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Week 12

CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER


Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Intro
Before this:
molecular diffusion in stagnant fluids
fluid in laminar flow
Rate of diffusion: slow
More rapid transfer is desired
Increase fluid velocity until turbulent
dc A
J *A (DAB M )
dz
M= average mass
D ' M
J *A1 AB (c A1 c A 2 ) eddy diffusivity in m2/s
z 2 z1
J *A1 kC' (c A1 c A 2 )
D 'M kC : determined experimentally
k AB
'
C cA1: conc. at surface
z 2 z1
cA2: conc. at bulk
CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
Equimolar counterdiffusion N A = - NB
Gases: NA = kc(cA1 cA2) = kG(pA1-pA2) = ky(yA1 yA2)

Liquids: NA = kc(cA1 cA2) = kL(cA1-cA2) = kx(xA1 xA2)

Conversion between mass transfer coefficients:


k c = k P = k pBM = k P = k = k y = k = k y c = k y P
Gases: c c
RT c
RT G y y BM y c BM G BM

Liquids: kcc = kLc = kLxBMc = kL/M =kx = kxxBM


where
= density of liquid
M = molecular weight
x A1 x A2 y A1 y A2 p A1 p A2
xBM y p BM
(1 y )
ln (P p A2 )
BM
ln
(1 x A2
)
ln A2

(1 x )
A1


(1 y )
A1


(P p A1 )

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept


CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
A diffusing through stagnant, nondiffusing B
Gases: NA = kc(cA1 cA2) = kG(pA1-pA2) = ky(yA1 yA2)

Liquids: NA = kc(cA1 cA2) = kL(cA1-cA2) = kx(xA1 xA2)

Conversion between mass transfer coefficients:


k c = k P = k pBM = k P = k = k y = k = k y c = k y P
Gases: c c
RT c
RT G y y BM y c BM G BM

Liquids: kcc = kLc = kLxBMc = kL/M =kx = kxxBM


where
= density of liquid
M = molecular weight
x B2 x B1 yB2 yB1 p pB1
x BM yBM pBM B2
(1 x ) (1 y ) (P p )
ln A2 ln A2 ln A2
(1 x A1 ) (1 y A1 ) (P pA1 )

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept



Compare

Flux equations for equimolar counterdiffusion


Gases: NA=kC(cA1-cA2)= kG(pA1-pA2)=ky(yA1-yA2)
Liquids: NA=kC(cA1-cA2)= kL(cA1-cA2)=kx(xA1-xA2)

Flux equations for A diffusing through stagnant, nondiffusing B


Gases: NA=kC(cA1-cA2)= kG(pA1-pA2)=ky(yA1-yA2)
Liquids: NA=kC(cA1-cA2)= kL(cA1-cA2)=kx(xA1-xA2)

Difference between kC and kC:


k'C
kC for liquid
x BM
k'
kC C for gas
y BM
UNITS

Units

' ' m ft
k ,kc ,k L ,k
c L ,
s h
' ' kgmol lbmol
k ,k x ,k y ,k
x y ,
s - m 2 mol frac h ft 2 mol frac

' kgmol lbmol


k ,kG
G ,
s - m 2 Pa h - ft 2 atm

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept


Example 7.2-1
A large volume of pure gas B at 2 atm pressure
is flowing over a surface from which pure A is
vaporizing. The liquid A completely wets the
surface, which is a blotting paper. Hence the
partial pressure of A at the surface is the vapor
pressure of A at 298K, which is 0.20 atm. The ky
has been estimated to be 6.78x10-5 kg
mol/s.m2.mol frac. Calculate NA, the vaporising
rate, and also the value of ky and kG.
Example 7.2-1: Solution
Case: A diffusing through stagnant, nondiffusing B, N B=0
pA1=0.20 atm, pA2=0 (large volume of pure gas B)
yA1= pA1/P =0.20/2 = 0.10 yA2: 0
Recall: NA=kC(cA1-cA2)= kG(pA1-pA2)=ky(yA1-yA2)
But we are given ky, so we choose:
NA=ky(yA1-yA2)
y B 2 y B1 1.0 0.9
Recall ky . yBM=ky y BM 0.95
ln( y B 2 / y B1 ) ln(1.0 /0.9)
yBM=0.95; yB1= 1-yA1 =1-0.10 = 0.90 ; yB2= 1-yA2 =1 - 0 = 1
So ky =ky / yBM =6.78x10-5/0.95= 7.138x10-5 kg mol/s.m2. mol frac

