sample
of top size particles possibly being inhibited to enter
being taken every forth test for verification.
the crushing cavity.

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CASE STUDY: PILOT


TEST RESULTS
Base testing
Overall results

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
For the base testing where each test was operated
Most of the data showed clear trends in capacity,
at the optimal cavity level to develop a baseline for
power and discharge size distribution as the
maximum production, the results matched theory.
eccentric speed was varied.
As the eccentric speed was increased the capacity
decreased in a nearly liner manner.

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CASE STUDY : BASE


TESTING RESULTS

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
The increase in capacity but decrease in reduction
On average, the total capacity tph fluctuated by
as the speed is lowered results in relatively low
22.5% over a design speed range of 34%.
changes to power draw as shown in figure 2.

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158

CASE STUDY: BASE


TESTING RESULTS

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
The higher capacity outweighed the slight loss in
For a base case testing with a full cavity throughout, reduction through the machine and the machine
it was seen that there was slight benefits in was more mechanically efficient at the lower
throughput and energy efficiency when the crusher speeds.
was operated at near the minimum design eccentric
speed. It was best to operate at the low end of the speed
range.

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159

CASE STUDY: 32 MM CSS


PRODUCTION VS. SPECIFIC
ENERGY

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
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160

CASE STUDY : 19 MM CSS


PRODUCTION VS. SPECIFIC
ENERGY

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
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161

CASE STUDY: FIXED


TONNAGE TEST
RESULTS

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
The tests operated at a fixed tonnage were The power draw of the crusher dropped significantly
conducted to simulate a crushing application where as the speed decreased resulting in a lower kW/t
the crusher is not the limiting equipment therefore specific energy through the machine.
the tonnage to the crusher is fixed by other plant
limitations therefore the crusher cannot normally There was a major shift in reduction through the
achieve a full choke condition. machine

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162

CASE STUDY: FIXED


TONNAGE TEST
RESULTS

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
The phenomenon occurred at the point where the
cavity level in the crusher could not fill up half of
the crushing chamber and the discharge became
The tph of the -12.5 mm product fell slightly as the coarser
eccentric speed reduced from the reference speed
While operating with a higher cavity level was more
by 20%
efficient, the crusher was more mechanically
efficient at the lower speeds

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CASE STUDY : FIXED


TONNAGE TEST
RESULTS

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
For the fixed tonnage tests there was a marked
improvement in the variation of power draw as the
speed and cavity level increased.

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CASE STUDY :
PRACTICAL
APPLICATION

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
There are a number of uses for these principles in a
crushing plant. The main points are as follows: The optimization of eccentric speed may be
beneficial where feed conditions and plant
Changing the speed to find a more optimal setup requirements change.
than that supplied by the manufacturer.
Dynamically manipulating the eccentric speed
Manipulating the speed based on current static using a variable frequency drive has not been
plant conditions, widely used.
And dynamic control of eccentric speed in a control
system.

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CASE STUDY :
PRACTICAL
APPLICATION

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
If the throughput requirements drop for a short
period of time it would be more productive and
A dynamic control system can be used to vary the
efficient to increase the speed of the crusher and
speed resulting in benefits to production and energy
operate with a fuller chamber.
efficiency.
An underlining benefit for greater control of the
E.g. When the throughput of the crusher is high it
crusher operation is maintaining a choke fed
could be operated most efficiently in the lower
condition, which has benefit to production ,
speed range.
operating cost and mechanical health of the
crusher.

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DISCUSSION POINTS!

Secondary antertiary
Selection and sizing of
Choke feeding in your current application, the pros
and cons.

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SELECTION AND SIZING OF HIGH PRESSURE


GRINDING ROLL CRUSHERS
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NEW CRUSHERS ON THE


MARKET VIDEO 8
169

HPGR INTRODUCTION

Acceptance by the minerals industry has required


the development of special wear protection
surfaces and rapid change out procedures for the
HPGR are well established in the cement industry rolls.
for the grinding of clinker, limestone, slag and other
Range of grinding
relatively non-abrasive material.

