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Interlining & Fusing

Techniques
Types of resins
& substrate
Interlining

Materials that are fused or sewn to specific areas


on the inside of garment or garment parts
They provide shape, support, stabilisation,
reinforcement, hand and improved performance
for garments.
Major function of Interlining

To produce & retain the desired aesthetic


appearance

To improve garment performance


Aesthetics

General appearance

Hand, stability, durability, resiliency

An interlining may be stiff but lightweight


without a lot of bulk
Performance
Evaluation is done from two perspectives
1. performance during production
2. performance in the finished garments

Use interlining in small areas to reinforce


points of stress and weakness (yokes,
necklines, welt pockets, buttons, button
holes)
Use interlining in larger areas to provide
body, improve resiliency &
durability(whole front of jackets)
Characteristics of interlining

Factors that contribute to aesthetics &


performance of interlining are

1. Fiber content
2. Weight
3. Fabrication
Fiber content

a.PES & Nylon - used in fiber webs,


wovens & knits to contribute strength,
stability and resiliency w/o adding bulk &
weight
b.Monofilament nylon - light wt. with little
bulk provide stiffness & resiliency w/b
of skirts & slacks
c.Cotton & rayon - mainly for softness and
handle
d.Wool & hair - resiliency & compatibility
with woollen fabrics
Weight

0.4 to 4.0 oz/sq. Yd

Thumb rule : Heavy interlining for


heavy garments
Fabrication

Fiber webs

Wovens

Knits

Foam laminates
Interlining applications

Two basic means of applying interlinings

1. Sew in
2. Fusing
Sewin Interlining
Sewn directly to the garment or garment
component
Require extra handling & manipulation during
sewing process (more cost, skill)
More flexible, less boardy, have fewer
performance problems than fusibles
Interlining may be attached at different
stages
1. Before construction
2. During construction
3. Inserting the interlining after the component
is nearly completed (center front of shirts)
Fusible interlining

Fusible interlining is a base fabric having


a deposit of thermoplastic resin (usually
on one side only) which can be bonded
to another fabric by heat and pressure.

Fusing technology is concerned with.


Base cloths (substrate)
Resins
Coating systems
Machinery and equipment
Control of quality
Base cloths
The final cost of the garment is influenced
by the type and amount of fusibles used in
its construction
Base cloth influences the following
characteristics in the finished garment:
Handle and bulk
Shape retention
Shrinkage control
Crease recovery
Appearance in wear
Appearance after drycleaning or washing
Durability
Resins

Applied to base cloth


Thermoplastic
Resin when cold is not adhesive
On application of heat, resin penetrates
into the top cloth, solidifies upon
cooling, forming a bond between base
fabric and top fabric
Polyamides, polyester, PVC
Equipments used
for fusing
operation
Coating systems

Coating -> applying resin to substrate

Coating methods
Scatter coating
Drydot coating
Preformed
Coating methods

Scatter coating
Electronically controlled scattering head
deposits the resin on to the moving
substrate.

Drydot coating
Resin is printed on the substrate by a
roller engraved with small indentations
which hold the resin powder
Coating methods

Preformed
Resin is heatprocessed to form a net
which is then laminated to base cloth by
heat & pressure. During heating, net
melts & leaves a minute dot pattern on
the base cloth.
Machinery & Equipment

Mechanical medium required for fusing is


a press, and the three basic types of
press are:

Steam press
Flat bed press
Continuous fusing press
Roller presses
Steam press
Regular steam press
Used by factories which cannot invest

Limitations
Unable to reach the required heat levels
Uneven pressure application
Time element completely dependent on the
operator
Resin is originally activated by steam heat,
whatll happen when garments are pressed
again?
Flat bed press

Purposebuilt fusing machine


Small table models & large floor
standing machines
Manual or mechanical loading & takeoff
systems
Consists of padded top and bottom
bucks with heating elements
Bottom buck static
Top buck raised/lowered to open/close
press
Flat bed
press
Can have single or double trays

Tray is moved
automatically
from loading
position through
fusing and
cooling processes
and returns to the
operator for
unloading
Carousel fusing press
Continuous bed press
Operates on same principle as flat bed
press
Transports the assembly for fusing
through all the processes on a powered
conveyor belt

