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# Heat Transfer

Introduction to Heat
Transfer
Ref:
Professor Dr. Vijay R. Raghavan Lecture Notes
Incropera, F. P. and DeWitt, D. P. (2002), Introduction to Heat Transfer 5 th
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Asia.
Cengel, Y. A, (2007), Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach 3 rd
Edition. (SI Units), McGraw Hill, New York.
A.E MILLS (1999),Basic Heat and Mass Transfer 2nd Edition,
Printice Hall
Applications of Heat Transfer

Domestic applications
- baking ovens, gas stove, bread toaster
Energy production and conversion
- steam power plant, gas turbine, solar energy conversion
Refrigeration , Air-conditioning,Cryogenics
-(production of very low temps.)
Cooling of electronic equipment
- removal of heat generated due to flow of electric current in
electronic components
Industrial Applications of Heat Transfer
1.Petroleum refining
- Preheating of Crude Oil and Fractional Distillation
- Evaporation of the various hydrocarbons
- Condensation of the hydrocarbon vapours
2.Sugar Industry
- Steam generation in boiler
- Concentration of sugar cane juice (heating by
steam)
- Evaporation to get crystal sugar
3.Paper Industry
-Steam generation
-Soaking of wood logs
-Drying of paper on steam heated drums
4.Iron Making
-Smelting of ore
-Solidification of castings
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER

## The study of heat transfer is based on the principles

of thermodynamics.

## A good understanding of this relationship will make

heat transfer easier to understand.

## Heat must flow between two bodies when their

temperatures are unequal, i.e., when thermal
equilibrium does not exist.

## Before we answer this question, let us consider

what laws of thermodynamics are applicable to
heat transfer.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER

## In every situation of heat flow, the Law of Energy

Conservation, also called the First Law of
Thermodynamics, is applicable.

## Write this law !

The first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy
principle) states that energy can neither be created nor
destroyed during a process; it can only change forms.
Example Ch 1-pg 11-20
According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, heat
can flow by itself only from a higher temperature to a
lower temperature.

## Such flow of heat from higher to lower temperature is

said to be spontaneous.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
spontaneous process
An example of a spontaneous process:
- Cooling of a cup of hot coffee left unattended.

## Its temperature falls with respect to time. Its temperature

history follows an exponential trend. The cup will reach
equilibrium with the surroundings after a long time. We
then say that the temperature of coffee approaches that
of the surroundings asymptotically. Tinitial

Tinitial

T(t)

T(t)
Troom
Time, t
Troom
Time Spontaneous Cooling
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
spontaneous process
The temperature difference between coffee and the room
was (Tinitial Troom) at the start of the cooling process.

## This temperature difference decayed exponentially with

time. At a given time t, the temperature difference is
[ T(t) Troom ]. The mathematical expression relating to it
can be written as
(Tt Troom ) Kt
e
(Ti Troom )

## where the negative sign represents a decay and K

governs the rate of decay.

## A process with a larger value of K will undergo more

rapid cooling.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
spontaneous process

## A variety of processes undergo spontaneous

change. Some examples:
- flow of rivers downhill
- deflation of a balloon
- lightning strikes.

## The principle common to all of these is that a flow

takes place from a higher potential to a lower
potential.
The potential may be temperature, level, pressure
or voltage.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
non-spontaneous process
Let us now consider non-spontaneous processes.
The cup of coffee did not reach a high temperature
spontaneously. It had to be heated (forced or driven) to that
temperature.
The can of chilled coke warms and reaches equilibrium with
the surroundings spontaneously. But it had to be first chilled
by driving its temperature down (away from Tamb ) by
consumption of electricity in a refrigerator.
An electric iron that is unplugged will cool spontaneously, but
when power is switched on, it will heat up. This heating too
is a driven process.
(However, the flow of electric current into the electric iron is
a spontaneous process! On the other hand, generation of
power in the alternator in a power plant is a driven process.)
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

## Now we have enough information to define equilibrium.

If two systems are at the same temperature, they are in
thermal equilibrium.
We can also think of pressure equilibrium, voltage
equilibrium, concentration equilibrium etc.
We need to know what is steady state.
The electric iron, initially at equilibrium with the
surroundings, is switched on. If the iron (it is without
automatic temperature control) is left with its power on long
enough, it will finally reach a steady temperature and remain
at that temperature until the power is switched off.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

## At steady state, the electric iron is at constant

temperature with respect to time.

surroundings.

