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Villaviray, Paulino III

Cristino, Jomarie

Aaron T. Beck,
Aaron Temkin Beck

Born on July 18, 1921

An American psychiatrist and a
professor emeritus at the
department of psychiatry at the
University of Pennsylvania.
Beck is known as the father of
Cognitive Therapy and inventor of
the widely used Beck Depression
Inventory(BDI), Beck Hopelessness
Scale, and Beck Anxiety
Aaron Temkin Beck
Becks parents came over from Russia as Jewish
immigrants. Becks birth followed the death of his sister
to an influenza epidemic.
After her daughters death, Becks mother became
severely depressed; this depression was lifted when
Beck was born.
Beck claimed this is where his need for control rooted
itself. Beck had feelings of stupidity and incompetence
after a near fatal illness caused from an infection from
a broken arm.
However, Beck taught himself how to work through his
fears and problems cognitively; this is what sparked the
development of his theory and therapies in later years.
Aaron Temkin Beck
Beck attended Brown University, graduating
magna cum laude in 1942.
At Brown he was elected a member of the Phi
Beta Kappa Society,
was an associate editor of the Brown Daily
Herald, and received the Francis Wayland
Scholarship, William Gaston Prize for Excellence
in Oratory, and Philo Sherman Bennett Essay
Beck attended Yale Medical School, graduating
with an M.D. in 1946. Beck received a Lasker
Clinical Research Award in 2006.
Aaron Temkin Beck
Beck is the director of the Center for the
Treatment and Prevention of Suicide.
Beck believed that depression is due to
negative views. He believed that these
negative views were towards the self, world,
and future in particular.
These negative views are "idiosyncratic."
Depressed people say things like "I can't do
my job" or "Nobody cares about me."
These negative views would in turn trigger
depression in a person.
Aaron Beck Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy

Insight-focused therapy
Emphasizes changing negative thoughts
and maladaptive beliefs
Theoretical Assumptions
Peoples internal communication is accessible
to introspection
Clients beliefs have highly personal meanings
These meanings can be discovered by the
client rather than being taught or interpreted
by the therapist
Aaron Beck Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient overcome
difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional
thinking, behavior, and emotional responses.
This involves helping patients develop skills for
modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking,
relating to others in different ways, and changing
Treatment is based on collaboration between patient
and therapist and on testing beliefs.
Therapy may consist of testing the assumptions which
one makes and identifying how certain of one's
usually-unquestioned thoughts are distorted,
unrealistic and unhelpful
Once those thoughts have been challenged, one's
feelings about the subject matter of those thoughts
Aaron Beck Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy

Beck initially focused on depression

and developed a list of "errors" in
thinking that he proposed could
maintain depression,
including arbitrary inference,
selective abstraction,
and magnification (of negatives)
and minimization (of positives)
Aaron Beck Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy
A simple example may illustrate the principle of how CT works:
having made a mistake at work, a person may believe, "I'm useless and
can't do anything right at work."
Strongly believing this then tends to worsen their mood.
The problem may be worsened further if the individual reacts by avoiding
activities and then behaviorally confirming the negative belief to himself.
As a result, any adaptive response and further constructive consequences
become unlikely, which reinforces the original belief of being "useless".
In therapy, the latter example could be identified as a self-fulfilling
prophecy or "problem cycle", and the efforts of the therapist and client
would be directed at working together to change it.
This is done by addressing the way the client thinks and behaves in
response to similar situations and by developing more flexible ways to
think and respond, including reducing the avoidance of activities.
If, as a result, the patient escapes the negative thought patterns and
dysfunctional behaviors, the negative feelings may be relieved over time.
Boffey Map
Boffey Map

Developed by Dr. D. Barnes Boffey

This approach is very similar to Aaron Beck
wherein the counselor makes the counselee see
what is happening in the counselees present
situation by asking their Personal Thoughts
about their self, Feelings, Behavior, and
Physiology(whats happening to their physical
body). Then the counselor would ask how the
counselee should see their self when dealing with
their situation.