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KINEMATICS

Learning outcomes:

i.Able

to understand the concept of vector and

kinematics.

ii.Able

to explain the basic concept of free fall and

projectile.

iii.Able to solve problems in kinematics.

2.2.1 Vector

addition ,

subtraction and

multiplication

2.2.2 Vector

component

2.2.3 Unit

vector

2.2 VECTORS AND SCALARS

A scalar quantity is completely specified

by a single value with an appropriate unit

and has no direction.

Example: mass, distance, speed.

described by a number and appropriate

units plus a direction.

Example: displacement, force,

acceleration, velocity.

VECTOR EXAMPLE

A particle travels from A

to B along the path shown

by the dotted red line

This is the distance

traveled and is a scalar

The displacement is the

solid line from A to B

The displacement is

independent of the path

taken between the two

points

Displacement is a

vector

VECTOR NOTATION

A

magnitude of a vector, an italic letter

will be used: A or| |

The magnitude of the vector has

physical units

The magnitude of a vectorr is

always a positive number A

To write a vector, use an arrow:

2.2.1 VECTORS ADDITION AND

SUBTRACTION

ADDING VECTORS

When adding vectors, their directions

must be taken into account

Units must be the same

All of the vectors must be of the same

type of quantity

For example, you cannot add a displacement

to a velocity

Using two method:

i). Graphical Methods - Use scale drawings

ii). Algebraic Methods - More convenient

Graphical method

(ONE DIMENSION)

Fig. a

the net resultant displacement

8 km+ 6 km = 14 km

Fig .b

8 km- 6 km = 2km

GRAPHICAL METHOD

(TWO DIMENSIONS )

1. Choose a scale

2.

r

Draw the first vector, ,

A

with the appropriate length

and in the direction

specified, with respect to a

coordinate system

vector , ,with the

appropriate

B length and in

the direction specified, by

placing its tail at the tip of

the first vector r

A

GRAPHICAL METHOD, CONT.

4. The R resultant is

drawn rfrom the

origin of A to the

end of the last

B

vector

protractor to

measure the length

of Rr and its angle

Use the scale factor

to convert length to R 11.2km

actual magnitude 270

The magnitude (length) of R can obtained using the

theorem of Pythagoras :

A B (10km) 5km

2 2 2

R 2

125km 11.2km

2

B

tan

A

1 B

tan

You can use the A

Pythagoras theorem only when vectors are

perpendicular to each other.

GRAPHICAL METHOD, FINAL

many vectors, just

keep repeating the

process until all

are included.

The resultant is

still drawn from

the tail of the first

vector to the tip of

the last vector

ADDING VECTORS, RULES

are added, the sum

is independent of

the order of the

addition.

This is the

Commutative

rLawr ofr Addition

r

A B B A

DR D1 D2 DR D2 D1

ADDING VECTORS, RULES CONT.

When adding three or more vectors, their sum is

independent of the way in which the individual vectors

are grouped

This is called the Associative Property of Addition

r r r r r r

A BC A B C

VR V1 V2 V3

NEGATIVE OF A VECTOR

vector that, when added to the original

vector, gives a resultant

r of zero

Represented A

as A A

r r

A A 0

same magnitude, but point in the opposite

direction

SUBTRACTING VECTORS

Special case of

vector addition

r r r r

If A B , then A B

use

Continue with

standard vector

addition

procedure

SUBTRACTING VECTORS, METHOD 2

subtraction is to find

the vector that, added

to the second vector

gives you the first

vector

r r r

A B C

As shown, the

resultant vector

points from the tip

of the second to the

tip of the first

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION:

useful where a scalar result is wanted

from the product of two vectors.

useful where a vector result is

wanted from the product of two

vectors.

PRODUCTS OF VECTORS

We can also express many physical relationships

briefly by using products of vectors.

There are two different kinds of products of

vectors. The first, called the scalar product, yields

a result that is a scalar quantity. The second, the

vector product yields another vector.

Scalar product

The scalar product of two vectors A and B is

denoted by A B .

The scalar product is also called the dot product.

PRODUCTS OF VECTORS

Scalar product

We define A B to be the magnitude of A

multiplied by the component of B parallel to A ,

A B AB cos A B cos

PRODUCTS OF

VECTORS

Scalar product

We can also express A B B A cos AB cos

.

The scalar product of two perpendicular vectors

is always zero.

Scalar product

0 to 90 Positive

90 Zero

90 to 180 Negative

z

Products of Vectors B A

k

j y

i

Scalar product x

Cartesian coordinate x,y ,z can be represented by

3- unit vectors i,j,k respectively .

We can calculate the scalar product A B directly

if we know the x-, y-, and z-components of A and B

i i j j k k 11 cos 0 1

(Cartesian unit vectors)

i j i k j k 11 cos 90 0

Dot product of two general vectors

A B Axi Ay j Az k Bxi By j Bz k

Ax Bxi i Ax Byi j Ax Bz i k

Ay Bx j i Ay By j j Ay Bz j k

Az Bx k i Az By k j Az Bz k k

z

B k

A

A B Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz

j y

i

x

EXAMPLE : CALCULATING A

SCALAR PRODUCT

Find the scalar product A B of the two vectors

shown in figure. The magnitudes of the vectors are

A = 4.00 and B = 5.00.

2 ways to calculate the scalar product.

the angle between them .

Execute:

The angle between the 2 vectors is

=130.0 53.0 = 77.0, so

A B AB cos 4.00 5.00 cos 77.0 4.50

0 and 90

The second approach:

uses the components of the two vectors

Ax 4.00 cos 53.0 2.407

Ay 4.00 sin 53.0 3.195

Az 0

Bx 5.00 cos130.0 3.214

By 5.00 sin 130.0 3.830

Bz 0

A B Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz

2.407 3.214 3.195 3.830 0 0

4.50 We get the same result for the scalar

product with both methods, as we should.

