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Introduction To Computer

Interacting with the pictures
Once the picture has been presented ,modification is required.
To meet the requirement no. of interactive device have been
Functional capabilities of these interactive computer graphics device
are broadly classified as:
A locator
A pick and a button
Those devices are:
Joystick and track ball
Function switches or buttons
Light pen
A joystick consists of a small , vertical lever
mounted on a base that is used to steer the screen
cursor around.
The distance of the stick moved in any direction
from its center position corresponds to screen
cursor movement in that direction.
Potentiometer measures the movement.
Track Ball

The is free to rotate in any direction.

Potentiometer measures the movement.

Mouse consists an upsidedown track ball

mounted in a small light box
Now a days magnetic and optical mouse are
Process textual information.
Most common locator device.
Tablet consists of a flat surface and a pen like stylus which is
used to indicate the location on tablet surface.
Cursor follows in a CRT screen relative to the movement of
stylus in tablet
It Tablets can be used in conjunction with CRT or stand alone
digitizer .
When used as a stand alone digitizer ,feedback is provided by
digital readout.
provides the coordinate information in 2D or 3D.
Tablets are constructed with a rectangular grid of wires embedded in the
tablet surface.
Rand tablet uses matrix of individual wire coded at each intersection.
Decoding yields the x , y coordinates of the stylus .
Receivers ability to resolve the unique code.
Accuracy is limited by linearity of the individual wires.
Electromagnetic Tablets
Electromagnetic pulses are generated in sequence along the wires , and
the signal is deducted by the stylus to record a tablet position.
Signal strength , coded pulse or phase shift can be used to determine the
position on the tablet.

Acoustic Tablets
It uses sound waves to detect stylus position.
Strip or point microphones are used to detect the sound emitted by an
electrical spark from a stylus tip.
The position of the stylus is calculated by time it take to travel from stylus
to the microphones.
Touch panel

A locator device similar to a tablet is the touch

Light emitter are mounted on two adjacent
edges with companion light detector in the
opposite edges.
A finger interrupting the two orthogonal light
beams yields an x , y coordinates pair.
Buttons or Function switches
Light Pen
A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-
sensitive stick used in conjunction with a computer's CRT TV
set or monitor. It allows the user to point to displayed objects,
or draw on the screen, in a similar way to a touch screen but
with greater positional accuracy.
Light pens are used to screen position by detecting the light
coming from the point on the CRT screen.
Causes arm fatigue
Gives false reading due to background light reading in the
light pen
Graphic devices
The display device used in CG are:
Flat panel display
Pen-ink plotter
Dot matrix
Laser printer
Three most common types of CRT are:
Direct view storage tube display
Calligraphic refresh display
Raster scan display
Storage tube graphics display
To draw a line the electron beam intensity is increased sufficiently to
cause the phosphor to glow bright.
The display is erased by causing the phosphor screen to glow dark.
Since entire tube is flooded completely with voltage all lines and
character gets erased.
Storage tube is flicker free
Resolution is 1024*1024 addressable points.
11 inch diagonal CRT
Line drawing is easy B/W to addressable points.
It is relatively easy ,fast and inexpensive to obtain.
Easier to program than a calligraphic or raster scan display.
Calligraphic refresh graphics display
In contrast to the storage tube display , a calligraphic refresh display uses a very
short persistence phosphor. These displays are frequently called random scan
The picture painted on the CRT must be repainted or refreshed many times each
second. The minimum refresh rate is at least 30 times each second.
Refresh<30-flikering image.
It requires two elements in addition to the CRT.
Display buffer--- memory containing all information required to draw the
Display controller--- Function is to repeatedly cycle through the information
at the refresh rate.
Size of the display buffer.
Speed of the display controller
Two configuration of calligraphic
Dynamic motion
Two cases of high performance
calligraphic display

Dynamic motion with out communicating with CPU.

