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Food Safety 101: Cleaning,

Sanitation, Equipment Use and Care

Level One Certification Course: Area 2

Kentucky Department of Education, Division of School and
Community Nutrition
At the end of this presentation, you will
be able to

- Understand and utilize proper cleaning and

sanitation methods;
- Understand equipment use and care of various
pieces of food service equipment.

Lets Look at Cleaning and

What is the difference between

cleaning and sanitizing?
Sanitizing reduces the
Cleaning removes the number of
visible soil and food microorganisms
particles from a (bacteria, viruses,
surface. etc.)

Just because

Something that looks clean does not mean it is

sanitary. Billions of microorganisms may be
present even though they are not visible to the
naked eye.

Both cleaning and sanitizing are essential in

preventing foodborne illness.

When should I clean and sanitize materials?

Each time there is a change Any time contamination

from working with raw foods may have occurred.
to working with ready-to-eat
Before each use with
different types of raw
Between uses with raw fruits animal food, except in
and vegetables and with contact with a succession
potentially hazardous foods. of different raw animal
foods, in which the second
Before using or storing food food requires a higher
thermometers (after each cooking temperature than
use). the first food.

When should I clean and sanitize surfaces and
equipment that contacts potentially
hazardous foods?
At least every 4 hours.

- Storage containers of potentially hazardous foods should be
cleaned when emptied.
- At least every 24 hours for containers in serving situations such
as salad bars.

When should I clean and sanitize surfaces and equipment
that contacts non-potentially hazardous foods?

You should clean surfaces and equipment at least every

24 hours or any time contamination may occur.
Also, before restocking consumer self-service
equipment and utensils such as condiment dispensers.
Also clean enclosed components of equipment such as
ice bins, ice makers, beverage nozzles & syrup
dispenser tubes, cooking oil storage tanks &
distribution lines, coffee bean grinders, and water
vending equipment, as specified by the manufacturer
or as necessary to preclude accumulation of soil or

Be careful

Make sure that you cant contaminate food

during and with the use of cleaners and

Proper Chemical/Cleaning Storage

Always store chemicals safely

away from all food.
Keep chemicals safely secured at
all times.
Keep chemicals in their original
Store chemicals according to the
directions on the label.

Chemical Usage:

Dont use chemical if you havent properly

been trained.
Always put food and packaging away
before chemical usage.
Use only approved chemicals for the task
you are doing.
Use only according to the manufacturer
Always make sure there is a proper label
attached to the container.
Know where to locate the Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS) for all chemicals.
Lets look at:
Cleaning and Sanitizing Using a 3 Compartment Sink.

There are five steps to correctly utilize a 3

compartment sink.

3 Compartment Sink
Step 1: Pre-scrape
- Rinse, scrape, or soak all items before
- Have a waste receptacle near the 3
compartment sink if necessary.

Step 2: Wash

Wash in hot water, at least 110 F, with detergent.

3 Compartment Sink Process

Step 3: Rinse
Rinse off soap residue using clear, warm water.

Step 4: Sanitize
Sanitize in warm water, at least 75 F*,
- 50 ppm chlorine, immersed for 1 minute;
- 12.5 ppm iodine, immersed for 1 minute;
- 200 ppm QAC, immersed for 1 minute.
*Sanitizing instructions differ per product, be sure to
Key Tip to Sanitizing!

It is important to monitor the sanitizing solution

to ensure the correct amount is added to the
- too much sanitizer is toxic.
- too little is unsanitary.

Use test strips to monitor the pH of your

sanitizer solution.

3 Compartment Sink Process
Step 5: Air Dry
Air dry all equipment and utensils before stacking
to eliminate the growth of microbes.

Lets look at:
Dish Machine Washing and Sanitizing

There are two kinds of commercial dish machines: chemical sanitizing

machines and hot-water sanitizing machines.

Chemical Sanitizing
These machines use chlorine-based chemicals dispensed during
the final rinse to sanitize equipment. The chemical level should be 50
ppm in the final rinse water. As with manual dish washing, sanitizer
strength should be monitored using test-strips.

Hot Water Sanitizing

These machines use very hot water during the final rinse to
sanitize equipment. This water should be 180 F to effectively
sanitize. Often times a Booster Heater is used to
achieve proper water temperature.

Dish machines should be monitored for:

food debris and grease residue.

proper soap amount dispensed during
wash cycle.
sanitizer strength (chemical, sanitizing only).
wash and final rinse temperatures.

Lets look at:
Wiping Cloths
Cloths used for wiping Keep dry or wet cloths used
food spills should be used with raw animal products
for no other purposes. separate, including having
Cloths used for wiping a separate sanitizing
food spills shall be:
Dry and used on tableware
Dry and wet cloths used
and carry-out containers; If with fresh sanitizing
using a dry towel sanitize solution shall be free of
also if necessary, OR food debris and visible soil.
Wet and clean, stored in a
chemical sanitizer, and
used on food and nonfood
contact equipment.
Change sanitizing solution

Equipment Use and


Basic Knife Safety

Carry a knife by
the handle with
the tip down and
the blade turned
away from your
Place a damp
cloth under the
cutting board to
prevent it from

The Chefs Knife

A few more tips on Knife

When using a knife, concentrate on the task at hand.

