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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.


LTE with simple SW upgrade of Smooth
Flexi Multiradio BTS migration
path
Choice of Various Configurations

3-sector RF Software Load 3-sector RF

System HS
PA System LTE

3-sector RF 3-sector RF
HSPA Software Load LTE
by Software Load

GSM
HSPA


3-sector RF
3-sector RF

i-HSPA Software Load LTE

GSM GSM

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Example: 3-sectorized site evolution
GSM modernization and 1800 MHz refarming, new LTE band later
2600 MHz LTE
LTE
1800 MHz
GSM/EDGE

2600
3-sector RF
1800 1800
3-sector RF 3-sector RF
1800 System LTE System LTE
3-sector RF
M M
System GS
M System GS System GS

Multiband
Multimode Multimod
e
Flexi 3-Sector Multiradio Flexi Multimode System Flexi 3-sector RF Module
RF Module Module LTE added added
+ Flexi GSM System Module GSM 1800 GSM 1800
LTE 1800 1+1+1 (3MHz) LTE 1800 1+1+1 (10MHz)
LTE 2600 1+1+1 (20MHz)
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The only SW definable BTS System Module in industry
FSMF : WCDMA, LTE FDD, LTE TDD and GSM modes by SW

all BTS Site functions (IP65, -35 +55 C) included:


Integrated Baseband & eNB/NB Control
IP Transport included, optional Transport sub-module
Integrated Ethernet switch
Optional DC Power distribution to RF units with fuses
Optical interfaces to RF Modules
External Alarms and Synchronization input & outputs

FSMF HW sales item including casing and fans


optional Power optional Transport
Distribution sub-module sub-module
FSMF core
slot for FBBA/B slot for FBBA/B

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LTE/EPC Network Elements

Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS
eNB
Mobility
Managem
Policy &
S6a ent Entity
Charging
MME S10 Rule
X2
ME S7
Function
- M
S1
PCRF
S11 Rx+
S1-U S5/S8 SGi
PDN
LTE-Uu
Serving PDN
Evolved
Node B Gateway Gateway
LTE-UE
(eNB) S-GW /P-GW

NOTE: Interface names are from draft specification and may not be the final interface names
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Retrieving alarm information in BTS Site Manager

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Identifying the alarm source 1. Select Alarm in Faults window
2. Click on icon Show source
3. Alarm source is identified (see also Source column
in the Fault view)

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LOS Alarm

LOS alarm is the root cause.


X2AP and S1AP alarms are just the consequences in this case as
physical interface is disconnected on which all applications (X2AP,
S1AP,..) should run.
Prerequisite for S1AP and X2AP setup is SCTP association which is in
this case also not established.
Therefore Transport layer connection failure is raised.

eNB is in BTS configured state as S1AP


link is down (no connection to MME)
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MME IP address

Check MME configuration and IP address in the


Commissioning Wizard

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Adjacent eNB configuration

In order to investigate adjacent eNBs configuration, check LNADJ


Managed Object(s) under LNBTS.

LNADJ Managed Object(s) are either created based on ANR feature


implementation (enbControlled) or manually (oamControlled).

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S1 Interface failure

If S1 interface failure is raised than SCTP association is


established between eNB and MME (eNB and MME exchange
SCTP heartbeats) but S1 setup request was not successful and
S1AP is down.

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Transport layer connection failure in X2 interface

Source: SCTP link for X2 interface.


The transport path (SCTP) for connection to an adjacent BTS has
broken. The reason for this can be an unplugged cable to the adjacent
BTS. No transport path available to pursue operation on the faulty
connection with the adjacent BTS.

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Failure in optical RP3 interface

Dirty or broken optical cable(s) and/or SFPs or wrong SFP inserted


either in FSM or FRM are main causes for RP3 alarm.

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Unit blocked - FRM

Block/Unblock will reset the unit.

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Module in Configuring State

Unblocked unit in configuring state.


Alarm Unit blocked is still active.

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Block/Unblock BTS

Block/Unblock BTS will reset the BTS.


TRS shall NOT be reset.