Dynamic motion communicating with CPU.
Case 1 (Dynamic motion with out
communicating with CPU)
In many pictures only the positions of the picture are dynamic and in some
pictures majority of the pictures are static.
This leads to concept of segmentation.
The dynamic and static portion of the picture is placed in separate
segments of the display buffer.
Update of information in the dynamic segment is accomplished using
function available in picture processor.
Picture update occurs locally . Communication with cost CPU is
Case 2 (Dynamic motion communicating with
Dynamic update requires communication with
host CPU.
Assume the shape of the curve AB changes from
refresh cycle to refresh cycle.
Shape must be computed by an application
program running in the host CPU.
Communication Speed
The communication speed or band width B/W the host CPU
and the graphic device is calculated by:
EX: Curved line with 250 segment/points
Described by 3 coordinates
6 significant characters are used
Single 8 bit/character
For a refresh rate of 30 frames/second
To update every refresh cycle the required bandwidth is :
30*250*3*6*8= 1080000 bits/second
Raster Refresh graphics display
Storage tube and calligraphic display are line drawing devices.
In contrast raster CRT graphics display is a point plotting
The lines appear as a series of steps.
It uses a frame buffer (memory).
As a minimum there is one memory bit for each pixel , the
amount of memory is called bit plane.
Single bit plane yields black or white(0 or1).
Color or gray levels are incorporated in to a frame buffer
raster graphics device by using additional bit planes.
The binary value from each of the bit planes is loaded in to
corresponding position in a register.
The resulting binary number is interoperated as an
intensity level b/w 0(dark) and 2^n-1(full intensity).
Since there are 3 primary colors(red , blue and green) -3 bit
plane each.
These 3 primaries (red , green and blue) are combined to the
CRT to yield 8 colors.
Additional bit plane can be used for each of the three color
8 bit plane /color is shown 2^8^3=16777216 possible colors
full color frame buffer.
Disadvantage of using bits :
Each planes consumes huge frame buffer area, it will be costly.
We can use look up table.
Resulting no. read from the bit plane is used as a index in to the
look up table.
Main components of CRT
Electron gun
Control electrodes
Focusing electrode
Deflection yoke
Phosphor-coated screen

Configuration of a CRT monitor

A beam of electrons, emitted from an electrode (called the cathode or
electron gun), passes through a focusing and deflection system and then
strikes a phosphor-coated screen.
Electromagnetic fields are used to direct and focus the beam to a
particular spot on the screen.
The glow given off by the phosphor during exposure to the electron
beam is called fluorescence.
The continuing glow given off after the beam is removed is called
phosphorescence and its duration is known as persistence of
Due to persistence of phosphorescence the CRT is refreshed very
frequently (50 or 60 times/second).
Otherwise, the image on the CRT may appear to flash rapidly on and off.
This flashing is called flicker.
Colour CRT
Colour Raster scan CRT has three electron guns, one for
each of the three primary colours, red, green and blue,
arranged in a triangular pattern to ensure that the
individual electron guns excite the correct phosphor dots.
Perforatedmetal grid is placed between the electron guns
and the face of the CRT. This is the shadow mask.
Upon passing through the hole in the shadow mask the
red beam, for example is prevented or masked from
intersecting either the green or blue phosphor dot. It can
intersect only the red phosphor dot.
Colour CRT

Phosphor dot pattern for a shadow mask CRT

CRT monitors are of two types


In case of interlaced systems, the total number of scan lines is

divided into even and odd fields.
The electron beam scans them alternatively-odd field followed
by even field.
With a medium persistence phosphor, interlacing can reduce
the flickering because the display can be approximately filled
up only with 50% information

Configuration of a non-
interlaced display

Configuration of an interlaced
Disadvantages of CRT
Size limited to 30 inches diagonally

These disadvantages are rectified by flat panel display

Flat Panel display
Flat panel displays are broadly divided into
Active (light emitting)
Plasma gas discharge
Vacuum fluorescent displays
Passive (Light modulating)
Liquid crystal
Light emitting diodes
Flat Panel display

In plasma gas discharge, electroluminescent and liquid crystal displays,

Each pixel must contain some mechanism, or material, activated by
application of either a voltage or a current that either emits light or
modulates incident light.
Voltage or current is supplied to the pixel using an individual electronic
switching device. Ex: a thin flim transistor, diode or metal-insulator-
metal non linear resistor, located at each pixel.
Flat Panel display

