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# INTERPENETRATION OF SOLIDS

WHEN ONE SOLID PENETRATES ANOTHER SOLID THEN THEIR SURFACES INTERSECT
AND
AT THE JUNCTION OF INTERSECTION A TYPICAL CURVE IS FORMED,
WHICH REMAINS COMMON TO BOTH SOLIDS.

## THIS CURVE IS CALLED CURVE OF INTERSECTION

AND
IT IS A RESULT OF INTERPENETRATION OF SOLIDS.

## PURPOSE OF DRAWING THESE CURVES:-

WHEN TWO OBJECTS ARE TO BE JOINED TOGATHER, MAXIMUM SURFACE CONTACT BETWEEN BOTH
BECOMES A BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR STRONGEST & LEAK-PROOF JOINT.
Curves of Intersections being common to both Intersecting solids,
show exact & maximum surface contact of both solids.

## Minimum Surface Contact.

( Point Contact) (Maximum Surface Contact)
Lines of Intersections. Curves of Intersections.

## Square Pipes. Circular Pipes. Square Pipes. Circular Pipes.

SOME ACTUAL OBJECTS ARE SHOWN, SHOWING CURVES OF INTERSECTIONS.
BY WHITE ARROWS.

## A machine component having An Industrial Dust collector. Intersection of a Cylindrical

two intersecting cylindrical Intersection of two cylinders. main and Branch Pipe.
surfaces with the axis at
acute angle to each other.

## Pump lid having shape of a

Two Cylindrical hexagonal Prism and
A Feeding Hopper Forged End of a
surfaces. Hemi-sphere intersecting
In industry. Connecting Rod.
each other.
FOLLOWING CASES ARE SOLVED. COMMON SOLUTION STEPS
REFFER ILLUSTRATIONS One solid will be standing on HP
AND
Other will penetrate horizontally.
NOTE THE COMMON
CONSTRUCTION Draw three views of standing solid.
FOR ALL Name views as per the illustrations.
Beginning with side view draw three
1.CYLINDER TO CYLINDER2. Views of penetrating solids also.
On its S.V. mark number of points
2.SQ.PRISM TO CYLINDER And name those(either letters or nos.)
The points which are on standard
3.CONE TO CYLINDER generators or edges of standing solid,
4.TRIANGULAR PRISM TO CYLNDER
( in S.V.) can be marked on respective
generators in Fv and Tv. And other
5.SQ.PRISM TO SQ.PRISM points from SV should be brought to
Tv first and then projecting upward
6.SQ.PRISM TO SQ.PRISM To Fv.
( SKEW POSITION) Dark and dotted lines decision should
7.SQARE PRISM TO CONE ( from top ) be taken by observing side view from
its right side as shown by arrow.
8.CYLINDER TO CONE
Accordingly those should be joined
by curvature or straight lines.
Note:
Incase cone is penetrating solid Side view is not necessary.
Similarly in case of penetration from top it is not
required.
Problem: A cylinder 50mm dia.and 70mm axis is completely penetrated CASE 1.
by another of 40 mm dia.and 70 mm axis horizontally Both axes intersect CYLINDER STANDING
& bisect each other. Draw projections showing curves of intersections. &
CYLINDER PENETRATING

1 2 4 3 4 13 2

a a
b h h b

cg g c

df f d
a e
X Y

1 3

2
A vertical cylinder of 60 mm diameter is penetrated by another Steps:
cylinder of 40 mm diameter, the axis of which is parallel to both
1. Draw the TV and FV of the vertical cylinder of 60 mm dia. and 100 mm length.
the HP and the VP. The axis of two cylinders are 9 mm apart.
Draw projections showing curves of intersection.