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Reset Site

Reset Site will reset both BTS and TRS.

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eNB connection to iOMS: M-Plane (OAM) link

Two iOMSs can be configured in eNB


(Primary and Secondary).
No alarm is raised in BTS Site Manager
in case eNB is disconnected from iOMS.

However, the link from NetAct to eNB


(through iOMS) is broken.

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Failure in connection between BTS and iOMS or 3rd party tool

Check connectivity to the 3rd party


tool if used for e.g. for subscriber
trace.

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GTP-U Path Failure alarm

GTP-U path supervision is optional feature.

Network element did not respond to the GTP-U: Echo


Request message within time.

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GTP-U Path Failure alarm continued

Check GTP-U path configuration and IP addreess of the SGW in the


Commissioning Wizard.
If GTP-U supervision is set to the value different than zero supervision is
switched on. The GTP-U object may not exist in the BTS configuration.

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SGW IP address set GTPU object is not affecting user plane traffic.
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VSWR alarm
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio VSWR
Indicates the amount of RF power in
reverse direction, being reflected from
faulty components in the antenna system.
It is used as a measure of impedance
mismatch between RF Modules/RRHs
transmit path and its load.

There are two VSWR alarm severities:


VSWR Minor: appears when the VSWR Minor threshold is exeeded (default 1.9).
VSWR Critical: appears when the VSWR Major threshold is exeeded (default 2.6).
all cells related to the faulty antenna line will be blocked.
Possible consequences, depending on the BTS configuration:
Radio resources switched off and
TX failure in MIMO are consequences of the VSWR alarm.
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Block Cell

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Block Cell - continued

Administrative state of the cell and


Blocking state are not the same.

eNB is only Integrated (but not on Air) as none of the configured cells is operational.
Signaling link to MME is active.

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Change Cell Administrative State

Cell Administrative state can be either:


unlocked
shutting down
locked

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Cell Administrative State shutting down

Cell final state is -


Locked

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IP Connectivity Test
IP Connectivity Test Scope

In case of multiple IP interfaces


(VLANs) configured in the eNodeB,
only an appropriate Source address
can reach its destination
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Save BTS snapshot

BTS Snapshot files are useful for troubleshooting purposes.

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LTE Performance Measurements
Grouped reporting Radio Access counters and their KPI's

Group
SAE GW M 8000
8xxx M 8001 M 8006
M 8004 MME M 8007
M 8011 M 8008
M 8012 Access/drop
M 8018 S1 signalling
Load
measurements eNB
eNB
LTE
Cell`s M 8005
M 8010

M 8009 Air interface


M 8013 QoS
M 8014
M 8015
Mobility/HO

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Capacity areas
Measurement areas within NW architecture

M8018 eNodeB Load MeasurementsHSS


Number of UE
eNB
See chapter 6 Mobility
M8001 Cell Load Measurements Managem
M8011 Cell Resource S6a ent Entity
Measurement
M8012 Cell Throughput X2 MME
ME
Measurements S 1 -M

M8020 Cell Availability


Measurements S1-U
M8005 UL Power and Quality
LTE-Uu
Measurements Serving
Evolved
M8010 DL Power and Quality Node B Gateway
Measurements LTE-UE
(eNB) M8000 S1AP Measurements
M8004 Transport Measurements
Data volume on X2 S1 setup
Throughput on X2 Number of S1 connections
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See chapter2013
9 Nokia Solutions and Networks.
See chapter
All rights reserved. 7
Capacity areas
Cell specific measurements
SAE GW

M8001 Cell Load Measurements


M8011 Cell Resource
Measurement
M8012 Cell Throughput
Measurements
M8020 Cell Availability
Measurements
M 8001 Cell Load packet scheduling
Traffic X
M8005related measurements
UL Power and Quality 2
Measurements
Traffic M 8012 SDU/MAC Cell throughput
M8010MDL 8011Power and Cell
PRB utilisation Quality
resource
Traffic per TTI
Measurements cell
cell
cell