An alternative, and more common technique that significantly

reduces the number of switches or drivers, uses row-column
addressing of the raster.
This technique requires that the display material have a switching
Only when the switching threshold is exceeded, emission or
modification of light occurs.
When using row-column addressing, bistable pixel memory is
highly desirable.
With bistable memory, once activated, a pixel remains activated
until explicitly turned off.
Eliminates necessity of constantly refreshing pixels.
Components-Plasma panel display
Cathode Vertical wires delivering negative
Anode Horizontal wires supplying positive
Fluorescent cells These are the gas pockets
Glass plates Acting as capacitors to maintain the
glowing of a cell.
Plasma panel display
Contains an array of tiny neon bulbs
Each bulb can be put into ON or OFF states, and
remains in that state until explicitly changed to
the other.
Plasma panel display
The front layer has vertical strips of grid conductors.
The back layer has horizontal strips of grid
The inside surface has a number of holes (the bulbs)
Itcontains a gas at low pressure sandwiched between
horizontal and vertical grids of transparent wires.
A high voltage difference between a pair of wires
makes the gas pocket at their junction glow.
Advantages-Plasma panel display

Flat and portable

Fairly high resolution
Refreshing not required and useful for vector scanning
Very much durable and used in military application

Disadvantages-Plasma panel display

Cost is higher than CRT
Slower device and hence not much suitable for animation
Electroluminescent display
A phosphorescent material emits light when excited by either an AC
or DC electric field.
Phosphorescent material zinc sulphide doped with manganese
When the applied voltage exceeds the switching threshold, the
manganese dopant electrons are excited
Gray scale is obtainable since the luminescence varies with the
voltage and frequency of the applied electric field.
By using alternate dopants other colors are possible. Consequently
using mutiple fluorescent layers yields a colour display.
Liquid Crystal Display
A liquid crystal display either transmits or reflects incident light
The term liquid crystal display refers to that these compounds
have a crystalline arrangement of molecules, yet they flow like a
Flat panel displays commonly use nematic (thread-like) liquid
crystal compounds that tend to keep the long axes of the rod
shaped molecules aligned.
Two glass plates each containing a light polarizer at right angles
to the other plate, sandwich the liquid crystal material.
Rows of horizontal transparent conductors are built into one glass
plate, and columns of vertical conductors are put into other plate.
Light Crystal Display
Light Crystal Display
To turn on the pixel, we apply a voltage to the two intersecting
conductors to align the molecules so that the light is not twisted.
The light is then reflected to the viewer
To turn off the pixel, we apply a voltage to the two intersecting
conductors to disalign the molecules so that the light is twisted.
This type of flat panel device is referred to as a passive matrix
Colors can be displayed by using different materials or dyes and
by placing a triad of colour pixels at each screen location
Electrostatic plotters
Specially coated medium that will hold an electrostatic charge
is passed over a writing head which consists from 1 to 3 rows
of small writing nibs or styli.
72 to 400 stylli per inch are typical
As the medium is passed over the styli, an individual dot of
negative electrostatic charge is deposited by each stylus.
The medium is then passed over a toner applicator, where
positively charged particles of liquid toner are attracted to the
negatively charged dots on the medium, making them visible.
Electrostatic plotters are available in widths upto 72 inches.
The length of the plot is limited only by the length of the media
roll (500 feet)
Consequently aliasing occurs.
High resolution devices attempt to minimize the effect of
aliasing by overlapping the individual dots.
Dot patterns
Colour electrostatic plotter
Colour electrostatic plotters are available.
Three primary colours cyan, yellow and black
They are applied to medium either in single pass or in 3
successive passes.
Laser printer
Laser beam creates a charge distribution on a rotating drum
coated with a photoelectric material, such as selenium.
Toner is applied to the drum and then transferred to paper.

Desktop laser printer with resolution 360 dots per inch

Dot matrix plotter

The printing mechanism is a matrix of thin nibs or wires arranged on a

print head that moves horizontally across the paper.

This mechanism involves electromagnetic release of one or more of

the spring steel mounted wires or hammers.

