You are on page 1of 62

# Welding

Distortion
Control
RKS,HZW
What is distortion ?
Before distortion
Undesirable change in
original shape is called
DISTORTION
After distortion
Distortion occurs due to heat input
and mechanical forces.

RKS,HZW
Experiment No 1:
DURING HEATED CONDITION

X + 9X

## considerable expansion take place in all direction.

Now, if cooling of the bar is allowed evenly - retain its original
shape and size without distortion.
RKS,HZW
So, we can say that,
Uniform heating and cooling of
a component that can expand
and contract does not cause
any appreciable distortion

RKS,HZW
Experiment No 2 :

CLAMPING CLAMPING
JAWS JAWS

## STEEL BAR BEFORE STEEL BAR AFTER HEATING

HEATING & COOLING DOWN
Repeat experiment no:1 but heat the steel bar in
clamp condition and see the changes in shape and size
after cooling.
RKS,HZW
So, we can conclude that,
Restraint hinders free expansion and
contraction and causes material to

deform resulting in

Distortion
RKS,HZW
Heat input

## Gas cutting/heating welding

RKS,HZW
Distortion in case of spot heating?

HEAT SOURCE

HEATING
Heated area expands
Expansion restrained by surrounding solid area
Compressive stresses are developed
Further compressive stress leads to plastic
deformation
Material bulges at the spot towards heat source RKS,HZW
side
Distortion in case of spot heating?
COOLING

## Material goes back to original position with plastic

deformation.

Resulting distortion

RKS,HZW
Longitudinal distortion
ORIGINAL POSITION

WELD

## LONGITUDINAL AFTER WELDING

DISTORTION
RKS,HZW
Distortion in Butt welds
Longitudinal Distortion

## In C/S of shell it lead to reduction in diameter at the

weld

RKS,HZW
LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
(A) BUTT WELDS IN CS/LAS

LS = 3. I .L / 100,000 t

## LS = longitudinal shrinkage (mm)

I = welding current(amp)
L = length of weld (mm)
t = plate thickness (mm)

RKS,HZW
EXAMPLE (LS IN BUTT WELDS)
Calculate LS for 6mm thick CS plate
welded by SMAW using 200 A current.

## Solution : LS = 3. 200. L / 100,000 x 6

= L/1000 mm

RKS,HZW
LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
(B) FILLET WELD

LS = 25 Aw/ Ap
Aw = Weld X-sectional area
Ap = Resisting X-sectional area
Ap
Aw

RKS,HZW
EXAMPLE OF LS IN FILLET
WELD
6

All dimensions in mm
75
8x8

6
100

LS = 1.52 mm
RKS,HZW
Distortion in Butt welds
Transverse Distortion
It is the shrinkage perpendicular to the weld.

## It leads to the development of high residual stress and

also cracking in case of highly restrained joint.

## It is lesser at that end of plate where bead is started.

RKS,HZW
Transverse distortion
ORIGINAL POSITION

DISTORTION AFTER WELDING
RKS,HZW
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE IN
SINGLE PASS BUTT JOINTS
S = 0.2 Aw / t + 0.05 d

Where
S = Transverse Shrinkage (mm)
Aw = Cross sectional Area of Weld (mm2)
t = Thickness of Plates (mm)
d = Root Opening (mm)

RKS,HZW
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
DURING MULTIPASS WELDING
TS = TS0 + b (log w - log w0)

Where
TS = Total Transverse Shrinkage
TS0 = Transverse Shrinkage after first pass
w = Total weight of weld metal
w0 = weight of first pass weld metal
b = a coefficient

RKS,HZW
Effect of Various Procedures on
Transverse Shrinkage of Butt Welds
Procedures Effect on TS
Root Gap TS increases with increase in RG
Joint design Single Vee produces more TS than
double V
Electrode dia.
TS decreases with increase in electrode
dia.
Degree of constraint
TS decreases with Degree of constraint
Peening TS decreases by peening
Gouging & repairs TS increases by these operations.

