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Introduction to Heat

Transfer

Ref:

Professor Dr. Vijay R. Raghavan Lecture Notes

Incropera, F. P. and DeWitt, D. P. (2002), Introduction to Heat Transfer 5 th

Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Asia.

Cengel, Y. A, (2007), Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach 3 rd

Edition. (SI Units), McGraw Hill, New York.

A.E MILLS (1999),Basic Heat and Mass Transfer 2nd Edition,

Printice Hall

Applications of Heat Transfer

Domestic applications

- baking ovens, gas stove, bread toaster

Energy production and conversion

- steam power plant, gas turbine, solar energy conversion

Refrigeration , Air-conditioning,Cryogenics

-(production of very low temps.)

Cooling of electronic equipment

- removal of heat generated due to flow of electric current in

electronic components

Industrial Applications of Heat Transfer

1.Petroleum refining

- Preheating of Crude Oil and Fractional Distillation

- Evaporation of the various hydrocarbons

- Condensation of the hydrocarbon vapours

2.Sugar Industry

- Steam generation in boiler

- Concentration of sugar cane juice (heating by

steam)

- Evaporation to get crystal sugar

3.Paper Industry

-Steam generation

-Soaking of wood logs

-Drying of paper on steam heated drums

4.Iron Making

-Smelting of ore

-Solidification of castings

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER

of thermodynamics.

heat transfer easier to understand.

temperatures are unequal, i.e., when thermal

equilibrium does not exist.

what laws of thermodynamics are applicable to

heat transfer.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER

Conservation, also called the First Law of

Thermodynamics, is applicable.

The first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy

principle) states that energy can neither be created nor

destroyed during a process; it can only change forms.

Example Ch 1-pg 11-20

According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, heat

can flow by itself only from a higher temperature to a

lower temperature.

said to be spontaneous.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

spontaneous process

An example of a spontaneous process:

- Cooling of a cup of hot coffee left unattended.

history follows an exponential trend. The cup will reach

equilibrium with the surroundings after a long time. We

then say that the temperature of coffee approaches that

of the surroundings asymptotically. Tinitial

Tinitial

T(t)

T(t)

Troom

Time, t

Troom

Time Spontaneous Cooling

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

spontaneous process

The temperature difference between coffee and the room

was (Tinitial Troom) at the start of the cooling process.

time. At a given time t, the temperature difference is

[ T(t) Troom ]. The mathematical expression relating to it

can be written as

(Tt Troom ) Kt

e

(Ti Troom )

governs the rate of decay.

rapid cooling.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

spontaneous process

change. Some examples:

- Radio-active decay

- flow of rivers downhill

- deflation of a balloon

- lightning strikes.

takes place from a higher potential to a lower

potential.

The potential may be temperature, level, pressure

or voltage.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

non-spontaneous process

Let us now consider non-spontaneous processes.

The cup of coffee did not reach a high temperature

spontaneously. It had to be heated (forced or driven) to that

temperature.

The can of chilled coke warms and reaches equilibrium with

the surroundings spontaneously. But it had to be first chilled

by driving its temperature down (away from Tamb ) by

consumption of electricity in a refrigerator.

An electric iron that is unplugged will cool spontaneously, but

when power is switched on, it will heat up. This heating too

is a driven process.

(However, the flow of electric current into the electric iron is

a spontaneous process! On the other hand, generation of

power in the alternator in a power plant is a driven process.)

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Steady-State

If two systems are at the same temperature, they are in

thermal equilibrium.

We can also think of pressure equilibrium, voltage

equilibrium, concentration equilibrium etc.

We need to know what is steady state.

The electric iron, initially at equilibrium with the

surroundings, is switched on. If the iron (it is without

automatic temperature control) is left with its power on long

enough, it will finally reach a steady temperature and remain

at that temperature until the power is switched off.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Steady-State

temperature with respect to time.

surroundings.

towards equilibrium with the surroundings.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Heat is the form of energy that can be transferred from one system

to another as a result of temperature difference.

A thermodynamic analysis is concerned with the amount of heat

transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium

state to another.

The science that deals with the determination of the rates of such

energy transfers is the heat transfer.