Minerals are 20 100 times more abrasive than Coarse < 75 mm


cement raw materials.
To grinding of fine
concentrate < 100
microns

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170

HPGR INTRODUCTION

Moisture content up to 12 %

Machines are available with capacities up to 3000


tph

Installed power up to 6000 kW

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171

HPGR INSTALLED IN DIAMOND


AND IRON ORE INDUSTRIES

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172

HPGR L/D RATIOS


Length to Diameter
ratio

Is it more advantageous to design rolls with smaller


diameters and larger widths or larger diameters and
smaller widths?

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HPGR L/D RATIO

The minimum roll diameter is prescribed by the


The decision as to which approach to adopt is
capital. outside diameter of the bearings and the thickness
of the bearing block.
It has an impact not only on the performance of the
The bearings are sized according to the installed
crusher but also major impact on the design of the
individual components and on the general layout of grinding force.
the unit.

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HPGR L/D RATIO

Larger rolls with low L/D ratios offer greater


freedom in selecting the most appropriate bearings.
The size of the bearing determines the shaft The larger roll diameter makes the connection
diameter and pre-determines the manner in which between the shaft and the gear box simple to
the gear box and shaft are to be connected. execute. And allow large gear boxes to be located
on one side to save space and facilitate
maintenance.

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175

HPGR ROLL DESIGN

Three different roll designs have been successfully


applied:

Solid rolls

Rolls with tyres

Rolls with segmented liners

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HPGR CRITERIA FOR


SELECTING OPTIMUM DESIGN

The balance between operating and investment


cost

The acceptable lifetime and frequency of


replacement

The tolerable down time for liner replacement

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HPGR - COMPARISON

Tyres Segments

Lower investment cost

No interfaces (joints) Higher investment cost

Joints between segments require more maintenance


due to washouts

Shorter lifetime
Longer lifetime

Higher wear cost


Lower wear cost

Only for low pressure


No pressure restriction

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HPGR - WEAR
PROTECTION SURFACES

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179

HPGR - WEAR PROTECTION


OF ROLL SURFACES

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180

HPGR KEY
PARAMETERS
Throughput

Function of roll dimension

Type of roll surface


Achieve the throughput requirements and to
achieve the desired product fineness Feed material properties

For a given material and roll dimension the


throughput is controlled by the roll speed.

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181

HPGR KEY
PARAMETERS
Product Fineness

The correlation between particle breakage and


grinding force required needs to be determined for
Controlled by the grinding force applied to the each material
material bed between the rolls.
Key parameters are
The grinding force creates the pressure in the
material bed which causes micro-cracks and Specific throughput rate
breakage of the particles.
Specific press force to be applied to achieved the
desired comminution results

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182

HPGR THROUGHPUT
RATE VS. ROLL SPEED

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183

HPGR FEED MOISTURE


CONTENT VS. THROUGHPUT RATE

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HPGR THROUGHPUT
VS. SIZE DISTRIBUTION

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185

HPGR PRODUCT
FINENESS

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186

HPGR PRODUCT OF
VARIOUS ORES

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187

HPGR ENERGY
CONSUMPTION VS. FORCE

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188

HPGR ENERGY INPUT


VS. ROLL SURFACE

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189

HPGR - ENERGY INPUT


FOR VARIOUS ORES

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HPGR ENERGY INPUT


VS. GRINDING FORCE

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191

HPGR WEAR FACTORS

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HPGR ROLL DIAMETER192

VS. ROLL SPEED

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193

HPGR - APPLICATION

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HPGR PEBBLE
194

CRUSHER

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HPGR PRE-CRUSHER

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HPGR REPLACEMENT 196

OF 3RD AND 4TH STAGE

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DISCUSSION POINTS!