RKS,HZW
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
1. For T joints with two continuous fillets.
TS = Leg of fillet Weld (l) x 1.02
Bottom Plate thickness (tb)

## All dimensions in mm.

lxl
tb

RKS,HZW
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
2. For intermittent fillet welds , a correcting

## total length of joint should be used.

RKS,HZW
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
l
t
t
l
(3) For fillet welds in a lap joints between
plates of equal thickness (two welds)

## TS = Leg of fillet Weld (l) x 1.52

Plate thickness (t)
All dimensions in mm.
RKS,HZW
Angular distortion

AFTER WELDING

ORIGINAL POSITION

RKS,HZW
Distortion in Butt welds
Angular Distortion
It is the bending transverse to the weld. Due to
non-uniform heating and cooling along the
thickness of plate.

## This is the main source of mismatch and

dimensional inaccuracy in large welded
structures

RKS,HZW
Angular Distortion in Butt Joints
1. Use Both Side Welding Technique in place of Single Side Welding

t1
g = 3 mm
t t3
t2 t3 = 2 mm

t1 + 1/2 t3
= 0.6
t RKS,HZW
Angular Distortion in Fillet Welds
W W
t
t
l

AD = 0.0076 . W . l1.3
t2
Where
W=flange width, mm
l = weld leg length, mm
t = flange thickness, mm
RKS,HZW
Example of Angular Distortion
in Fillet Welds
Find the angular distortion in a double fillet
weld of a T-joint between a flange 1000 mm
wide and a vertical member when the thickness
of both the members is 6 mm and the weld leg
length = 8 mm
Solution.
0.0076 x 1000 x (8)1.3
(6)2

RKS,HZW
Multiple Restrained Fillet Welds

L
1 x 1
=
L 4 L 2

## AD = Angular distortion, mm. x = distance from weld to the

L = span length, mm. point where distortion is to be
= angular change, radians determined, mm.
RKS,HZW
Restrained Fillet Welds

## In multiple restrained fillet welds the span

length is 1 m and the angular change is 9 0 at
a distance of 400 mm from the span end, find
the distortion.
Solution.
By putting L = 1000 mm, = 90 = 0.1571 rad.
x = L/2 - 400 = 100 mm in the Formula,
RKS,HZW
Distortion in T-joints
Angular distortion

## Before welding After welding

RKS,HZW
Distortion in T-joints
Longitudinal distortion
(a) pulling effect towards neutral axis

Section A - A A
RKS,HZW
Distortion in T-Stiffener
Longitudinal distortion
(b) pulling effect of welds above neutral axis.

Section A - A
A
RKS,HZW
To prevent distortion :-
(A)
Reduce the effective
shrinkage force.

RKS,HZW
Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-1) Keep the angle of weld joint to the
barest minimum.
50 deg. +/- 5 deg.

## MINIMUM ANGLE, LESS WELDING , LESS HEAT INPUT

Hence less distortion
RKS,HZW
Reduce effective shrinkage force
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRE MENT
20 MM (+5/-1)

KEEP REINFORCEMENT UP TO 19 MM

## (A-2) Do not keep root gap more than required

(A-3) Do not do over- welding.

RKS,HZW
7 mm +3/-1 keep fillet size 18 mm/6 mm

19 mm +3/-1

## keep the angle of weld joint 45 deg.

RKS,HZW
Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-4) Minimize no of passes larger size of
electrodes

## MORE NO OF PASSES LESS NO OF PASSES

RKS,HZW
Reduce effective shrinkage force

## (A-5) Place welds near the neutral axis

N. A.

RKS,HZW
To prevent distortion :-

(B)
Make shrinkage work
for us

RKS,HZW
Make shrinkage work for us
(B.1) Pre cambering OR Pre bending in plate

WEDGE

## CLAMPS ALONG EDGE

RKS,HZW
Make shrinkage work for us
(B-2) Keep over dimensions OR over
bend before welding

RKS,HZW
To prevent distortion :-

(C)
Balance shrinkage force
with other forces

RKS,HZW
Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces.

6
2 5
5

(C-1) 4

4 3
Do Sequence welding 3

6 1 1

4
1
2
3 RKS,HZW
Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces
(C-2) Back step welding

1 2 3 4

Welding progresion

RKS,HZW
Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces
(C-3) Back to back clamping for welding
PART -I
END PLATES
TACKED

PART -II
Two identical parts should be tacked back to back
together before welding as shown
RKS,HZW
Back to back welding of saddles

I

RKS,HZW
Good working
methods for
welding distortion
in our routine work
RKS,HZW
Bulging of tube sheet of heat
exchanger
TUBE SHEET

## SHELL TUBE SHEET BULGES DURING SHELL

TO TUBE SHEET WELDING
Welding of shell to tube sheet
leakage
Non uniform projection of tube
ends from tube sheet face
CONTROLLED BY
Back to back
Weld optimum fillet size RKS,HZW
Distortion of shell long seams
Typical weld sequence and distortion observed
58T MIN LAS.