9
p1 q1 1
1 1
2 12 p12 p2 q2 q12 12 2
2 12
p3 q3
3 11 p11 q11 3 11 11 3

4 10 p10 p4 q4 q10 4 10 4
10
5 9 p9 q9 5 9
p5 q5 9 5
6 8
p8 p6 q6 q8 6 8
7 p7 q7 7 8 6
7

10 10
9 11 9 11
8 12 8 12

7 1 7 1

6 2 6 2

5 3 5 3
4 4
A vertical cylinder of 60 mm diameter is penetrated by another Steps:
cylinder of 40 mm diameter, the axis of which is parallel to both
1. Draw the TV and FV of the vertical cylinder of 60 mm dia. and 100 mm length.
the HP and the VP. The axis of two cylinders are 9 mm apart.
Draw projections showing curves of intersection.

p1 q1 1
1 1 12 2
2 12 p12 p2 q2 q12 2 12
3 11 p11 p3 q3 q11 3 11
11 3

4 10 p10 p4 q4 q10 4 10 10 4

5 9 p9 p5 q5 q9 5 9
9 5
6 8
p8 p q6 q8
6 6 8
7 7 8 6
p7 7
q7

10 10
9 11 9 11
8 12 8 12

7 1 7 1

6 2 6 2

5 3 5 3
4 4
Problem: A cylinder 50mm dia.and 70mm axis is completely penetrated CASE 2.
by a square prism of 25 mm sides.and 70 mm axis, horizontally. Both axes CYLINDER STANDING
Intersect & bisect each other. All faces of prism are equally inclined to Hp. &
Draw projections showing curves of intersections. SQ.PRISM PENETRATING
1 2 4 3 4 13 2

a a a

b b d b
d d

c c
c
X Y

1 3

2
Problem: A cylinder of 80 mm diameter and 100 mm axis
CASE 3.
is completely penetrated by a cone of 80 mm diameter and CYLINDER STANDING
120 mm long axis horizontally.Both axes intersect & bisect &
each other. Draw projections showing curve of intersections. CONE PENETRATING

6 8

1 5

2 4
3
X Y

28

37

46
5
Problem: A sq.prism 30 mm base sides.and 70mm axis is completely penetrated CASE 4.
by another square prism of 25 mm sides.and 70 mm axis, horizontally. Both axesSQ.PRISM STANDING
Intersects & bisect each other. All faces of prisms are equally inclined to Vp. &
Draw projections showing curves of intersections. SQ.PRISM PENETRATING

1 24 3 4 13 2

a a a

b b d b
d d

c c
c
X Y
4

1 3

2
Problem: A cylinder 50mm dia.and 70mm axis is completely penetrated
by a triangular prism of 45 mm sides.and 70 mm axis, horizontally.
One flat face of prism is parallel to Vp and Contains axis of cylinder.
Draw projections showing curves of intersections.

## CASE 5. CYLINDER STANDING & TRIANGULAR PRISM PENETRATING

1 24 3 4 13 2

a a a

b b
b c
c
d
e e d
e
f f f
X Y
4

1 3

2
Problem: A sq.prism 30 mm base sides.and 70mm axis is CASE 6.
completely penetrated by another square prism of 25 mm side SQ.PRISM STANDING
s.and 70 mm axis, horizontally. Both axes Intersect & bisect &
each other.Two faces of penetrating prism are 300 inclined to Hp. SQ.PRISM PENETRATING
Draw projections showing curves of intersections. (300 SKEW POSITION)
1 24 3 4 13 2

a a
f f

e
e
b
b
c
d d c
X 300 Y
4

1 3

2
CASE 7.
CONE STANDING & SQ.PRISM PENETRATING
(BOTH AXES VERTICAL)

4
6
X a bh cg df e Y
g

h 8
f
9 7
10 Problem: A cone70 mm base diameter and 90 mm axis
6
a 1
e is completely penetrated by a square prism from top
2
with its axis // to cones axis and 5 mm away from it.
3 5 a vertical plane containing both axes is parallel to Vp.
4
Take all faces of sq.prism equally inclined to Vp.
b d
Base Side of prism is 0 mm and axis is 100 mm long.
c Draw projections showing curves of intersections.
5 mm OFF-SET
Problem: A vertical cone, base diameter 75 mm and axis 100 mm long, CASE 8.
is completely penetrated by a cylinder of 45 mm diameter. The axis of the CONE STANDING
cylinder is parallel to Hp and Vp and intersects axis of the cone at a point &
28 mm above the base. Draw projections showing curves of intersection. CYLINDER PENETRATING
o o

1 1
2 8,2 8 1
2
7 3
3 3
7,
4 64 6 4
5 5 5
X a bh cg df e g gh ae bd c Y
g

h f

a e

b d