Is it possible to include HPGR in your circuit?

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ORE CHARACTERISATION
199

CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

The best possible characterisation of the ore body


will enhance the ability to extract better outcomes This characterisation is important in developing
from a mine to mill application. extraction and processing strategies which
enhance the productivity gains possible from a
The greater data, the better characterisation of the mine to mill application (JKMRC 1998)
ore body. Properties.

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200

CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

Highlands Valley

Had developed a program mapping the hardness


At its simplest , characterisation is about of different ore types, since the late 1970s.
developing the best possible understanding of the By late 1990s , drill monitors were being used to
ore body , in particular its variability. provide an estimate of ore hardness of subsequent
One of the first comprehensive characterisation blasted ore.
studies was reported by Simkus and Dance (1998) Ore was then tracked to stockpiles using mine
at the Highland Valley Mine dispatch systems and movement through
stockpiles was modelled.

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CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

An image analysis system was used to provide an


estimation of the feed size distribution to the SAG
mills. This approach provided a strong ability to predict
expected mill throughput information which could
Relationships were developed between ore
then be utilised in process control.
hardness, feed size and mill throughput.

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CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

Rock Mass Properties

Rock Mass Rating

Rock quality designation

Point load Index


Standard rock mass properties are usually obtained Youngs Modulus
as geotechnical information from drill core and
include: Poissons Ratio

Unconfined Compressive stress

In-situ block size

Joint spacing

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203

CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY
Metallurgical Process
Parameters

These data typically include: Flotation grade and recovery data as determined by
laboratory flotation tests
Grades, including the grades of gangue minerals
and minor elements Mineral liberation
Grindability data, principally related to ore Lithology
hardness, as measured by bond work indices and
JKMRC grinding model parameters, Geological Alteration

Acid forming potential of ore

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CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

Predictive Models

Models frequently used in mine to mill studies


include

Mine block models incorporating geotechnical and Models which predict the final stockpile shape
geometallurgical parameters. resulting from open pit blast are increasingly useful
when it is desirable to understand where material
Blast fragmentation models of different properties, notably grade, reside in the
muck pile after blast.
Muck pile models

Comminution models

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CHARACTERISATION -
UNDERSTANDING THE ORE BODY
AND THE METALLURGY

Conclusions

Most tools are also subjected to research and


further development
The literature analysis suggests that the tools
The area of greatest need is the availability of tools
required to implement Mine to mill approach are
available in acceptable form. to monitor mine to mill outcomes.

To date these have been developed at individual


Many of these hardware and software tools are
provided by established suppliers and have been sites
successfully implemented. More generic software tools would be useful.

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CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES
207

CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES

Introduction

Historically the copper zinc ores were processed at


The ore body that Compania Minera Antamina has a far slower rate and it was clear that something
been mining in Peru since 2001 contains two needed to be done.
principal ore types, copper molybdenum ores and
much harder copper zinc ores which exist about 70 : A collaboration between Metso Process Technology
30 ratio. and Innovation and the Mine began in 2007 which
aimed to optimise the entire comminution process.

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CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES

The team began by auditing the drill and blast The mine and the processing plant was then
practice as well as sampling the crushing and benchmarked.
grinding circuit.
The models were calibrated and then a number of
This helped them to develop models that would scenarios of operating strategies for both mine and
reveal what each step was achieving and what process plant were run.
could be tweaked to improve performance
An in-depth review of existing practices were
carried out.

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CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES

Site specific models for the comminution process


The ore was categorised in varying groups of was created and it became evident that the
hardness. largest potential gains to the blast could be found.
Blast practices were audited and blast fragments The basic idea was to increase the powder factor
were measured which made it possible to using more explosives to create a finer ROM
benchmark existing practices, and to define the fragmentation so that downstream equipment
main constraints related to wall stability and control would treat the ore with ease.
ore dilution and environmental aspects.

