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Welding

Distortion
Control
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What is distortion ?
Before distortion
Undesirable change in
original shape is called
DISTORTION
After distortion
Distortion occurs due to heat input
and mechanical forces.

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Experiment No 1:
DURING HEATED CONDITION

X BEFORE HEATING AND AFTER COOLING


X + 9X

Uniform heating of a steel bar through out of its entire volume -

considerable expansion take place in all direction.


Now, if cooling of the bar is allowed evenly - retain its original
shape and size without distortion.
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So, we can say that,
Uniform heating and cooling of
a component that can expand
and contract does not cause
any appreciable distortion

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Experiment No 2 :

CLAMPING CLAMPING
JAWS JAWS

STEEL BAR BEFORE STEEL BAR AFTER HEATING


HEATING & COOLING DOWN
Repeat experiment no:1 but heat the steel bar in
clamp condition and see the changes in shape and size
after cooling.
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So, we can conclude that,
Restraint hinders free expansion and
contraction and causes material to

deform resulting in

Distortion
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Heat input

Gas cutting/heating welding

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Distortion in case of spot heating?

HEAT SOURCE

HEATING
Heated area expands
Expansion restrained by surrounding solid area
Compressive stresses are developed
Further compressive stress leads to plastic
deformation
Material bulges at the spot towards heat source RKS,HZW
side
Distortion in case of spot heating?
COOLING

Spot area tends to contract.

Contraction restrained by surrounding hot area.

Material goes back to original position with plastic

deformation.

Resulting distortion

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Longitudinal distortion
WELD BEAD
ORIGINAL POSITION

WELD
BEAD

LONGITUDINAL AFTER WELDING


DISTORTION
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Distortion in Butt welds
Longitudinal Distortion

It is contraction along the length of weld bead

It is maximum along weld bead and decreases at


points away from the bead.

In C/S of shell it lead to reduction in diameter at the


weld

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LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
(A) BUTT WELDS IN CS/LAS

LS = 3. I .L / 100,000 t

LS = longitudinal shrinkage (mm)


I = welding current(amp)
L = length of weld (mm)
t = plate thickness (mm)

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EXAMPLE (LS IN BUTT WELDS)
Calculate LS for 6mm thick CS plate
welded by SMAW using 200 A current.

Solution : LS = 3. 200. L / 100,000 x 6


= L/1000 mm

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LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
(B) FILLET WELD

LS = 25 Aw/ Ap
Aw = Weld X-sectional area
Ap = Resisting X-sectional area
Ap
Aw

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EXAMPLE OF LS IN FILLET
WELD
6

All dimensions in mm
75
8x8

6
100

LS = 1.52 mm
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Distortion in Butt welds
Transverse Distortion
It is the shrinkage perpendicular to the weld.

It leads to the development of high residual stress and


also cracking in case of highly restrained joint.

It is not uniform along the length of the plate

It is lesser at that end of plate where bead is started.

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Transverse distortion
WELD BEAD
ORIGINAL POSITION

TRANSVERSE WELD BEAD


DISTORTION AFTER WELDING
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TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE IN
SINGLE PASS BUTT JOINTS
S = 0.2 Aw / t + 0.05 d

Where
S = Transverse Shrinkage (mm)
Aw = Cross sectional Area of Weld (mm2)
t = Thickness of Plates (mm)
d = Root Opening (mm)

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TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
DURING MULTIPASS WELDING
TS = TS0 + b (log w - log w0)

Where
TS = Total Transverse Shrinkage
TS0 = Transverse Shrinkage after first pass
w = Total weight of weld metal
w0 = weight of first pass weld metal
b = a coefficient

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Effect of Various Procedures on
Transverse Shrinkage of Butt Welds
Procedures Effect on TS
Root Gap TS increases with increase in RG
Joint design Single Vee produces more TS than
double V
Electrode dia.
TS decreases with increase in electrode
dia.
Degree of constraint
TS decreases with Degree of constraint
Peening TS decreases by peening
Gouging & repairs TS increases by these operations.

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TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
1. For T joints with two continuous fillets.
TS = Leg of fillet Weld (l) x 1.02
Bottom Plate thickness (tb)

All dimensions in mm.


lxl
tb

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TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
2. For intermittent fillet welds , a correcting

factor of proportional length of fillet weld to

total length of joint should be used.