D/4
1184 mm DIA

3200
JOINT DETAIL WELD SEQUENCE
600
OUTSIDE 2
SAW
/3T
2
1
T SMAW
3 BACK
1
/3T GOUGING SAW
3
INSIDE
600 0.2mm GAP RKS,HZW
Distortion of shell long seams

LOCATION
STAGE
1 2 3
1 SET-UP STAGE 4+ 2+ 2+
2 AFTER SEAL RUN 6+ 4+ 5+
3 AFTE R O/S WELDING 8+ 6+ 8+
4 AFTER BACK GOUGING 6+ 5+ 5+
5 AFTER I/S WELDING 4+ 2.5 + 4+
RKS,HZW
Distortion of circumferential seams in shell

## Caused by longitudinal shrinkage

of weld
Reduction in diameter around
circumferential seam
Reduction in shell length
C/S
SUGARCANE
CIRCSEAM EFFECT
JIINT
SHELL
Controlled by

## Provide compression spiders on

both sides of C/S
Design weld joint to have minimum
weld metal deposit
Use restricted heat input
( minimum no. of passes )
RKS,HZW
Gauge for checking long seam
distortion in plate stage welding
GAUGE
FOR CHECKING

D C B A

## (MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE TO BE CONSIDERED)

RKS,HZW
Gauge for checking distortion of
T- joint welding

## GAUGE FOR CHECKING

A

PRE-TILT OF T-STIFFENER = A - C
C

SAGGING OF T-STIFFENER = A - B

RKS,HZW
Distortion in flange to pipe welding
FLANGE WARPS
TEMP. SUPPORTS FLANGE

FLANGE FLANGE

PIPE
AFTER BEFORE
WELDING WELDING
PIPE PIPE

## Heavy fillet weld on flange to pipe joint leads to warping

of flange
Causing no machining allowance on flange face thickness
CONTROL : back to back welding
Temporary set up two flanges back to back as shown
RKS,HZW
Sinking in of nozzle on shell
Controlling sinking
Provide rigid internal jacks
/supports with moon plates
/compression spider
Maintain optimum weld
preparation and fit up to avoid
extra weld deposit
Keep excess nozzle projection
at set up stage to compensate
for sinking

RKS,HZW
Distortion During Oxy-acetylene
Cutting
PLATE

STRIP
STRIP CUTTING FROM PLATE
The strip tends to bow outwards as shown
Distortion ( bow ) results due to unequal heating of
the metal
During cutting when hot, the bow is more on cooling
& the bow diminishes slightly
Finally the strip never returns to its intended shape
RKS,HZW
Controlling distortion during oxy-
acetylene cutting
PLATE

TORCH I
STRIP

DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
FOR TORCHES

SCRAP 10 mm TORCH II

METHOD I
Two Torches Technique
Mark strip of required width leaving 10 mm distance
Move two torches simultaneously carrying out cutting operation

RKS,HZW
Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
PLATE
STRIPS

KERF HOLE

Method II
Mark the strips with kerf allowance on the plate
Drill small hole in kerf allowance at distance 20 mm away from
the edge
Start cut from drilled hole in kerf to the end such that the strip
is attached to main plate
Cut the balance strip attached to the plate RKS,HZW
Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
30 mm

12 mm THK
PLATE

R250 mm

30 mm 50 mm
PIERCE
START
Aim : To get undistorted segment from the plate of size as
shown
Specific Steps
Mark leaving 30mm Dist. from edge
edge
RKS,HZW
Reduction in distortion
Less weld edge preparation.
Less welding current as per WPS.
Higher base metal thickness.
Lesser welding passes
Do not over weld
More distortion in stainless steel then carbon
steel.
Less offset-Lesser welding-Lower distortion

RKS,HZW
Reduction in distortion
Provide intermittent welding
Place weld near the neutral axis
Balancing weld around neutral axis
Back-step welding
Sequence welding
Pre bending OR Pre cambering
Back to back clamping
Double operator welding techniqueRKS,HZW