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CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES

In the drilling process the drill pattern ( burden and In addition switching to electronic detonators
spacing) was reduced proved to be more reliable and ensured that blasts
went off according to plan.
By maintaining the same type and amount of
explosives in each drill hole, the corresponding A pebble crusher was also installed and
blast powder factor rose from 0.35 - 0.54 kg/ton modification to the pulp lifters were made.

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CASE STUDY: ANTAMINA BOOSTS


THROUGHPUT FOR HARD ORES

Conclusion

Mine to mill optimisation work increased throughput


by 30 % As of 2011 Antamina was processing copper zinc
ores at an average rate of 4400 tons per hour, up
Process plant improvements contributed 10 % 60 % from the performance prior to 2007
increase in throughput
The copper molybdenum ore also saw an increase
Reduction in hardness of the copper zinc ore to 4800 tons per hour.
contributed 15% to the increase in throughput

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CASE STUDY : BATU HIJAU


(INDONESIA)

PRODUCTION PLANNING FOR THE


COMBINED MINE TO MILL OPERATION
213

CASE STUDY:
INTRODUCTION

To modify blast practice to improve SAG mill


throughput.
The Batu Hijau copper gold operation commenced
a mine to mill program in 2001 with the standard The work presented spans over 10 years of
initial objective: development.

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CASE STUDY BATU


HIJAU

Using rock mass characterisation data, ore hardness


and blast design data, simple regression models JKSimMet was used to enhance the initial
were developed which predicted SAG mill regression models in order to more accurately
throughput. predict the expected SAG mill throughput for the
different domains.
This was done for different zones in the ore body
ultimately resulting in separate throughput
predictions for 16 ore body domains.

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU

Attention then turned to developing the best Different blast designs were developed for each
blasting practice for the domains to reduce domain.
fragmentation top size in order to improve loading
rates in the pit and increase grinding circuit The modelling approach also provided a basis for
throughput. ore scheduling and production forecasting

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU

The second phase of the study was based on


improving prediction of mill throughput based on The other major advance has been the use of the
improved orebody characterisation. modelling approach for both short and long term
Improving prediction of blasting performance and production planning.
refining mill models.

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU

As previously the throughput relations were based


In 2007 the equations linking mill throughput to on regression models of the tph as a function of
measurable variables were coded into the mine characterisation variables.
block model so that throughput predictions became In effect the models established a benchmark
a direct output from the block models. performance which can be expected when mining
and processing ore from different domains.

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU
Outcomes first phase

Strategy included:

The need for a dedicated team of involved staff


Productivity gains of 10% for loading rates in the pit
and 10-15% increases in SAG mill throughput for from geology, mining, milling IT support
the individual ore domains were reported. Some of Strong and on-going support of senior management
the important requirements for the effective
implementation of the Batu Hijau M2M Best possible orebody characterisation an on-
going requirement with continuing updating of the
domain models

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU
Outcome first
phase

Accurate models of blasting and comminution to


establish expected performance for each domain
and the best balance in cost and effort between
blasting and milling for each domain

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU
Outcome second
phase

The second phase of the Batu Hijau study provides


the basis for a much wider range of M2M
applications than just increasing SAG mill At the core of the latest developments is a greater
throughput. ability to predict mill throughput with considerable
accuracy for different ore sources.
There is a demonstrated ability to predict mill
throughput over the long term to +/-2% accuracy

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CASE STUDY : BATU


HIJAU

The applications of that capability include:


The availability of a sound
The understanding of the basis on which
expected or benchmark improvements in the
performance against which grinding circuit can be
actual performance can be identified, implemented
compared. and measured
Deviations from the A tool which is an integral
expected can be identified part of both long and short
and remedial action to term production planning to
regain performance can be achieve required
better targeted production rates