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TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
l
t
t
l
(3) For fillet welds in a lap joints between
plates of equal thickness (two welds)

TS = Leg of fillet Weld (l) x 1.52


Plate thickness (t)
All dimensions in mm.
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Angular distortion

AFTER WELDING

ORIGINAL POSITION

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Distortion in Butt welds
Angular Distortion
It is the bending transverse to the weld. Due to
non-uniform heating and cooling along the
thickness of plate.

This is the main source of mismatch and


dimensional inaccuracy in large welded
structures

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Angular Distortion in Butt Joints
1. Use Both Side Welding Technique in place of Single Side Welding

t1
g = 3 mm
t t3
t2 t3 = 2 mm

t1 + 1/2 t3
= 0.6
t RKS,HZW
Angular Distortion in Fillet Welds
W W
t
AD
AD
t
l

AD = 0.0076 . W . l1.3
t2
Where
AD= Angular Distortion, mm
W=flange width, mm
l = weld leg length, mm
t = flange thickness, mm
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Example of Angular Distortion
in Fillet Welds
Find the angular distortion in a double fillet
weld of a T-joint between a flange 1000 mm
wide and a vertical member when the thickness
of both the members is 6 mm and the weld leg
length = 8 mm
Solution.
0.0076 x 1000 x (8)1.3
AD = = 3.15 mm.
(6)2

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Multiple Restrained Fillet Welds

AD

L
AD 2
1 x 1
=
L 4 L 2

AD = Angular distortion, mm. x = distance from weld to the


L = span length, mm. point where distortion is to be
= angular change, radians determined, mm.
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Example of AD in Multiple
Restrained Fillet Welds

In multiple restrained fillet welds the span


length is 1 m and the angular change is 9 0 at
a distance of 400 mm from the span end, find
the distortion.
Solution.
By putting L = 1000 mm, = 90 = 0.1571 rad.
x = L/2 - 400 = 100 mm in the Formula,
AD = 14.164 mm.
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Distortion in T-joints
Angular distortion

Before welding After welding

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Distortion in T-joints
Longitudinal distortion
(a) pulling effect towards neutral axis

Section A - A A
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Distortion in T-Stiffener
Longitudinal distortion
(b) pulling effect of welds above neutral axis.

Section A - A
A
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To prevent distortion :-
(A)
Reduce the effective
shrinkage force.

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Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-1) Keep the angle of weld joint to the
barest minimum.
50 deg. +/- 5 deg.

keep the angle of weld joint 45 deg.

MINIMUM ANGLE, LESS WELDING , LESS HEAT INPUT


Hence less distortion
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Reduce effective shrinkage force
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRE MENT
20 MM (+5/-1)

KEEP REINFORCEMENT UP TO 19 MM

(A-2) Do not keep root gap more than required


(A-3) Do not do over- welding.

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7 mm +3/-1 keep fillet size 18 mm/6 mm

19 mm +3/-1

50 deg. +/- 5 deg.

keep the angle of weld joint 45 deg.

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Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-4) Minimize no of passes larger size of
electrodes

MORE NO OF PASSES LESS NO OF PASSES

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Reduce effective shrinkage force

(A-5) Place welds near the neutral axis

N. A.

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To prevent distortion :-

(B)
Make shrinkage work
for us

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Make shrinkage work for us
(B.1) Pre cambering OR Pre bending in plate

WEDGE

CLAMPS ALONG EDGE

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Make shrinkage work for us
(B-2) Keep over dimensions OR over
bend before welding

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To prevent distortion :-

(C)
Balance shrinkage force
with other forces

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Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces.

6
2 5
5

(C-1) 4

4 3
Do Sequence welding 3

6 1 1

4
1
2
3 RKS,HZW
Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces
(C-2) Back step welding

1 2 3 4

Welding progresion

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Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces
(C-3) Back to back clamping for welding
PART -I
END PLATES
TACKED

PART -II
Two identical parts should be tacked back to back
together before welding as shown
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Back to back welding of saddles

SADDLE-
I

WELDING TACKS SADDLE-II

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Good working
methods for
welding distortion
in our routine work
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Bulging of tube sheet of heat
exchanger
TUBE SHEET

SHELL TUBE SHEET BULGES DURING SHELL


TO TUBE SHEET WELDING
Welding of shell to tube sheet
LEADS TO
Improper seating of gasket and
leakage
Non uniform projection of tube
ends from tube sheet face
CONTROLLED BY
Back to back
Weld optimum fillet size RKS,HZW
Distortion of shell long seams
Typical weld sequence and distortion observed
58T MIN LAS.

