Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

Interlining & Fusing

Types of resins
& substrate

Materials that are fused or sewn to specific areas

on the inside of garment or garment parts
They provide shape, support, stabilisation,
reinforcement, hand and improved performance
for garments.
Major function of Interlining

To produce & retain the desired aesthetic


To improve garment performance


General appearance

Hand, stability, durability, resiliency

An interlining may be stiff but lightweight

without a lot of bulk
Evaluation is done from two perspectives
1. performance during production
2. performance in the finished garments

Use interlining in small areas to reinforce

points of stress and weakness (yokes,
necklines, welt pockets, buttons, button
Use interlining in larger areas to provide
body, improve resiliency &
durability(whole front of jackets)
Characteristics of interlining

Factors that contribute to aesthetics &

performance of interlining are

1. Fiber content
2. Weight
3. Fabrication
Fiber content

a.PES & Nylon - used in fiber webs,

wovens & knits to contribute strength,
stability and resiliency w/o adding bulk &
b.Monofilament nylon - light wt. with little
bulk provide stiffness & resiliency w/b
of skirts & slacks
c.Cotton & rayon - mainly for softness and
d.Wool & hair - resiliency & compatibility
with woollen fabrics

0.4 to 4.0 oz/sq. Yd

Thumb rule : Heavy interlining for

heavy garments

Fiber webs



Foam laminates
Interlining applications

Two basic means of applying interlinings

1. Sew in
2. Fusing
Sewin Interlining
Sewn directly to the garment or garment
Require extra handling & manipulation during
sewing process (more cost, skill)
More flexible, less boardy, have fewer
performance problems than fusibles
Interlining may be attached at different
1. Before construction
2. During construction
3. Inserting the interlining after the component
is nearly completed (center front of shirts)
Fusible interlining

Fusible interlining is a base fabric having

a deposit of thermoplastic resin (usually
on one side only) which can be bonded
to another fabric by heat and pressure.

Fusing technology is concerned with.

Base cloths (substrate)
Coating systems
Machinery and equipment
Control of quality
Base cloths
The final cost of the garment is influenced
by the type and amount of fusibles used in
its construction
Base cloth influences the following
characteristics in the finished garment:
Handle and bulk
Shape retention
Shrinkage control
Crease recovery
Appearance in wear
Appearance after drycleaning or washing

Applied to base cloth

Resin when cold is not adhesive
On application of heat, resin penetrates
into the top cloth, solidifies upon
cooling, forming a bond between base
fabric and top fabric
Polyamides, polyester, PVC
Equipments used
for fusing
Coating systems

Coating -> applying resin to substrate

Coating methods
Scatter coating
Drydot coating
Coating methods

Scatter coating
Electronically controlled scattering head
deposits the resin on to the moving

Drydot coating
Resin is printed on the substrate by a
roller engraved with small indentations
which hold the resin powder
Coating methods

Resin is heatprocessed to form a net
which is then laminated to base cloth by
heat & pressure. During heating, net
melts & leaves a minute dot pattern on
the base cloth.
Machinery & Equipment

Mechanical medium required for fusing is

a press, and the three basic types of
press are:

Steam press
Flat bed press
Continuous fusing press
Roller presses
Steam press
Regular steam press
Used by factories which cannot invest

Unable to reach the required heat levels
Uneven pressure application
Time element completely dependent on the
Resin is originally activated by steam heat,
whatll happen when garments are pressed
Flat bed press

Purposebuilt fusing machine

Small table models & large floor
standing machines
Manual or mechanical loading & takeoff
Consists of padded top and bottom
bucks with heating elements
Bottom buck static
Top buck raised/lowered to open/close
Flat bed
Can have single or double trays

Tray is moved
from loading
position through
fusing and
cooling processes
and returns to the
operator for
Carousel fusing press
Continuous bed press
Operates on same principle as flat bed
Transports the assembly for fusing
through all the processes on a powered
conveyor belt