NA=ky(yA1-yA2) =7.138x10-5 (0.1-0)= 7.138x10-6 kg mol/s.m2
Also we can use equation NA= kG(pA1-pA2) , just relate kG with ky
CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT
UNDER HIGH FLUX CONDITIONS
A diffusing through stagnant, nondiffusing B where diffusion-
induced convection is present:
o
k c c(x A1 x A2 )
NA
(1 x A1 )

Low concentration & fluxes, koc kc for no bulk flow or NA = kcc(xA1 xA2)
NA = kcc (xA1 xA2)

where: koc, kc = mass transfer coefficient at high flux koc = (1 xA1)kc


kc = mass transfer coefficient at low flux
kc k
High flux correction factor: x1 x
k c BM k x
o o
k c 1 - x A1 k x
k c xBM k x

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept


Example 7.2-2
High flux correction factors
Toluene A is evaporating from a wetted porous
slab by having inert pure air at 1 atm flowing
parallel to the flat surface. At a certain point the
mass-transfer coefficient kx for very low fluxes
has been estimated as 0.20 lb mol/hr.ft 2. The
gas composition at the interface at this point is
xA1=0.65. Calculate the flux NA and the ratios
kc/kc or kx/kx and kc0/kc or kx0/kx to correct for
high flux.
Example 7.2-2:Solution
For Flux NA, using Eq. (7.2-11),
x B2 x B1 1.00 0.35
x BM (1 x
0.619
) ln(1.00/0.35)
ln A2
(1 x A1 )

Eq. (7.2-10) in terms of kx, where kc=kx,


k' 0.20
N A x (x A1 x A 2 ) (0.65 0) 0.210lbmol /hr. ft 2
x BM 0.719
Using Eq.(7.2-28),
kx k 1 1
c 1.616
k' x k' c x BM 0.619

Then, kx=1.616 kx =1.616(0.20)=0.323 lb mol/hr.ft2.


Using Eq.(7.2-29)

k 0 x k 0 c 1 x A1 1 0.65
0.565
k' x k' c x BM 0.619

And k0x= 0.565(0.200)=0.113 lb mol/hr.ft2

MASS TRANSFER FOR FLOW INSIDE PIPE


Laminar flow (NRe 2100):

(Liquids) (Gases)

where:
cA = exit concentration
cA0 = inlet concentration
cAi = interface concentration
W = flow (kg/s)
L = length of mass-transfer section (m)
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER FOR FLOW INSIDE PIPE
Turbulent flow (NRe 2100):

Gases or liquids (0.6 NSc 3,000 ):

NSh 0.023N Re 0.83 NSc 0.33

where:
k c D

NSh = Sherwood number D
AB

D
NRe = Reynolds number


NSc = Schmidt number D
AB


FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER IN FLOW PARALLEL
TO FLAT PLATES

Gas/evaporating liquids in gas phase (NRe 15,000): J D 0.664N Re- 0.5

Gas ( 15,000 NRe 300,000 ): J D 0.036N Re - 0.2

liquid ( 600 NRe 50,000 ): J D 0.99N Re - 0.5

where:
k (N )
2
3

JD = JD factor c Sc

k c L
NSh = Sherwood number D
AB

L
NRe = Reynolds number


NSc = Schmidt number D
AB
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
Exercise
Exp 7.3-1 demonstrated
Exp 7.3-2 demonstrated
Exp 7.3-3 study at home

Problem 7.3-7
P.7.3-7
Pure water: 26.1 C

1.829 m

v=3.05 m/s
Di=6.35x10-3m

Re= D v p/u
=6.35x10-3 x 3.05 x 996/8.71x10-4
=22147

Sc= u/p. DAB


=8.71x10-4/996x 1.245x10-9
=702

Eq. (7.3-25)
Kc D/DAB =0.023 Re 0.83 Sc 0.33

Kc = 1.58 x 10-4 m/s


MASS TRANSFER FOR FLOW PAST
SINGLE SPHERE

Gas or liquids (NRe very low): NSh 2

1
3
Gas ( 1 NRe 48,000 , 0.6 NSc 2.7 ): NSh 2 0.552N Re 0.53 NSc
1
3
liquid ( 2 NRe 2,000 ): NSh 2 0.95NRe0.5NSc
1
3
liquid ( 2000 NRe 17,000 ): NSh 0.347N Re 0.62NSc

k c D
where: NSh = Sherwood number D
AB

D
NRe = Reynolds number


NSc = Schmidt number D
AB
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER FOR FLOW PAST
SINGLE CYLINDERS