## When power is switched off, it starts cooling back

towards equilibrium with the surroundings.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Heat Transfer Mechanisms
Heat is the form of energy that can be transferred from one system
to another as a result of temperature difference.
A thermodynamic analysis is concerned with the amount of heat
transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium
state to another.
The science that deals with the determination of the rates of such
energy transfers is the heat transfer.
The transfer of energy as heat is always from the higher-
temperature medium to the lower-temperature one, and heat
transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same temperature.
Heat can be transferred in three basic modes:
conduction
convection
All modes of heat transfer require the existence of a temperature
difference.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION
Conduction: The transfer of energy from the
more energetic particles of a substance to the
adjacent less energetic ones as a result of
interactions between the particles.
In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the
collisions and diffusion of the molecules during
their random motion.
In solids, it is due to the combination of
vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and the
energy transport by free electrons.
The rate of heat conduction through a plane
layer is proportional to the temperature
difference across the layer and the heat transfer
area, but is inversely proportional to the Heat conduction
thickness of the layer. through a large
plane wall of
thickness x and
area A.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION

When x 0

## Thermal conductivity, k: A measure of the

ability of a material to conduct heat.
Temperature gradient dT/dx: The slope of the
temperature curve on a T-x diagram.
Heat is conducted in the direction of
In heat conduction
decreasing temperature, and the temperature
analysis, A
represents the area
decreases with increasing x. The negative sign
normal to the
in the equation ensures that heat transfer in
direction of heat
the positive x direction is a positive quantity.
transfer.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION

## The rate of heat

conduction through a
solid is directly
proportional to its
thermal conductivity.

Example Ch 1 Pg 19
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION
Thermal
Conductivity
Thermal conductivity: The rate of
heat transfer through a unit thickness
of the material per unit area per unit
temperature difference.
The thermal conductivity of a
material is a measure of the ability
of the material to conduct heat.
A high value for thermal conductivity
indicates that the material is a good
heat conductor, and a low value
indicates that the material is a poor
heat conductor or insulator. A simple experimental setup to
determine the thermal
conductivity of a material.
Example Ch 1 Pg 23
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION
Thermal
Conductivity
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION

The range of
thermal
conductivity of
various materials
at room
temperature.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION

The mechanisms of
heat conduction in
different phases of
a substance.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONDUCTION
Thermal Diffusivity
cp Specific heat, J/kg C: Heat capacity per unit mass
cp Heat capacity, J/m3C: Heat capacity per unit volume
Thermal diffusivity, m2/s: Represents how fast heat diffuses
through a material

## A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a low heat

capacity will obviously have a large thermal diffusivity.
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the propagation
of heat into the medium.
A small value of thermal diffusivity means that heat is mostly
absorbed by the material and a small amount of heat is
conducted further.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONVECTION
Convection: The mode of
energy transfer between a
liquid or gas that is in motion,
and it involves the combined
effects of conduction and
fluid motion.
The faster the fluid motion,
the greater the convection
heat transfer.
Heat transfer from a hot
surface to air by convection.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONVECTION
Forced convection: If the
fluid is forced to flow over
the surface by external
means such as a fan,
pump, or the wind.
Natural (or free)
convection: If the fluid
motion is caused by
buoyancy forces that are
induced by density
differences due to the The cooling of a boiled egg by
variation of temperature forced and natural convection.
in the fluid.

Heat transfer processes that involve change of phase of a fluid are also
considered to be convection because of the fluid motion induced during
the process, such as the rise of the vapor bubbles during boiling or the
fall of the liquid droplets during condensation.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONVECTION

## h : convection heat transfer coefficient

As : the surface area through which
convection heat transfer take place
Ts : the surface temperature
T : the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
CONVECTION

## Heat Transfer Coefficient h

The convection heat transfer
coefficient h is not a property of
the fluid.

It is an experimentally determined
parameter whose value depends
on all the variables influencing
convection such as:
- the surface geometry
- the nature of fluid motion
- the properties of the fluid
- the bulk fluid velocity
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Radiation: The energy emitted by matter in the form of
electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the
electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.
Unlike conduction and convection, the transfer of heat by radiation does
not require the presence of an intervening medium.
In fact, heat transfer by radiation is fastest (at the speed of light) and it
suffers no attenuation in a vacuum. This is how the energy of the sun
reaches the earth.
In heat transfer studies we are interested in thermal radiation, which is
the form of radiation emitted by bodies because of their temperature.
All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal
Radiation is a volumetric phenomenon, and all solids, liquids, and
gases emit, absorb, or transmit radiation to varying degrees.
However, radiation is usually considered to be a surface phenomenon
for solids.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Stefan-Boltzmann
Blackbody: The idealized
law surface that emits radiation at
the maximum rate.