The transfer of energy as heat is always from the higher-

temperature medium to the lower-temperature one, and heat

transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same temperature.

Heat can be transferred in three basic modes:

conduction

convection

radiation

All modes of heat transfer require the existence of a temperature

difference.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

Conduction: The transfer of energy from the

more energetic particles of a substance to the

adjacent less energetic ones as a result of

interactions between the particles.

In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the

collisions and diffusion of the molecules during

their random motion.

In solids, it is due to the combination of

vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and the

energy transport by free electrons.

The rate of heat conduction through a plane

layer is proportional to the temperature

difference across the layer and the heat transfer

area, but is inversely proportional to the Heat conduction

thickness of the layer. through a large

plane wall of

thickness x and

area A.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

When x 0

ability of a material to conduct heat.

Temperature gradient dT/dx: The slope of the

temperature curve on a T-x diagram.

Heat is conducted in the direction of

In heat conduction

decreasing temperature, and the temperature

analysis, A

gradient becomes negative when temperature

represents the area

decreases with increasing x. The negative sign

normal to the

in the equation ensures that heat transfer in

direction of heat

the positive x direction is a positive quantity.

transfer.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

conduction through a

solid is directly

proportional to its

thermal conductivity.

Example Ch 1 Pg 19

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

Thermal

Conductivity

Thermal conductivity: The rate of

heat transfer through a unit thickness

of the material per unit area per unit

temperature difference.

The thermal conductivity of a

material is a measure of the ability

of the material to conduct heat.

A high value for thermal conductivity

indicates that the material is a good

heat conductor, and a low value

indicates that the material is a poor

heat conductor or insulator. A simple experimental setup to

determine the thermal

conductivity of a material.

Example Ch 1 Pg 23

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

Thermal

Conductivity

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

The range of

thermal

conductivity of

various materials

at room

temperature.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

The mechanisms of

heat conduction in

different phases of

a substance.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONDUCTION

Thermal Diffusivity

cp Specific heat, J/kg C: Heat capacity per unit mass

cp Heat capacity, J/m3C: Heat capacity per unit volume

Thermal diffusivity, m2/s: Represents how fast heat diffuses

through a material

capacity will obviously have a large thermal diffusivity.

The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the propagation

of heat into the medium.

A small value of thermal diffusivity means that heat is mostly

absorbed by the material and a small amount of heat is

conducted further.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONVECTION

Convection: The mode of

energy transfer between a

solid surface and the adjacent

liquid or gas that is in motion,

and it involves the combined

effects of conduction and

fluid motion.

The faster the fluid motion,

the greater the convection

heat transfer.

Heat transfer from a hot

surface to air by convection.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONVECTION

Forced convection: If the

fluid is forced to flow over

the surface by external

means such as a fan,

pump, or the wind.

Natural (or free)

convection: If the fluid

motion is caused by

buoyancy forces that are

induced by density

differences due to the The cooling of a boiled egg by

variation of temperature forced and natural convection.

in the fluid.

Heat transfer processes that involve change of phase of a fluid are also

considered to be convection because of the fluid motion induced during

the process, such as the rise of the vapor bubbles during boiling or the

fall of the liquid droplets during condensation.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONVECTION

As : the surface area through which

convection heat transfer take place

Ts : the surface temperature

T : the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

CONVECTION

The convection heat transfer

coefficient h is not a property of

the fluid.

It is an experimentally determined

parameter whose value depends

on all the variables influencing

convection such as:

- the surface geometry

- the nature of fluid motion

- the properties of the fluid

- the bulk fluid velocity

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

Radiation: The energy emitted by matter in the form of

electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the

electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.

Unlike conduction and convection, the transfer of heat by radiation does

not require the presence of an intervening medium.

In fact, heat transfer by radiation is fastest (at the speed of light) and it

suffers no attenuation in a vacuum. This is how the energy of the sun

reaches the earth.

In heat transfer studies we are interested in thermal radiation, which is

the form of radiation emitted by bodies because of their temperature.

All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal

radiation.