Two types:
Endtoend feed
Return feed
Continuous bed press

Endtoend feed

Parts are conveyed from loading area


at one end of machine, via fusing &
cooling areas, to the takeoff area at
the opposite end of the machine
Different sets of operators for loading
and unloading
Conveyor fusing
press
Continuous bed press

Return feed

Belt system returns the fused


components to the same end of the
machine at which they were loaded
Upper belt transports the parts through
fusing process, Lower belt returns the
fused parts
Same operator for loading and unloading
Continuous bed press

Continuous fusing presses are also


available for special purposes such as
the fusing of trouser and skirt
waistbands or other narrow
components which can be fused in
continuous tape form
Roller press

Used for fusing interlinings to piece goods prior


to cutting

Also used for small parts

More consistent in heat, time and pressure than


normal irons
Fusing is labourintensive operation
Some major developments which have
substantially reduced the manual
labour content:

modular stacker,
robotics
Modular stacker

This apparatus is positioned at the exit


of the continuous fusing press
Has 4 modules
Operating area of each module is one
quarter of the conveyor belt width
Stacker is activated by photocells(it can
sense the position of the parts)
Parts are removed by grasping
mechanism
Robotics

Operator places the cloth component on


the conveyor belt

Robotics system with visual capability


picks up and places the fusible on the top
cloth

Successful only with small components


Quality problems
associated with fusing
process
Problems

Boardiness
Bubbling
Colour change
Delamination
Shrinkage
Strike back
Strike through
Boardiness

Occurs due to inappropriate selection of


adhesives
Resins liquefy and form a resin coating
i/o being retained in dotted manner
Stiff hand is produced
Reasons : over fusing, too much
adhesive, application of excessive heat
and/or pressure
Bubbling

Occurs when the face fabric or interlining


becomes puckered from delamination, poor
bonding, differential shrinkage, uneven
temperatures or pressure, and inconsistent use
of resin
Colour change

Temporary or permanent discolouration caused


by high temperatures and resins used in the
fusing process
Delamination

Loss of bond between the interlining & shell


When resin migrates towards heat, becomes
embedded in the interlining substrate i/o shell
fabric, thereby preventing an effective bond
Shell fabric appears bubbled
Reasons : underfusing, overfusing, not enough
cooling time, incompatibility of resin & shell
Shrinkage

When one garment part shrinks because of


application of fusible interlining and adjoining
pieces dont
High temp. needed for fusing causes the fabric
to shrink
accurate seaming becomes difficult
Creates puckered seams
Causes puckered surfaces of shell fabric
Strike back

Penetration of resin through the interlining


substrate

Causes resin to stick to fusing press, conveyor


belt, shuttle tray

Reason : too much resin for the type of fabric,


too much pressure
Strike through

Penetration of resin through the face of the


shell fabric

Reason : too much pressure, too high


fusing temp., too long fusing time

Generally occurs in case of sheer,


lightweight, nonabsorbent fabrics,
microfiber fabrics because of construction
and weight
Quality control of
fusing
Fusible interlinings are precision products
Its important to use the correct
equipment under strict control.

Factors that influence fusing quality are:


1. Temperature
2. Time
3. Pressure
4. Peelstrength
5. Dryclean and/or wash
Temperature

There is a limited range of temperatures


effective for each resin

check heat applied with thermal test papers


narrow strips of paper calibrated in increments
of 2C
Time

Flat bed press mechanical timer

Continuous bed press conveyor belt speed


Pressure

During fusing it is necessary to apply


equal pressure all over the component
in order to ensure that:

An intimate contact is effected between the


top cloth and the interlining
The heat transfer is optimum
There is a controlled and even penetration of
the resin points into the fibers of the top
cloth
Peelstrength test

Peel strength : force required to pull


apart the top cloth and interlining

To check the strength of the bond


between top cloth and the interlining,
tensometer or a spring balance is used

Test is usually performed on a fused


strip about 70cm(warp) x 5cm
Dryclean and/or wash

Production garments should be subjected to


appropriate cleaning methods

One garment in each cloth and fusible


combination s.b. tested at least once every two
working weeks