Two types:
Endtoend feed
Return feed
Continuous bed press

Endtoend feed

Parts are conveyed from loading area

at one end of machine, via fusing &
cooling areas, to the takeoff area at
the opposite end of the machine
Different sets of operators for loading
and unloading
Conveyor fusing
Continuous bed press

Return feed

Belt system returns the fused

components to the same end of the
machine at which they were loaded
Upper belt transports the parts through
fusing process, Lower belt returns the
fused parts
Same operator for loading and unloading
Continuous bed press

Continuous fusing presses are also

available for special purposes such as
the fusing of trouser and skirt
waistbands or other narrow
components which can be fused in
continuous tape form
Roller press

Used for fusing interlinings to piece goods prior

to cutting

Also used for small parts

More consistent in heat, time and pressure than

normal irons
Fusing is labourintensive operation
Some major developments which have
substantially reduced the manual
labour content:

modular stacker,
Modular stacker

This apparatus is positioned at the exit

of the continuous fusing press
Has 4 modules
Operating area of each module is one
quarter of the conveyor belt width
Stacker is activated by photocells(it can
sense the position of the parts)
Parts are removed by grasping

Operator places the cloth component on

the conveyor belt

Robotics system with visual capability

picks up and places the fusible on the top

Successful only with small components

Quality problems
associated with fusing

Colour change
Strike back
Strike through

Occurs due to inappropriate selection of

Resins liquefy and form a resin coating
i/o being retained in dotted manner
Stiff hand is produced
Reasons : over fusing, too much
adhesive, application of excessive heat
and/or pressure

Occurs when the face fabric or interlining

becomes puckered from delamination, poor
bonding, differential shrinkage, uneven
temperatures or pressure, and inconsistent use
of resin
Colour change

Temporary or permanent discolouration caused

by high temperatures and resins used in the
fusing process

Loss of bond between the interlining & shell

When resin migrates towards heat, becomes
embedded in the interlining substrate i/o shell
fabric, thereby preventing an effective bond
Shell fabric appears bubbled
Reasons : underfusing, overfusing, not enough
cooling time, incompatibility of resin & shell

When one garment part shrinks because of

application of fusible interlining and adjoining
pieces dont
High temp. needed for fusing causes the fabric
to shrink
accurate seaming becomes difficult
Creates puckered seams
Causes puckered surfaces of shell fabric
Strike back

Penetration of resin through the interlining


Causes resin to stick to fusing press, conveyor

belt, shuttle tray

Reason : too much resin for the type of fabric,

too much pressure
Strike through

Penetration of resin through the face of the

shell fabric

Reason : too much pressure, too high

fusing temp., too long fusing time

Generally occurs in case of sheer,

lightweight, nonabsorbent fabrics,
microfiber fabrics because of construction
and weight
Quality control of
Fusible interlinings are precision products
Its important to use the correct
equipment under strict control.

Factors that influence fusing quality are:

1. Temperature
2. Time
3. Pressure
4. Peelstrength
5. Dryclean and/or wash

There is a limited range of temperatures

effective for each resin

check heat applied with thermal test papers

narrow strips of paper calibrated in increments
of 2C

Flat bed press mechanical timer

Continuous bed press conveyor belt speed


During fusing it is necessary to apply

equal pressure all over the component
in order to ensure that:

An intimate contact is effected between the

top cloth and the interlining
The heat transfer is optimum
There is a controlled and even penetration of
the resin points into the fibers of the top
Peelstrength test

Peel strength : force required to pull

apart the top cloth and interlining

To check the strength of the bond

between top cloth and the interlining,
tensometer or a spring balance is used

Test is usually performed on a fused

strip about 70cm(warp) x 5cm
Dryclean and/or wash

Production garments should be subjected to

appropriate cleaning methods

One garment in each cloth and fusible

combination s.b. tested at least once every two
working weeks