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Capacity areas
Resource blocks & physical CH allocation (DL)
5 RBs
allocat
ed to
UEa
Resource

12 subcarriers
7 OFDM
symbols* x Block (RB)
12 subcarriers

= 180 kHz
Resource
Element

1 RB
allocated
to UEb

M8011 Cell Resource Measurements


Allocation of physical resource
32 blocks (DL)
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Utilization of physical resource
Call Setup Overview

UE Core/IMS
Physical Random Access S1
Channel E-Node B MME
Idle to active
RRC phase

PRACH preamble
TA, scheduling, ID
RRC connection request
RRC connection setup First KPI (like for WCDMA)
RRC setup success
RRC connection setup complete

NAS service request encapsulated in


connection
Call & service setup

RRC connection setup complete


service
Security check/command encapsulated in Connection setup
NAS phase

request
RRC connection reconfiguration
RRC connection
Reconfiguration complete
SIP invite
SIP session

process Terminating
SIP OK / ringing
UE
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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)

UE
S1
E-Node B
Idle to active RRC phase

MME

M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 RRCConnectionRequest
M8013C20:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS
M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2 RRCConnectionSetup

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete
M8007C8: SRB1 setup completions
M8013C5: Signaling connection
(with encapsulated
establishment completions
NAS phase

NAS message)

M8007 Radio Bearer Measurements


M8013 UE State Measurements

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RRC Connection Setup Overview (Positive)

UE
S1
E-Node B
Idle to active RRC phase

MME

M8013C17:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S
M8013C18:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT
M8013C19:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D
1 RRCConnectionRequest
M8013C20:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS
M8013C21:SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_EMG

M8007C7: SRB1 setup attempts


2 RRCConnectionSetup

3 RRCConnectionSetupComplete

(with encapsulated
NAS phase

NAS message)

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RRC Connection Request (Negative)

UE
S1
E-Node B MME

RRCConnectionRequest
1
RAC accepts or
rejects RRC M8013C8
Connection
Request Signaling connection
2 RRCConnectionReject establishment
failures due to rejection by RRM
RAC
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eN MME
B

1 RRCConnectionRequest

2 RRCConnectionSetup

M8013C6
3 Missing RRCConnectionSetupComplete Signaling connection
establishment
failures due RRC setup
completions
missing
Does NOT trigger M8007C9/C12 !!
UE stays in Idle Mode

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RRC Connection Setup (Negative)

UE eNB MME

1 RRCConnectionRequest

2 RRCConnectionSetup

M8013C7
3 Signaling connection
Erreneous or Incomplete
RRCConnectionSetupComplete establishment
failures due RRC setup
completions
error
Triggers also M8007C9/C12
SRB1/2 setup failures
UE stays in Idle Mode
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RRC Connection Setup Counter Summary

M8013C8

M8013C6

M8007C9/C12
M8013C7

M8007C8/C11
At least:
M8007C7/C10 M8013C5 from all
attempts
* 100 = Success setup ratio
minus rejects =
M8007C8/11
M8007C7/10)
Rejections by Missing/wrong
RRM RAC completions
Setup attempts Successful
39 setups 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
RRC Connection Setup KPIs

E-UTRAN RRC Connection Setup Success Ratio


Shows the setup success ratio for the elementary procedure "RRC
connection establishment" used to set up a radio connection from UE
to eNB

Summarization
Logical formula formula (PI ID) Summarization formula (Abbreviation)

RCC Con SSR = (RRC 100 * sum ([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_COMP]) / sum


connection setup ([SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_S]+
completions / RRC [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MT]+
connection requests) [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_MO_D]+
* 100% [SIGN_CONN_ESTAB_ATT_OTHERS])

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SAE Bearer Architecture
SAE Bearer spans the complete network, from UE over EUTRAN
and EPS up to the connector of the external PDN.
The SAE bearer is associated with a quality of service (QoS)
usually expressed by a label or QoS Class Identifier (QCI).

