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SUMMARY FROM

Chapter 1
Supervision For Successful
Schools

SUPERVISON OF INSTRUCTION
A Developmental Approach

Author:
1 Carl D. Glickman
Stephen P. Gordon
Jovita M. Ross-Gordon
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION

1. SuperVision for Successful Schools


SuperVision: A New Name for a New
Paradigm.
Supervisory Glue as a Metaphor for Success.
Organization of This Book.
Supervision and Moral Purpose.
References

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INTRODUCTION
Three types of school
Conventional School
Congenial School
Collegial School

Successful schools create a SuperVision or


instructional leadership that gives purpose and
direction to the common world of adults.

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CONVENTIONAL SCHOOL
Characterized by dependence, hierarchy,
and professional isolation
Example: Germando Elementary

I think you will find that I run a tight ship


Teachers not only use the same textbook, but are
on the exact same page everyday.

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CONGENIAL SCHOOL
Characterized by friendly social
interactions and professional isolation
Example: Finnie Tyler High School

The kids are fine, not as academic as they


should be, but this school is a nice place for them.
I wouldnt want to teach anyplace else.
Teachers have the same textbook, but can teach
anyway they please.

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COLLEGIAL SCHOOL
Characterized by purposeful adult interactions
about improving school-wide teaching and
learning
Establish learning goals for all students consistent with

the responsibility of education in a democratic society.


Example: Progress Middle School

Collegial schools are driven by:

A covenant of learning mission, vision, and goals


A charter for school-wide, democratic decision making
A critical study process for informing decisions and
conducting action research
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TIMELINE OF SUPERVISION
Began as a conventional paradigm (attempted to control
teachers instructional behaviors)
17th 19th Century: lay persons inspected schools,

teachers, and student learning


20th Century (early): Age of scientific management lay

committees were replaced by professional supervisors who


demonstrated how subjects should be taught and visited
classrooms to suggest or recommend ways that teachers
could improve instruction.
1930s 1950s: Human relations supervision by improving

interpersonal relationships and meeting personal needs, the


supervisor and teachers could improve instruction.
1960s: Behavioral science approach (conventional

supervision) direct supervisory control through inspection;


curriculum and materials were developed by school districts.
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Late 20th Century: Legislated learning external control

from state legislators and state department of education


PARADIGM SHIFT FROM CONVENTIONAL AND
CONGENIAL SCHOOLS TOWARD COLLEGIAL

Schools must include a view of supervision as follows:


1. A collegial rather than a hierarchical relationship
between teachers and formally designated
supervisors
2. Supervision as the province of teachers, as well as
formally designated supervisors
3. A focus on teacher growth rather than teacher
compliance
4. Facilitation of teachers collaborating with each
other in instructional improvement efforts
5. Teacher involvement in ongoing reflective inquiry 9
SUPERVISORY GLUE AS A
METHAPHOR FOR SUCCESS
SuperVision a common vision of what teaching
and learning can and should be, developed
collaboratively by formally designated
supervisors, teachers, and other members of the
school community.
These people will make the vision a reality.

Supervision is identical to leadership for the


improvement of instruction.

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WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR
SUPERVISION?
All staff members who actively work to improve
instruction

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ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK

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Figure 1.1 Supervision and successful schools
SUPERVISION FOR SUCCESSFUL
SCHOOL
Supervisor must have certain prerequisites:
i. Knowledge
Supervisors need to understand the exception,
what teachers and school can be- in contrast to the
norm- what teachers and schools typically are.

They also need to understand how knowledge of


adults and teacher development and alternative
supervisory practices can help break the norm of
mediocrity found in typical school.

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ii. Interpersonal skills
Supervisors must know how their own interpersonal
behaviors affect individuals as well as groups of
teachers and the study ranges of interpersonal
behaviors that might be used to promote more
positive and change oriented relationships.

iii. Technical skills


This skills needed in observing, planning, assessing,
and evaluating instructional improvement.

Knowledge, interpersonal skills and technical skills are


three complementary aspects of supervision as a
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developmental function.
EDUCATIONAL TASKS
Supervisors have certain educational tasks at their
disposal that enable teachers to evaluate and
modify their instruction.
In planning each task, the supervisor needs to plan
specific ways of giving teachers a greater sense of
professional power to teach students successfully.
Technical supervisory tasks that have such
potential to affect teacher development are direct
assistance, group development, professional
development, curriculum development, and action
research.
Cultural tasks that can assist both school and
teacher development include facilitating change,
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addressing diversity, and building community.
SUPERVISION AND MORAL
PURPOSE
Supervision based on moral purpose begins with the
school community asking two broad questions:
1. What type of society do we desire?
Democratic society in which all members are considered
equal.

2. What type of educational environment should supervision


promote in order to move toward the society we desire?
Involves creating an educational environment that
prepares students to be members of that democratic society.

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CONCLUSION
Collegial schools are effective in obtaining student achievement.
The five steps to schools meeting their objectives are:

1. Professional development
2. Direct assistance to teachers
3. Curriculum development
4. Group development
5. Action research
Supervision is identical to leadership for the improvement of
instruction
Supervision is based on the job/actions of a person, not their title

For the purpose of instructional improvement, supervisors should

have:
o Knowledge of professional development
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o Interpersonal skills
o Technical skills (teaching skills)
CONCLUSION
Important quotations from the first chapter
In successful schools, individual needs are fulfilled through
organizational goals. Students are engaged in learning.
The history of instructional supervision is viewed most
often as an instrument for controlling teachers.
Supervision is the glue of successful schools.
Instructional leadership is to be viewed as a function and
process rather than a role or position.
Those responsible for supervision must possess knowledge,
interpersonal skills, and technical skills
Those supervisory tasks that have potential to affect teacher
development are direct assistance, group development,
professional development, curriculum development, and
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action research.
THANK YOU
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