D/4
1184 mm DIA

3200
JOINT DETAIL WELD SEQUENCE
600
OUTSIDE 2
SAW
/3T
2
1
T SMAW
3 BACK
1
/3T GOUGING SAW
3
INSIDE
600 0.2mm GAP RKS,HZW
Distortion of shell long seams

( D/4 TEMPLATE READING

LOCATION
STAGE
1 2 3
1 SET-UP STAGE 4+ 2+ 2+
2 AFTER SEAL RUN 6+ 4+ 5+
3 AFTE R O/S WELDING 8+ 6+ 8+
4 AFTER BACK GOUGING 6+ 5+ 5+
5 AFTER I/S WELDING 4+ 2.5 + 4+
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Distortion of circumferential seams in shell

Caused by longitudinal shrinkage


of weld
Reduction in diameter around
circumferential seam
Reduction in shell length
C/S
SUGARCANE
CIRCSEAM EFFECT
JIINT
SHELL
Controlled by

Provide compression spiders on


both sides of C/S
Design weld joint to have minimum
weld metal deposit
Use restricted heat input
( minimum no. of passes )
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Gauge for checking long seam
distortion in plate stage welding
GAUGE
FOR CHECKING

D C B A

PICK IN OR PICK OUT = A-B OR C-D

(MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE TO BE CONSIDERED)


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Gauge for checking distortion of
T- joint welding

GAUGE FOR CHECKING


A

PRE-TILT OF T-STIFFENER = A - C
C

SAGGING OF T-STIFFENER = A - B

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Distortion in flange to pipe welding
FLANGE WARPS
TEMP. SUPPORTS FLANGE

FLANGE FLANGE

PIPE
AFTER BEFORE
WELDING WELDING
PIPE PIPE

Heavy fillet weld on flange to pipe joint leads to warping


of flange
Causing no machining allowance on flange face thickness
CONTROL : back to back welding
Temporary set up two flanges back to back as shown
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Sinking in of nozzle on shell
Controlling sinking
Provide rigid internal jacks
/supports with moon plates
/compression spider
Maintain optimum weld
preparation and fit up to avoid
extra weld deposit
Keep excess nozzle projection
at set up stage to compensate
for sinking

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Distortion During Oxy-acetylene
Cutting
PLATE

STRIP
STRIP CUTTING FROM PLATE
The strip tends to bow outwards as shown
Distortion ( bow ) results due to unequal heating of
the metal
During cutting when hot, the bow is more on cooling
& the bow diminishes slightly
Finally the strip never returns to its intended shape
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Controlling distortion during oxy-
acetylene cutting
PLATE

TORCH I
STRIP

DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
FOR TORCHES

SCRAP 10 mm TORCH II

METHOD I
Two Torches Technique
Mark strip of required width leaving 10 mm distance
Move two torches simultaneously carrying out cutting operation

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Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
PLATE
STRIPS

KERF HOLE

Method II
Mark the strips with kerf allowance on the plate
Drill small hole in kerf allowance at distance 20 mm away from
the edge
Start cut from drilled hole in kerf to the end such that the strip
is attached to main plate
Cut the balance strip attached to the plate RKS,HZW
Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
30 mm

12 mm THK
PLATE

R250 mm

30 mm 50 mm
PIERCE
START
Aim : To get undistorted segment from the plate of size as
shown
Specific Steps
Mark leaving 30mm Dist. from edge
Start with pierce cut as shown instead of starting from the
edge
Follow the path as shown
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Reduction in distortion
Less weld edge preparation.
Less welding current as per WPS.
Higher base metal thickness.
Lesser welding passes
Do not over weld
More distortion in stainless steel then carbon
steel.
Less offset-Lesser welding-Lower distortion

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Reduction in distortion
Provide intermittent welding
Place weld near the neutral axis
Balancing weld around neutral axis
Back-step welding
Sequence welding
Pre bending OR Pre cambering
Back to back clamping
Double operator welding techniqueRKS,HZW