In a captured hammer design, the hammers are drawn away from the
ribbon by a permanent magnet.
Anelectromagnet is used to neutralize the field of the
permanent magnet.
When this happens the spring steel hammer flies
forward, causing the wire to impact the ribbon, which
prints a dot on the paper held between the ribbon and the
The electromagnet is then disabled so that hammer is
captured by the permanent magnet when it rebounds.
Dot matrix plotter

Various configurations of the wires are used.

For lower wire densities, the typical wire size is 0.012
to 0.013 inch, which yields a dot size of 0.014 to
0.015 inch.
These configurations yield a dot density or resolution
of 60 to 85 dpi
Ink jet plotter
Two types - Continuous flow and Drop-on demand
Continuous flow ink jet produces a stream of droplets by spraying ink out of
The steam of ink from the nozzle is broken up into droplets by ultrasonic waves.
If the ink is desired on the medium, selcted droplets are electrostatically charged.
Deflection plates are used to then direct the dropletonto the medium.
If not, the droplet is deflected into the gutter where the ink is returned to the
Paper and transparency film are typical media
Drop on demand Ink jet plotter

Drop on technology fires ink at the medium only if a dot is required at a

particular location.
Here ink from the reservoir is supplied to a nozzle under pressure
The ink is fired on demand by applying an electric voltage to the piezo
electric crystal as the head makes a pass across the medium.
When a voltage is applied, the crystal expands, decreasing the volume of
the ink chamber.
This causes a drop of ink to squirt out of the nozzle.
Release of voltage causes the piezo electric crystal to contrac, decreasing
the volume of the reservoir and sucking the ink back to the nozzle.
Because of the extremely small nozzle size required, nozzle clogging,
ink contamination and air bubbles in the ink are significant problems.
Resolution: 120-400 dpi
Drop on Demand
Thermal plotter

Types Direct thermal transfer and indirect thermal

Direct thermal transfer technique uses a temperature
sensitive paper that changes colour when heated.
The image is formed by print head elements that
selectively heat dots on the paper as the head moves across
it. Either dot matrix print heads or full row nib heads
similar to those in electrostatic plotters are used.
Resolution-400 dpi
Limitation Special paper that unfortunately fades with
Indirect Thermal plotter
This uses a thin film or paper ribbon coated with a wax-
based ink.
Heating elements which are usually located behind the
ribbon melt the wax coating.
The pigmented ink is then rolled onto the paper. Either dot
matrix print heads that move across the medium or a full
row of nib heads are used.
The medium is ordinary paper
Colour is obtained by using multicoloured ribbons
Resolutions: 100 to 400 dpi
Indirect Thermal plotter
Pen and ink plotters
Three types: Flatbed, drum and pinch roller
In a moving arm flatbed plotter the medium is fixed in position on the bed
of the plotter
Two-dimensional movement of the plotting head is obtained by movement
of an arm suspended across the width of the plotter bed.
This provides motion in one direction
Motion in the second direction is obtained by moving the plotting head
along the suspended arm.
A moving head flatbed plotter uses a plotting tool carriage suspended
above the bed suspended by the magnetic forces that counterbalanced by
an air bearing.
This provides nearly frictionless movement.
Movement of the head in two dimensions is controlled
electromagnetically, using the Sawyer motor principle.
Pen and ink plotters
Flat bed Pen and ink plotters
Plotting speed as high as 0.0004 inch to 3600 inch/minute
Sizes from 8.5x11 inches up to several tens of feet in length
and width.
Plotting tools include ball point, felt tip and wet ink pens,
photographic and laser light beams.
Smaller lower cost ones are less versatile, lower resolutions an
lower speeds
Drum Pen and ink plotters

Drum plotters are mechanically more complex than

flat bed plotters.
Plottinghead moves along a fixed arm to provide one
The medium itself is rolled back and forth under the
fixed arm to provide the second dimension
Types paper and vellum
Resolution similar to flat bed ones 0.0005 inch
Pinch roller Pen and ink plotters

It is a hybrid of flatbed and drum plotter.

The drawing medium is held at each edge between a pinch
wheel and the plotting surface
The plotting surface is cylindrical
As the pinch wheel rotates, the ,medium moves back and forth
under a fixed arm on which the plotting head moves
Resolution: 0.001 inch with plotting speed of 180