Use different colored chopping boards for different
food items to prevent cross-contamination.
Always use sharp knives that are the correct size and
blade type for the job.
Do not hold food in your hand while you cut.
Keep handles free of grease and other slippery
Wash knives immediately after use.
Store knives in a knife rack or in a dedicated knife
drawer with blade covers.
Care of Knives

Wash thoroughly after each use in hot water and a mild

soap or dish detergent and dry thoroughly with a clean
When washing knives in a 3 compartment sink, leave
knife on the pre-scrape area for safety. Do not leave
soaking in water out of sight.
When drying a knife, do not leave the knifes edge in a
manner that can be harmful.
For plated knives, clean carefully to ensure platting is not
scratched or worn off.
Never allow a wooden handled knife to soak in water.

How do I use and take care of a
Food Mixer?

A food mixer is used to

blend and combine
foods. They use
attachments such as
beaters, whips, slicers,
graters, shredders,
choppers and knives to
make changes to the
specific use of the

Helpful Operating Tips for a Food

Select the proper bowl and attachment for the

Always use scrapers or spoons to scrape down bowl
and remove food from beater.
Allow proper mixing time for products- over mixing is
as damaging as under mixing.
Put a piece of bread through the chopper after
grinding cheese.

Safety Precautions for a Food

Be sure to fasten bowl and attachment securely

before starting the machine.
NEVER put your hands or any utensils in the bowl
while in use.
Stop the food mixer before scraping down the sides of
the bowl during the mixing process.
If using the mixer for long periods, allow time for the
motor to cool.

Cleaning After Use and Care of a
Food Mixer

Clean Machine: Weekly Care

Clean bowl support, Clean thoroughly
beater shaft, shell and following instructions
base with hot for daily cleaning.
detergent solution. Periodic Care
Rinse and dry. Scrape
and brush out groves Lubricate machine
on beater shafts as according to
necessary. manufacturers
Clean all parts. instructions.

How do I use and take care of a
Food Slicer?

A Food Slicer is used to

slice cheese and deli
meats for preparations
such as sandwiches.

How do I operate a Food

Ensure safety guard is properly in place.

Put the plug in the socket.
Place food in carriage and hold firmly in place using
the food holder.
Adjust blade control indicator for desired thickness of
Switch motor on.
Move carriage back and forth across the blade using
the handle to slice the food.
Switch motor off immediately when slicer is not in use.

Safety Precautions for Food

Never use the slicer when the blade guard is off.

Always keep hands away from the blade when the
machine is in operation.
Keep the plug out of the socket while cleaning and
when the machine is not in use.
Make certain hands are dry before operating the
When cleaning the slicer, do not let water come in
contact with the motor or electric wiring.

Cleaning a Food Slicer
Remove parts according to manufacturers instructions.
Clean blade by wiping entire blade with a heavy cloth, folded
and dampened with hot detergent solution, and wrapped
around a long handled hook if provided. Wipe from the
center towards the edge of the blade. Rinse and dry with a
heavy cloth.
Clean slicer parts including guard and gauge plate using hot
detergent solution. Replace guard immediately to prevent
Wash all surfaces of the frame and base with hot detergent
Clean under the blade with a damp cloth.
For safety, it is best to use a mesh cutting glove when

Periodic Care of a Food

Sharpen Blade
Sharpen blade as needed according to
manufacturers instructions.
Lubricate slicer following manufacturer's
Remove Gauge Plate
Remove and clean gauge plate following
manufacturers instructions.

How do I use and take care of a
Steam Jacketed Kettle?

Steam Jacketed Kettles

are used to quickly heat,
boil, or cook large
quantities of foods such
as meats, beans, soups,
stews, vegetables, fruits,
pasta, sauces, gravies.

How do I operate a Steam
Jacketed Kettle?

Adjust kettle to an upright position using hand crank.

Check water level, and if additional water is required, fill
according to manufacturers instructions.
Check safety valve.
Turn on steam control valve or switch and adjust heat or steam
to proper temperature and pressure-adjusted thermostat.
Fill kettle no more than capacity.
Cook food.
Close steam control valve and remove food from the kettle.
Immediately after use, fill kettle with warm water above the
cooking level and soak until washed.

Safety Precautions for Steam
Jacketed Kettle

Be careful when raising the lid to avoid steam burns.

Make sure that the proper water level is maintained in
the water jacket.
If water jacket has gone dry, DO NOT add water
without first allowing kettle to cool.
Be sure that the safety valve is in good working order
by checking it daily.
If steam pressure rises above safety levels, turn off
the kettle and call the service company.

Cleaning the Steam Jacketed

Pre-rinse the interior, scrubbing with a long handled brush

and draining liquid by opening the valve at the bottom of
the kettle.
Remove the strainer and fill kettle with hot detergent
solution to the food line and scrub with a stiff brush.
Open bottom valve and turn brush in valve until all the
liquid drains out.
Rinse kettle by filling 1/3 full of warm water, rinsing well,
draining and drying.
Clean the floor recess and mop dry to prevent slips and

How do I use and take care of a
Garbage Disposal?

Garbage disposals are

used to grind most food
waste. Running water is
used to flush the ground
waste through the unit
and into the main sewer

Safety Precautions for Garbage

NEVER put your hands into the disposal.

If the disposal stops during operation, turn the unit
off. Check to see if the unit has been jammed,
remove any foreign objects and allow 3 to 5 minutes
for the motor to cool before resetting the unit and
restarting the machine.

Lessons Learned:

Now you should be able to understand and utilize

proper cleaning and sanitation methods;
As well as understand equipment use and care of
various pieces of food service equipment.

Be sure to review other pieces of equipment

that are used properly in your school food
Thank you!