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Individual
Behavior,
Personality, and
Values

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Iceland Foods Group

Iceland Foods Group has become one of the hottest food


retailers in the United Kingdom by focusing on employee
motivation, skill development, and role perceptions.

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MARS Model of Individual
Behavior

Situational
Situational
factors
factors
Personality
Personality Motivation
Motivation
Values
Values
Self-concept
Self-concept Individual
Individual
Perceptions Ability
Ability behavior
behavior and
and
Perceptions
results
results
Emotions
Emotions &&
attitudes
attitudes
Role
Role
Stress
Stress perceptions
perceptions

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Employee Motivation
Internal forces that affect a persons
voluntary choice of behavior
direction
intensity
persistence

S
S
M
M
A
A BAR
BAR

R
R

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Employee Ability
Aptitudes and learned capabilities required
to successfully complete a task
Person - job matching
selecting
developing
redesigning

S
S
M
M

A
A BAR
BAR

R
R

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Role Perceptions
Understand the job duties expected of us.
Role perceptions are clearer (role clarity) when
we:
understand our tasks or accountable consequences
understand task/performance priorities
Understand the preferred behaviors/procedures

Benefits of clear role perceptions:


More accurate/efficient job S
S
M
M
performance
Better coordination with others A
A BAR
BAR
Higher motivation R
R

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Situational Factors
Environmental conditions beyond the
individuals short-term control that
constrain or facilitate behavior
Constraints time, budget, facilities, etc
Cues e.g. signs of nearby hazards

S
S
M
M
A
A BAR
BAR

R
R

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Types of Individual
Behavior
Task performance
Goal-directed behaviors under the individuals control
that sup- port organizational objectives
Working with people, data, things, and ideas
Performance includes proficiency, adaptability, and
proactivity

Organizational citizenship
Cooperation and helpfulness to others that support
the organizations social and psychological context
Directed toward individuals and organization
Not necessarily discretionary (i.e. may be part of
employment obligations)

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Types of Individual
Behavior
Counterproductive work behaviors
Voluntary behaviors that have the potential to directly
or indirectly harm the organization

Joining & staying with the organization


Forming the employment relationship and staying with
the organization

Maintaining work attendance


Absences due to situation (weather), motivation
(avoiding stressful workplace)
Presenteeism attending scheduled work when ones
capacity to perform is significantly diminished by illness
or other factors

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Defining Personality
Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts,
emotions, and behaviors that characterize
a person, along with the psychological
processes behind those characteristics
External traits and internal states

Personality traits
Clusters of internally-caused behavior
tendencies
Traits apparent across situations, but situation
may suppress behavior tendencies

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Nature vs. Nurture of
Personality
Influenced by nature
Heredity explains about 50 percent of
behavioral tendencies and 30 percent of
temperament
Minnesota studies twins had similar
personalities
Influenced by nurture
Socialization, learning

Personality stabilizes in young


adulthood
Executive function steers behavior
guided by our self-concept

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Five-Factor Personality Model
(CANOE)

Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness Organized, dependable

Agreeableness
Agreeableness Trusting, helpful, flexible

Neuroticism
Neuroticism Anxious, self-conscious

Openness
Openness to
to Experience
Experience Creative, nonconforming

Extraversion
Extraversion Outgoing, talkative, energetic

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Five-Factor Personality and
Individual Behavior
Conscientiousness and emotional stability
Strongest personality predictors of performance

Extraversion
Higher performance in sales and mgt performance
Related to social interaction and persuasion

Agreeableness
Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and
helpfulness
Openness to experience
Linked to higher creativity and adaptability to change

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Jungian Personality
Theory
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
Identifies preferences for perceiving the
environment and obtaining/processing
information
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Measures Jungian types
Most widely used personality test in business
Good for self and other awareness
Poor predictor of performance, leadership, team
development

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
(MBTI)
Extroversion versus introversion (E/I)
similar to five-factor dimension

Perceiving information (S/N)


Sensing factual, quantitative
Intuition insight, subjective experience

Judging (making decisions) (T/F)


Thinking rational logic, systematic
data collection
Feeling influenced by emotions, how
choices affect others

Orientation to the external world (P/J)


