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EE 456

Synchronous Generators
Synchronous generator

Stator: carries 3-phase armature windings, physically

displaced from each other by 120 degrees

Rotor: carries field windings, connected to an external DC

source via slip rings and brushes or to a revolving DC source
via a special brushless configuration.

(a) salient rotor structure (b) round or

cylindrical rotor
Magnetic Field of a Distributed Stator Phase Winding( showing one phase o

4 Nia
Fundamental Component mmf Fa1 Cos ( )
ia I mCos (t )

Fa1 FmCos ( )Cos (t )

2CosACosB Cos ( A B ) Cos ( A B )

Cos ( A B ) Cos ( A B )
Fm Fm
Fa1 FmCos ( )Cos (t ) Cos ( t ) Cos ( t )
2 2

Fm F
Fb1 FmCos ( 120)Cos (t 120) Cos ( t ) m Cos ( t 240)
2 2

Fm F
Fc1 FmCos ( 240)Cos (t 240) Cos ( t ) m Cos ( t 480)
2 2
The resultant mmf generated by a three phase
FR Fa1 Fb1 Fc1 Cos ( t )
FR FR is a rotating mmf in the + directio

d /2
The speed of this rotating mmf rad / s (elctrical )
dt / 2

rad / s (mechanical )

120 f
N rpm
Three balanced emf's of frequency f=PN/120 Hz are induced in the
three phase windings when the rotor is driven by a prime mover
rotating at a speed N. If the three phase stator circuit is closed by a
balanced three phase electrical load, balanced three phase currents of
frequency f will flow in the stator circuit, and these currents will
generate a rotating magnetic field of a speed N = 120f/P
Per Phase Equivalent of synchronous generator
Per Phase Equivalent of synchronous generator
The voltage equations of three phase stator windings

d a
Va Ra ia
d b
Vb Rb ib
d c
Vc Rc ic
Ra , Rb , Rc are the winding resistances of the three phases

a , b , c are the total flux linkages of winding a, b and c respecti

a aa ab ac af Laa ia Lab ib Lac ic Laf i f

b ba bb bc bf Lba ia Lbb ib Lbc ic Lbf i f
c ca cb cc cf Lca ia Lcb ib Lcc ic Lcf i f
f fa fb fc ff L fa ia L fb ib L fc ic L ff i f
Self Inductances

Laa Lbb Lcc Laa 0 Lal

aa 0
Laa 0 ; aa 0 Is the flux that links all three phases

Lal ; al Is the flux that links only phase a winding

Mutual Inductances

Laa 0
Lab Lba Lbc Lcb Lca
Laf M f Cos ( )
Lbf M f Cos ( 120)
Lcf M f Cos ( 240)
For balanced three phase currents
t 0
ia ib ic 0

a Laa ia Labib Lacic Laf i f

Laa Laa 0 Lal Lab Lab
Laa 0 Laf M f Cos ( ) M f Cos (t 0 )

Laa 0 Laa 0
a ( Laa 0 Lal )ia ib ic M f Cos (t 0 )i f
2 2
Laa 0
( Laa 0 Lal )ia (ib ic ) M f Cos (t 0 )i f
( Laa 0 Lal )ia aa 0 ia M f Cos (t 0 )i f
( Laa 0 Lal )ia M f Cos (t 0 )i f
Ls ia M f Cos (t 0 )i f
a Ls ia M f i f Cos (t 0 ) Ls ia af
af M f i f Cos (t 0 )

b Ls ib M f i f Cos (t 0 120)
c Ls ic M f i f Cos (t 0 240)

Where Ls is synchronous
d a
Va Ra ia
dia d af
Ra ia LS
dt dt

in terms of voltage and current phasors

Va ( Ra j LS ) I a Eaf
d af d
eaf ( M f i f Cos (t 0 ) M f i f Sin(t 0 ) M f i f Cos (t 0 )
dt dt 2

M f I f
Eaf j

For the generator

Va ( Ra j LS ) I a Eaf
( Ra jX S ) I a Eaf