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LINEAR MEASUREMENTS

V Vinayaka Ram
Incorrect Wat of Delineating the
Area
Methods of Linear
Measurements
Direct
Pacing
Passometer (Watch like attached with leg Number of
paces)

Pedometer (Direct distance measurements by inputting


length of the pace)

Odometer (Wheel Revolutions Concept)


Speedometer (Machanised odometer)
Chaining
Optical
Electro Magnetic
Instruments for Chaining

Chain or Tape (IS 1492-1970)


Metric Chain (5m, 10m, 20m, 30m)
Routinely used
Gunters or Surveyor's Chain (66, 100
Links)
10 Sq. Chains = 1 Acre
Engineers Chain (100 , 100 links)
Revenue Chain (33, 16 links For Cadastral
Surveys)
Steel Band or Band Chain 20m or 30m
Brass studs at every 20cm -
Instruments for Chaining

Arrows
Pegs
Ranging Rods
Offset Rods
Cross Staff
Plumb Bob
Line Ranger
RANGING OUT SURVEY LINES
Direct Ranging
Ranging By Eye
Ranging by Optical Line Ranger
Indirect or Reciprocal Ranging
CHAINING ON UNEVEN OR
SLOPING GROUND
Direct Measurement

Indirect Measurements:
By measuring angle of inclination
(Clinometers)
By measuring difference of levels
Erriors in Chaining

Erroneous Length of Chain (Cumulative +/-)


Bad Ranging (Cumulative +)
Careless Holding and Marking (Compensating +/-)
Bad Straightening (Cumulative +)
Non Horizontality (Cumulative +)
Sag in Chain (Cumulative +)
Variation in Temperature (Cumulative +/-)
Variation in Pull (Compensating +/ or Cumulative
+/-)
Personal Mistakes (Displacement of arrows,
Miscounting the chain line, Misreading, erroneous
booking)
Tape Corrections
For Absolute Length
For Temperature
(Tm To) L
where is coefficient of thermal expansion of the tape metal
Tm is the mean temperature measured in the field
To is the temperature at which the tape is standardized
L is the measured Length
For Pull or Tension
[{(P P0) L} / (A E)]
P Pull applied during the measurement (N)
P0 Standard Pull (N)
L Measured Length (m)
A Cross sectional area of the tape (cm 2)
E Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (N/cm 2)
(Pull applied in the field shall be less than 20 times the weight of the tape)
For Sag
For Slope
For Alignment
Reduction to Sea Level etc.
CHAIN SURVEYING

Lines
Main Survey Lines
Base Lines
Check Lines
Perpendicular Offsets
Oblique Offsets
Land Boundary Line
Tie Lines
Well Conditioned Triangle
No angle shall be less than 300
Best Case Equilateral Triangle
CHAIN SURVEYING
CONDITIONS TO BE FULFILLED

Mutual Visibility of Survey Stations

Number of survey lines shall be minimum

One or two base lines can be allowed and they must


intersect in the form of the letter X

Lines must run through level ground as much as possible

Main lines must form well conditioned triangles

Sufficient check lines must be provided

Short offsets are preferred

Main survey line should not pass through obstacles

Main survey lines shall be within the boundary of the


property to be surveyed
CHAIN SURVEYING

Field Book
Single Line Booking
Double Line Booking Popular
Limit of Precision in Chaining
Rough Terrain: 1:250 (An error of 1m in
250m)
Good Conditions: 1:500
Excellent Conditions: 1:1000
Steel Tape with Accessories under good
conditions: 1:2000
Invar Tape with Accessories: 1:10000
Instruments for measuring
Right Angles
Open Cross Staff
French Cross Staff
Adjustable Cross Staff
Optical Square
Prism Square
CROSS STAFFS
OPTICAL SQUARE

Mirror at A Fully Silvered


Mirror at B Silvered at top and un silvered at bottom
OFFSETS
Types of Offsets
Perpendicular
Oblique

Number of Offsets:
Short and at regular intervals
Closer Intervals for Curved
boundary
Straight Lines two end offsets plus
one at the Centre as a check
Fence or railway line crosses a chain
line
Take Home Assignment 1 (9.8.2016)

Explain How Latitudes and Longitudes


are measured with suitable Pictorial
representations. Include the applications
of both latitude and longitude in detail.

Submit MS-WORD version of assignment

Submission Deadline Closes by 12:00PM


Mid Night on 17th August 2016

Late submissions will not be entertained


CHALLENGES IN CHAIN SURVEYING
To Erect Perpendicular to a chain line
from a point on it
3-4-5 Method
Rope Method
By creating similar triangles with
common altitude
Many other ways of doing this
Explore
CHALLENGES IN CHAIN SURVEYING
To Drop a Perpendicular in a Chain Line
from a point out side
CHALLENGES IN CHAIN
SURVEYING
To run a parallel to Chain Line
through a Given Point
To run a parallel to a given in-accessible line
through a given point (AB is the inaccessible
Line and C is the given point)
OBSTACLES IN CHAINING

Obstacles to Chaining

Obstacles to Ranging

Obstacles to Chaining and


Ranging
OBSTACLES TO CHAINING
OBSTACLES TO CHAINING
OBSTACLES TO RANGING
OBSTACLES TO RANGING
OBSTACLES TO CHAINING AND
RANGING
PLOTTING A CHAIN SURVEY
PLOTTING A CHAIN SURVEY
PLOTTING A CHAIN SURVEY
PLOTTING A CHAIN SURVEY
THE
END

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