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ORE DRESSING STUDIES


WHAT IS INVOLVED
223

ODS - WHAT IS
INVOLVED
Introduction

These samples are characterised with respect to


Ore dressing studies the characterisation of the ore
various flowsheet and data obtained from the
body with respect to metallurgical properties.
characterisation work is analysed and evaluated to
In conjunction with the project requirements, improve the process recovery .
geologists and mineral resource management, a
This provides information with regards to risk
sampling program is compiled for the specific ore
minimisation, for both plant design envelopes as
body.
well as operational efficiency

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ODS - KNOWLEDGE
224

FLOW

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ODS - IN AN ORE BODY
225

DEVELOPMENT

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ODS - GENERIC DIAGRAM FOR
226

SAMPLE CHARACTERISATION

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227

ODS - COMMINUTION
CHARACTERISATION

Test work consists of a suit of laboratory and pilot


plant scale tests These also include drop weight tests , a
methodology used to determine the extent of
Laboratory tests are typically rock mechanic tests breakage resistance due to impact and abrasion.
as used by equipment manufacturers to provide
performance guarantees for comminution
equipment.

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ODS - COMMINUTION
CHARACTERISATION

Depending on the requirement of the specific ore


dressing study, i.e. feasibility study , pilot scale
Samples can also be provided to equipment
tests can be conducted on various comminution
manufactures to conduct their own tests
equipment to validate laboratory scale test results
and generate plant design information.

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ODS - DATA ANALYSIS


AND INTERPRETATION

The data generated from the characterisation tests


Interpretation in this context means that key
is analysed and interpreted by process specialists.
metallurgical parameters are determined and
This is a collaborated effort amongst in-house operating envelopes are established.
specialists, proprietary and commercial software,
Also potentially problematic ore types are identified
research institutes, and equipment manufactures
and process recommendations are made.
and suppliers.

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ODS - DATA ANALYSIS


AND INTERPRETATION

The output results in key plant design information.

E.g. comminution characterisation predicts the


product size distribution and mass balance via
simulation for scrubbing and each of the crushing
stages.

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ODS - INTEGRATION

This means that such problem areas and solutions


The role of the metallurgist is key in generating the
are integrated within the overall process design.
flowsheet design knowledge package through the
interaction with a variety of process specialists and Depending on the phase of the project the
process engineers. integration process also includes a level of
simulation of the ore dressing study, and derived
Important major ore related problem areas within a
flowsheet options that resulted from the
specific ore type are also highlighted.
characterisation of the various ore types.

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ODS - INTEGRATION

Simulation enables critical investigation of all


system attributes, and the ability of the circuit
design to deliver finished product with out recycling. That has the best chance of maximizing recovery of
Raw ore dressing information and knowledge is minerals from in-situ resources.
traded off against practical operational constraints,
which leads to a fit-for-purpose design

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ODS - PLANT DESIGN

To reduce the risk of selecting incorrect equipment Process engineers are provided with basic flow
from a vast array of possibilities a formalised set of diagrams and related metallurgical parameters.
tools to guide equipment selection and plant
design have been developed
The process engineer will then expand on the
original ore dressing flowsheet provided and
These tools consist of commercially available as develop a number of flowsheet based on the project
well as proprietary tools requirements.

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ODS - PLANT DESIGN

An evaluation of proposed solutions against a


Completed ore dressing study assists the process
background of knowledge derived from the study is
engineer to rapidly evaluate scenarios using
then conducted.
existing models and create an understanding of
how the metallurgical envelope of characteristics The knowledge derived from the study supports the
develop through the ore body. engineer in the design phase and assists in
reducing project risk and increases confidence in
the approved flowsheet.