LTE-Uu eNB Serving PDN


Gateway Gateway
S1-U S5 Sgi
cell PDN

End-to-End Service

External Bearer
SAE Bearer Service (EPS Bearer) Service

SAE Radio Bearer Service (SAE RB) SAE Access Bearer Service S5/S8 Bearer Service

Physical Radio Bearer Service S1 Physical Bearer Service

E-UTRAN EPC PDN

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Attach Procedure (Positive)

UE eN MM SG PG HS
Random Access B E W W S
procedure

RRCConnectionSetupComplete
(EMM: Attach Request, ESM: PDN Connectivity Request)

IntialUEMessage
(EMM: Attach Request, ESM: PDN Connectivity Request) EIR
ME identity check procedure ME identity check procedure

Authentication / Security Authentication / Security

Location updating

CreateSessionRequest

7.Session creation
CreateSessionRensponse

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Attach Procedure (Positive)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW HSS


M8000C0 Initial context setup
requests
M8006C0 EPS bearer setup
InitialContextSetupRequest attempts
(EMM: Attach Accept, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Request)
M8007C0 Data RB setup attempts
RRCConnectionReconfiguration
M8007C10: SRB2 setup attempts
(EMM: Attach Accept, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Request )
M8007C1 Data RB setup completions
RRCConnectionReconfigurationCompl M8007C11: SRB2 SETUP SUCC
ete
InitialContextSetupResponse
M8000C1 Initial context setup
completions
ULInformationTransf M8006C1 EPS bearer setup completions
er
(EMM: Attach Complete, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Complete)
UplinkNASTransp
ort
(EMM: Attach Complete, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Complete)
First Uplink
Data Modify Bearer
Request M8000 S1 AP Measurements: eNo
Modify Bearer
Response
M8006 EPS Bearer Measurements
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First Downlink M8007 Radio Bearer Measuremen
Data 2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Attach Procedure (Positive)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW HSS


M8000C0 Initial context setup
requests
M8006C0 EPS bearer setup
InitialContextSetupRequest attempts
(EMM: Attach Accept, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Request)
M8007C0 Data RB setup attempts
RRCConnectionReconfiguration M8007C10: SRB2 setup attempts
(EMM: Attach Accept, ESM: Activate Default EPS Bearer Context Request )
M8007C1 Data RB setup completions
RRCConnectionReconfigurationCompl M8007C11: SRB2 SETUP complete
ete
InitialContextSetupResponse

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NAS Service Request (Negative)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW HSS

InitialContextSetupFailure
or M8000C8
No response from MME
S1 setup failure no response from
MME

M8000C9
S1 setup failure indicated by MME

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NAS Service Request (Negative)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW HSS

InitialContextSetupRequest

RRCConnectionReconfiguration

M8007C2
RRCConnectionReconfigurationFailure
Data bearer setup failure

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NAS Service Request (Negative)

UE eNB MME SGW PGW HSS

InitialContextSetupRequest
M8000C2/C3/C4/C5
RRCConnectionReconfiguration
Initial context setup failure due to
Radio network layer
Transport layer
RRCConnectionReconfigurationCompl
ete Resource reasons
InitialContextSetupRespon Other reasons
se (with failure cause)

M8006C2/C3/C4/C5
EPS bearer setup failure due to
Radio network layer
Transport layer
Resource reasons
Other reasons

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S1 Setup Procedure

eNB MME
M8000C6: S1 Setup
attempt
S1AP: S1 SETUP REQUEST
eNB global ID, eNB name, supported TAs and Paging DRX configuration

SCTP: SACK

M8000C7: S1 Setup complete


S1AP: S1 SETUP RESPONSE
ServedGUMMEI, Relative MME capacity

SCTP: SACK

GUMMEI: Globally Unique MME Identity


TA: Tracking Area
DRX: Discontinue Reception
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S1 Setup Counter Summary