Radiation is a volumetric phenomenon, and all solids, liquids, and

gases emit, absorb, or transmit radiation to varying degrees.

However, radiation is usually considered to be a surface phenomenon

for solids.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

Stefan-Boltzmann

Blackbody: The idealized

law surface that emits radiation at

the maximum rate.

Radiation emitted by real surfaces

Emissivity : A measure of

how closely a surface

approximates a blackbody for

which = 1 of the surface. 0

Blackbody radiation represents the

1.

maximum amount of radiation that can be

emitted from a surface at a specified

temperature.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

Emissivity

RADIATION

Absorbtivity

surface that is absorbed by the surface. 0 1

A blackbody absorbs the entire radiation incident on it ( = 1).

Kirchhoffs law: The emissivity and the absorptivity of a surface at

a given temperature and wavelength are equal.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

Net radiation heat transfer: The difference between the rates of

radiation emitted by the surface and the radiation absorbed.

When a surface is completely

enclosed by a much larger (or

black) surface at temperature

Tsurr separated by a gas (such

as air) that does not intervene

with radiation, the net rate of

radiation heat transfer between

these

two surfaces is given by

surface and the surfaces surrounding

it.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

The determination of the net rate of heat transfer by radiation

between two surfaces is a complicated matter since it depends on

the properties of the surfaces

their orientation relative to each other

the interaction of the medium between the surfaces with

radiation

convection, but negligible relative to forced convection.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

RADIATION

Radiation + Convection heat transfer

When radiation and convection occur

simultaneously between a surface and a gas:

includes the effects of both convection and radiation.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Heat transfer is only by conduction in opaque solids,

but by conduction and radiation in semitransparent

solids.

A solid may involve conduction and radiation but

not convection. A solid may involve convection

and/or radiation on its surfaces exposed to a fluid

or other surfaces.

Heat transfer is by conduction and possibly by

radiation in a still fluid (no bulk fluid motion) and by

convection and radiation in a flowing fluid.

In the absence of radiation, heat transfer through

a fluid is either by conduction or convection,

depending on the presence of any bulk fluid

motion.

Convection = Conduction + Fluid motion

Heat transfer through a vacuum is by radiation.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Summary

Summary

Heat Important Eqn.

Transfer

Mode

Conduction Fouriers Law

Radiation Stefan-

Boltzmann Law

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

ambient temperature is 300 C. The see-through

glass is 5 mm thick.

Calculate the heat leaking from the ambient into

the cooler.

300 C

Coke

50 C

Glass

door

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

You have just played a vigorous game of football

and are feeling warm. If you stand under a fan you

experience a heat transfer coefficient of 25 W/m2

K. Without the fan, the heat transfer coefficient of

10 W/m2 K. The ambient temperature is 28 0C and

the skin temperature can be taken as 35 0C.

Calculate the heat loss per unit surface area of

the skin with and without fan.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

The data are given in the figure. Calculate:

(a) the radiative heat emitted by the griddle and

by roti canai

(b) The NET heat radiated by each

T = 30

0.2 m

0

C

= 0.9

T = 120

0

C

m

= 0.2

0.75 m 0.5

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

also occurs from the griddle and roti canai to room

air through a heat transfer coefficient of 20

W/m2.K. Calculate the new heat transfer rates.

Roti canai

Griddle

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

Current

To measure thermal conductivity of

materials, one method is to apply

heat

flux to one face of the sample (S)

in

the form of a thin plate and cool it S

on

A certain

the other sample

face asofshown

materialinisthe

20 cm

xfigure.

20 cm x 1 cm thick. A current of 1 A

is applied to the heater at a voltage of

The apparatus is insulated all Insulation

20 V. The hot face is at 800 C and the

around.

cold face is at 300 C. Coolant

the sample material. Identify it.

INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER-

Example-

An air-conditioned room is maintained at 230 C,

while the outside ambient is at 350 C. A window in

the room, 1mx1m, has a glass sheet 6 mm thick.

Taking that the inside and outside temperatures of

the glass surface are at the same temperature as

their respective surroundings, calculate the heat

leaking into the room through the window. (k = 0.7

W/mK)

How might this heat leakage be reduced?

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