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Case Study : Sierrita


PROFIT BASED GRINDING
Program controller : Duval Corporation
CONTROLS
236

CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Introduction

Pertinent control theory for the control of


The comminution circuit represents the largest user comminution circuits has been known for a long
of energy in the Mineral Processing Industry time but it is of recent years that practical
As the grades of ore reduces the economics of techniques and robust computer control
energy usage becomes more significant. architectures for these systems have become
available

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


Description of the
Plant

Wet grinding circuit treats 90 000 stpd

Sixteen x Allis-Chalmers overflow ball mills are The very low grade ore, variable crusher product,
operated in parallel in a conventional closed circuit and changes in ore hardness produces disturbances
wet grinding system. that upset the performance of the grinding circuit.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Instrumentation

Variable feeder
Mill power draft
Feeder Weight measurement system
Pump amperage
Feed water flow meter
Control valves to feed and sump water
Sump water flow rate
All the other variables are calculated using
Sump level indicator
inferential techniques

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Process Analysis study

Fig. 2 shows a schematic diagram of a ball mill /


cyclone control system

This diagram shows the instrumentation and the


calculated variables use in the control strategy.

From the process analysis study several objectives


were established.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Objectives

Reduction of mill feed size Investment in variable speed drives

Reduction of mill power consumption Identification of proper linking of manipulated


variables with control variables
Extending mill transport conditions
Identification of inferred measurements and signal
conditioning of the raw measurements

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Disturbances

Pumping / classification limitations and equipment


Mill feed particle size distribution due to bin wear.
segregation and crusher circuit operation
Process analysis study showed that the calculations
Ore hardness and ore mineralogical structure and of the inferred calculated variables can provide
composition due to natural mining characteristics adequate information for the development of
control strategy

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA
242

Design of the plant


control strategy A finer grind producers better recoveries but loss in
throughput rate.

Swings outside the given band produces losses

Fig. 3 shows that for a given ore there is a unique


milling rate to provide the grind size that will yield
maximum profit under certain economic conditions

A higher milling rate can be achieved with a coarser


grind which is off set by losses in recovery due to
poor liberation

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA
243

The mill load constraint


controller involves the
Design of plant control changing mill transport
strategy constraint and sets the
tonnage for feasible
operation

Fig. 4 shows the control objectives and limiting


conditions that the control system must overcome
to produce a profit.

The main controller is the mill load constraint


controller for safe operation followed by the grind
cut controller for profitable operation

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


Design of plant control
strategy

Thus the information must be handled on a timely


The grind cut inferential controller maintains the
basis in a computer system.
optimal liberation, if process operational limits
permit. The computer system will in turn provide for
adapting values of the moving constraint and set
The curves depicted in fig. 3 and 4 are not unique
points. This known as online adaptive decision
and are changing constantly.
making or control.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Grinding controls

The primary objective of the grinding controls


system is to provide a flexible , adaptive, easy to
use system to: Or to maintain a stable operation while assisting
the operator in maximizing the throughput, avoiding
Maintain an optimal throughput depending on the frequent upsets or spills and maintaining an
ore conditions. This will provide the downstream adequate grind.
process with a constant size distribution for
improved recovery.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


Simplified function
block control strategy

Grinding controls

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


The four principle
controllers

The ball mill load control system

The grind index control strategy

The ball mill transport index control strategy

Sump level controller

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


The ball mill load
controller

This is the main controller

Any additional capacity of the ball mill depending


on the grind setting is sensed by the ball mill load
controller and the feed rate is increased.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Control Design

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


MAIN CONTROLLER
WINDOW DISPLAY

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


Computer Architecture
for plant management

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA


Overall plant control
strategy

The current objective of increasing the recovery / Four process control units are networked to two
profit by running an optimal throughput can be operator interface units.
enhanced by proper co-ordination of the plant
activities. The plant host computer is also used for
engineering analysis of operating and lab oratory
Fig. 8 shows the computer architecture used to information with statistical modelling, process
integrate the distributed control system with analysis and simulation and reporting software
process management activities packages.

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CASE STUDY : SIERRITA

Conclusions

A profitability concept was transformed into a


feasible mode of operation.

The tonnage setting can be safely pushed up to 400


stph from 250 stph while maintaining metallurgical
performance.

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