Perceiving flexible, spontaneous,
keeps options open
Judging order and structure

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Jungian & Myers-Briggs Types
Extraversion Introversion
(E) (I)
Talkative Getting Quiet
Externally- energy Internally-
focused focused
Assertive Abstract

Sensing (S) Intuitive (N)


Concrete Perceiving Imaginative
Realistic information Future-focused
Practical Abstract

Thinking (T) Feeling (F)


Logical Making Empathetic
Objective decisions Caring
Impersonal Emotion-focused

Perceiving
Judging (J)
Organized (P)
Orienting to the Spontaneous
Schedule-
external world Adaptable
oriented
Closure-focus Opportunity-
focus

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Values in the Workplace
Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our
preferences
Define right/wrong, good/bad what we ought to do
in a situation
Direct our motivation, potentially decisions and
behavior
Value system -- hierarchy of values
Compared with personality, values are:
Evaluative (not descriptive)
May conflict strongly with each other
Affected more by nurture than nature

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Schwartzs Values
Model

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Schwartzs Values
Model
Openness to change
motivation to pursue
innovative ways
Conservation -- motivation
to preserve the status quo
Self-enhancement --
motivated by self-interest
Self-transcendence --
motivation to promote
welfare of others and
nature

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Personal Values and Behavior
Values motivate guide decisions,
behavior, and performance
But also disconnect between values
and behavior because:
Situation -- interferes with values-
consistent behavior
Awareness (salience) -- values are abstract
-- relevance isnt obvious

To increase values-consistent behavior:


Keep work environment values-consistent
(e.g. rewards)
Remind employees of important values
Improve sensitivity to relevance of values

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Values Congruence
Similarity of a persons values
hierarchy to another source
Person-organization values
congruence
Espoused-enacted values
congruence
Organization-community values
congruence

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Three Ethical Principles

Greatest good for the greatest


Utilitarianism number of people

Individual Fundamental entitlements


Rights in society

Distributive People who are similar should receive


Justice similar benefits

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Influences on Ethical Conduct
Moral intensity
Degree that issue demands the application of ethical
principles

Moral sensitivity
Persons ability to recognize presence/importance of an
ethical issue
Increases with persons empathy, expertise, experience
with dilemmas, mindfulness
Mindfulness receptive/impartial awareness of present
situation and own thoughts/emotions in that moment
Situational influences
competitive pressures and other external factors

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Supporting Ethical
Behavior
Corporate code of ethics
Systems for communicating/investigating
wrongdoing
Ethics hotlines
Ethics ombudspersons

Ethical leadership and shared values

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Individualism
High Individualism*
S. Africa
The degree to which
USA
people value personal
freedom, self-sufficiency,
Japan control over themselves,
Denmark being appreciated for
unique qualities
Venezuela
Taiwan

*Derived from Oyserman et al (2002) meta-analysis


Low Individualism*

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Collectivism
High Collectivism*
The degree to which
Taiwan
people value their group
Israel membership and
harmonious
India
relationships within the
group

USA
Japan

*Derived from Oyserman et al (2002) meta-analysis


Low Collectivism*

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Power Distance
High Power Distance High power distance
Malaysia Value obedience to authority
Comfortable receiving
India commands from superiors
Prefer formal rules and
authority to resolve conflicts
Japan
Low power distance
USA
expect relatively equal power
sharing
Denmark
Israel view relationship with boss as
interdependence, not
Low Power Distance dependence

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Uncertainty Avoidance
High U. A. High uncertainty
Greece avoidance
Belgium feel threatened by
ambiguity and uncertainty
value structured situations
Norway and direct communication
USA
Low uncertainty
Denmark avoidance
Singapore tolerate ambiguity and
uncertainty
Low U. A.

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Achievement-Nurturing
Achievement
Japan High achievement
orientation
Austria assertiveness
USA
competitiveness
materialism
Brazil
High nurturing
orientation
Netherlands relationships
Sweden others well-being
Nurturing

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Cultural Diversity within the
United States
Increasing surface-level diversity
Also associated with some deep-level diversity
(e.g. ethnic differences in individualism)

Regional differences in deep-level diversity


e.g. openness to experience, neuroticism,
collectivism
Regional variations likely caused by:
local institutions (schools, religion)
physical environment
migration

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Individual
Behavior,
Personality, and
Values

2-31