## = 5.670 108 W/m2 K4 StefanBoltzmann constant

Emissivity : A measure of
how closely a surface
approximates a blackbody for
which = 1 of the surface. 0
1.
maximum amount of radiation that can be
emitted from a surface at a specified
temperature.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Emissivity

Absorbtivity

## Absorptivity : The fraction of the radiation energy incident on a

surface that is absorbed by the surface. 0 1
A blackbody absorbs the entire radiation incident on it ( = 1).
Kirchhoffs law: The emissivity and the absorptivity of a surface at
a given temperature and wavelength are equal.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Net radiation heat transfer: The difference between the rates of
When a surface is completely
enclosed by a much larger (or
black) surface at temperature
Tsurr separated by a gas (such
as air) that does not intervene
with radiation, the net rate of
these
two surfaces is given by

## Radiation heat transfer between a

surface and the surfaces surrounding
it.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

The determination of the net rate of heat transfer by radiation
between two surfaces is a complicated matter since it depends on
the properties of the surfaces
their orientation relative to each other
the interaction of the medium between the surfaces with

## Radiation is usually significant relative to conduction or natural

convection, but negligible relative to forced convection.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
simultaneously between a surface and a gas:

## Combined heat transfer coefficient hcombined

includes the effects of both convection and radiation.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms
Heat transfer is only by conduction in opaque solids,
but by conduction and radiation in semitransparent
solids.
A solid may involve conduction and radiation but
not convection. A solid may involve convection
and/or radiation on its surfaces exposed to a fluid
or other surfaces.
Heat transfer is by conduction and possibly by
radiation in a still fluid (no bulk fluid motion) and by
convection and radiation in a flowing fluid.
In the absence of radiation, heat transfer through
a fluid is either by conduction or convection,
depending on the presence of any bulk fluid
motion.
Convection = Conduction + Fluid motion
Heat transfer through a vacuum is by radiation.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Summary

Summary
Heat Important Eqn.
Transfer
Mode
Conduction Fouriers Law

## Convection Newtons Law

Boltzmann Law
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-

## A bottle cooler stores cans of drink at 50 C. The

ambient temperature is 300 C. The see-through
glass is 5 mm thick.
Calculate the heat leaking from the ambient into
the cooler.

300 C
Coke

50 C
Glass
door
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-
You have just played a vigorous game of football
and are feeling warm. If you stand under a fan you
experience a heat transfer coefficient of 25 W/m2
K. Without the fan, the heat transfer coefficient of
10 W/m2 K. The ambient temperature is 28 0C and
the skin temperature can be taken as 35 0C.
Calculate the heat loss per unit surface area of
the skin with and without fan.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-

## Roti canai is being made on a cast iron griddle.

The data are given in the figure. Calculate:
(a) the radiative heat emitted by the griddle and
by roti canai
(b) The NET heat radiated by each
T = 30
0.2 m
0
C

= 0.9
T = 120
0
C

m
= 0.2

0.75 m 0.5
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-

## Use the data in the previous example. Convection

also occurs from the griddle and roti canai to room
air through a heat transfer coefficient of 20
W/m2.K. Calculate the new heat transfer rates.

Roti canai

Griddle
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-
Current
To measure thermal conductivity of
materials, one method is to apply
heat
flux to one face of the sample (S)
in
the form of a thin plate and cool it S
on
A certain
the other sample
face asofshown
materialinisthe
20 cm
xfigure.
20 cm x 1 cm thick. A current of 1 A
is applied to the heater at a voltage of
The apparatus is insulated all Insulation
20 V. The hot face is at 800 C and the
around.
cold face is at 300 C. Coolant

## Calculate the thermal conductivity of

the sample material. Identify it.
INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-
Example-
An air-conditioned room is maintained at 230 C,
while the outside ambient is at 350 C. A window in
the room, 1mx1m, has a glass sheet 6 mm thick.
Taking that the inside and outside temperatures of
the glass surface are at the same temperature as
their respective surroundings, calculate the heat
leaking into the room through the window. (k = 0.7
W/mK)
How might this heat leakage be reduced?