M8000C8

M8000C6
M8000C7
M8000C9

S1 setup S1 setup
attempts failures /
completions

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LTE X2AP (8022) New in RL30
It provides measurements related to X2 Setup procedure.
The counters are updated at the originating eNB site

eNB1 X2 Setup Procedure:


eNB2
Positive
M8022C0: X2 setup X2AP: X2 SETUP REQUEST
attempt

X2AP: X2 SETUP RESPONSE

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LTE X2AP (8022)
It provides measurements related to X2 Setup procedure.
The counters are updated at the originating eNB site

eNB1 X2 Setup Procedure:


eNB2
Negative
M8022C0: X2 setup X2AP: X2 SETUP REQUEST
attempt

X2AP: X2 SETUP FAILURE


M8022C1: X2 setup
failure

message or expiration of Timer (wait for X2 SETUP


RESPONSE)
3GPP TS 36.423

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Data Radio Bearer Setup Counter Summary

M8007C2

M8007C0
M8007C1

Data bearer Data bearer


setup attempts setup failures /
completions

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Handover Types LTE

other RAT
intersystem HO intersystem HO
triggered by other triggered by
RAT e.g.
E-UTRAN macro cell - coverage of
E-UMTS
- service
- load
Inter frequency HO

E-UTRAN micro cells

Intra-frequency HO intra-frequency HO
(intra eNB) (inter eNB, inter MME)
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Handover Procedure

-> Lossless
Packets are forwarded from the source to the target
-> Network-controlled
Target cell is selected by the network, not by the UE
Handover control in E-UTRAN (not in packet core)
-> UE-assisted
Measurements are made and reported by the UE to the network
-> Late path switch
Only once the handover is successful, the packet core is involved

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Handover Procedure

Before Handover Radio Late path


handover preparation handover switching
S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P- S-GW + P-GW S-GW + P-GW
GW
MME MME MME MME

Target
Sourc eNB X2
e eNB

= Data in radio = S1 signalling


= Signalling in radio = X2 signalling
= GTP tunnel
55 = GTP signalling
2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Intra eNodeB Handover (Positive)

UE Source Target MM SG
eNB Control
RRC Measurement eNB E W
UL/DL Data (source cell)
L2 UL Allocation M8009 Intra eNodeB Handover Measure
RRC Measurement On level of source cell
Reports Handover
Handover Handover decision
decision
decision M8009C1 Total handover decisions
Admission
Admission control
control and
and
resources
resources allocation
allocation on
on Handover preparation

(hardcoded)
THOoverall
Timer
target
target cell
cell M8009C2 Attempted intra eNodeB handover
preparations
L2 DL Allocation
RRC Connection
Reconfiguration
L2 Synchronization Handover Execution
M8009C6 Attempted intra eNodeB handovers
L2 UL Allocation + timing
advance
RRC Connection
Release
Release source
Reconfiguration Complete
source Handover completion
56 resources
resources
M8009C7 Successful intra eNodeB handovers
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UL/DL Data (target cell)


Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source Target MM SG
eNB Control
RRC Measurement eNB E W
UL/DL Data (source cell)
L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement M8009C0


Reports Handover
Handover Total not started HO
decision
decision preparations

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Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source Target MM SG
eNB Control
RRC Measurement eNB E W
UL/DL Data (source cell)
L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement
Reports Handover M8009C3: Failed intra eNodeB
Handover
decision HO preparations due to
decision
Admission
Admission control
control and
and admission control (internal
resources
resources allocation
allocation on
on eNB trigger)
target
target cell
cell
M8009C5: Failed intra eNodeB
HO preparations due to other
reason

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2013 Nokia Solutions and Networks. All rights reserved.
Intra eNodeB Handover (Negative)

UE Source Target MM SG
eNB Control
RRC Measurement eNB E W
UL/DL Data (source cell)
L2 UL Allocation

RRC Measurement
Reports Handover
Handover
decision
decision
Admission
Admission control
control and
and
resources
resources allocation
allocation on
on
target M8009C12: Intra eNB HO drops due to RL
target cell
cell
L2 DL Allocation failure
M8009C13: Intra eNB HO drops due to
RRC Connection other failure
Reconfiguration M8009C8
L2 Synchronization missing
Total intra eNodeB HO failures
due to timer
RRC Connection Reconfiguration THOoverall expires
Error or missing
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Thank You

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