50 NRe 50,000 :

Gas ( 0.6 NSc 2.60 ):


J D 0.6N Re- 0.487
liquid ( 1000 NSc 3,000 ):

where:
k (N )
2
3

JD = JD factor c Sc

D
NRe = Reynolds number

NSc = Schmidt number DAB


FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER TO PACKED BEDS OF
SPHERES
0.4548
Gas (10 NRe 10,000) : JD N Re-0.4069

1.09
Liquid ( 0.0016 NRe 55 , 165 NSc 70600 ): JD N Re- 2 3


0.250
Liquid ( 55 NRe 1500 , 165 NSc 10690 ): JD N Re-0.31

0.4548
Liquid ( 10 NRe 1500 ): J N -0.4069


D
Re

(cAi cA1) (cAi cA2 )


Mass transfer rate: N A
A V(c A2
c A1
) Ak c (c c )
ln Ai A1

(c Ai
c )
A2

where: 2
k c (NSc ) 3 cA1 = inlet concentration
JD = JD factor
D cA2 = outlet concentration
p
NRe = Reynolds number cAi = interface concentration
A = external surface area of solids
NSc = Schmidt number D
AB V = volumetric flow rate of fluid entering
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER TO FLUIDIZED BEDS
OF SPHERES

0.4548
Liquid or gas ( 10 NRe 4,000 ): JD N Re-0.4069

1.1068
Liquid ( 1 NRe 10 ): JD N Re-0.72

where:
2
3
JD = JD factor k c (N Sc )
'
D
NRe = Reynolds number


NSc = Schmidt number D
AB

FKKKSA Bioprocess
Eng. Dept
MASS TRANSFER TO SMALL
PARTICLES IN SUSPENSION
2DAB 2 3 cg 1 3
Small particles (Dp 0.6 mm) : k L 0.31(N Sc ) ( )
Dp 2 c
cg 1 3
( Dp 2.5 mm ):
Large gas bubbles or liquid drops k L 0.42(N Sc )0.5 ( )
c 2

1
4
2 P
k L (N ) 3 0.13 V c
Highly turbulent mixers :
Sc 2

c
where:

DAB = diffusivity of A in solution (m2


/s) P/V = power input per unit volume
Dp = diameter of gas bubble or solid particle (m) c =viscosity of solution
c = density of continous phase (kg/m3) (kg/m.s)
p = density of the gas or solid particle (kg/m )
3 g = 9.8066 (m/s 2
)
c
= always +ve NSc = Schmidt number D
c AB
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION &
CHEMICAL REACTION
Equimolar counterdiffusion
Gas A diffusing through gas phase to catalys surface
Irreversible reaction & heterogeneous reaction
A 2B
NA = - N B

cD AB (1 x A1 )
NA ln

(1 x A2 )

instantaneous surface reaction, xA2 = 0


NA
slow surface reaction & 1 order,
st x
A2
k 1c
where
c = P/RT & xA = pA/P
k1 = 1st order heterogeneous reaction velocity constant
FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept
STEADY-STATE DIFFUSION &
CHEMICAL REACTION
Diffusion and chemical reaction at a boundary

A C
A is very dilute
phase B (gas or liquid)


k k
c A1 sinh (L z)

c A2 sinh z
D D
cA AB

AB

sinh L k



D AB

where
k = reaction velocity constant (1/s)

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept


UNSTEADY-STATE DIFFUSION &
CHEMICAL REACTION
Dilute A absorbed at the surface of a solid or stagnant fluid phase
Unsteady-state diffusion and reaction in the phase

A+ B C

cA 1

k
z
1

k
z
exp - z erfc
k t exp z
erfc
k t
c A0 2

DAB
2 tD AB 2

DAB
2 tD AB

Total amount A absorbed up to time t (kmol A/m 2) :

DAB 1 erf k t k t e - k t

k t

Q c A0
k

2

where
k = 1st order reaction velocity constant
cA0 = concentration of A at z = 0

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept


MULTICOMPONENT DIFFUSION OF GASES

Diffusion of A in a gas through a stagnant, nondiffusing mixture of


B, C, D at constant pressure

NB = 0, NC = 0, ND = 0 ,..

DAm P (p A1 p A2 )
NA
RT (z2 - z1 )piM

DAm 1
xB xC xD
...
DAB DAC DAD
where
DAm = diffusivity of A in the mixture
piM = log mean of pi1 = P pA1 and pi2 = P pA2
xB = mol B/ mol inerts = xB/(1-xA)

FKKKSA Bioprocess Eng. Dept