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION: DOT

PRODUCT(SUMMARY )

Properties: z

1. ab = ba

(cos 0 = 1)

2. aa = a 2

k

3. ab = 0 where a and b are orthogonal

j

i

Dot product of two general vectors x

is ab = axbx+ayby+azbz

PRODUCTS OF VECTORS

Vector product

Vector product of two vectors A and B, also called

the cross product, denoted by A B.

To define the vector product, we draw the vectors

as shown.

Right Hand or

Corkscrew

RULE

PRODUCTS OF VECTORS

Vector product

The vector product is defined as a vector

quantity with a direction perpendicular to the

plane (bothAand B ) and a magnitude equal to

AB sin .

If C A B C AB sin

antiparallel vectors is always zero.

The vector product of any vector with itself is

zero.

Note that vector product is not commutative. In

fact, for any two vectors A and B

A B B A

zero, so z

i i j j k k 0

k

y

j

i

i j j i k x

j k k j i

k i i k j

2.2.2 COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR,

INTRODUCTION

A component is a

projection of a vector along

an axis

Any vector can be

completely described by

its components

It is useful to use

rectangular components

These are the projections

of the vector along the x-

and y-axes

r r r

A x and A y are the componentAvectors of

They are vectors and follow all the rules for

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR

given a A

vector

It can be expressed

in terms of two

r

other vectors, r

Ax Ay

and

These three vectors

form

r ra right

r triangle

A Ax Ay

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR

The x-component of a vector is the

projection along the x-axis

Ax A cos

The y-component of a vector is the

projection along the y-axis

Ay A sin

This assumes the angle is measured

with respect to the x-axis

If not, do not use these equations, use the

sides of the triangle directly

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR

The magnitude of vector A in terms of

component is

Ay

A A A

2

x

2

y and tan 1

Ax

positive x-axis

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR, FINAL

The components

can be positive or

negative and will

have the same units

as the original

vector

components will

depend on the angle

EXAMPLE 1:

of vector y

A

25ms

-1

27 0

x

SOLUTION

y

2 2

A Ax Ay

Ay

Ay A sin 25ms-1 tan

Ax

25 sin 27 0

= 11 ms-1

27 0

x

Ax A cos

25 cos 27 0

= 22 ms-1

EXERCISE 1:

1. The three vectors shown have

magnitudes

2. A = 3.00 m,

3. B = 4.00 m and

4. = 10.00 m and angle

C

5. = 30o.What areA

a) The x and y component

B of (Ans: 3m,

0)

C

b) The x and y component of (Ans: 3.46

m, 2 m)

c) The x and y component of (Ans: -5m,

8.66 m)

EXAMPLE 2:

2. A country mail carrier leaves the post

office and drives 22.0km in a northerly

direction. She then drives in a direction

60.0o south of east for 47.0km (Fig

(a)). What is her displacement from

the post office?

SOLUTION Component vector D1

D1x = 0o D1y = 22.0km

Component vector D2

D2x = +(47.0km)(cos60o) = +23.5km

D2y = - (47.0km)(sin 60o) = -40.7km (vector

component points along the negative y-axis)

Dx = D1x+D2x = 0km +23.5km= +23.5km

Dy = D1y+D2y = 22km + (-40.7km) = -18.7km

Magnitude and angle of resultant

vector

Dy 18.7 km

tan 0.796

Dx 23.5km

tan 1 0.796 38.50

UNIT VECTORS

A unit vector is a vector with a

magnitude of 1, with no units.

In an x, y, z rectangular coordinate

system these unit vectorsiare k

j ,called

,

with hat (^) is the

symbol for a unit vector

component vectors and components

is: Ax Ax i

Ay Ay j

Az Az k

A

We can also write a vector in

Ay j Az k

A Ax i as

terms of its components

When two vectors A Band represented

in terms of their components, we R

express vector sum using unit

vectors:

A Ax i Ay j Az k

B Bx i B y j Bz k

R Ax Bx i Ay B y j Ax Bz k

R Rx i R y j Rz k

EXAMPLE : USING UNIT VECTORS

Given the two displacements

D 6i 3 j k m and E 4i 5 j 8k m

Find the magnitude of the displacement 2D E

.

Solution:

Identify,F Set2 D Up E and Execute:

Letting , we have

F 2 6i 3 j k m 4i 5 j 8k

12 4 i 6 5 j 2 8 k m

F 8i 11 j 10k m

D E , F , and

The units of the vectors

are meters, so the components of these

vectors are also in meters.

F The

magnitude of ,

2 2 2

F Fx Fy Fz

F 8 m 11 m 10 m 17 m

2 2 2

2.2.1 Vector

addition ,

subtraction and

multiplication

2.2.2 Vector

component

2.2.3 Unit

vector

2.3.1 Position

2.3.2 Displacement

2.3.3 Velocity and

speed

2.3.4 Acceleration

2.3 DISPLACEMENT, POSITION, VELOCITY,

SPEED AND ACCELERATION

2.3.1 POSITION

The objects position

is its location with

respect to a chosen

reference point

Consider the point to

be the origin of a

coordinate system

In the diagram,

allow the road sign

to be the reference

point

POSITION-TIME GRAPH

The position-time

graph shows the

motion of the particle

(car)

The smooth curve is a

guess as to what

happened between the

data points

2.3.2 DISPLACEMENT

Displacement is defined as the

change in position during some time

interval

Represented as x

x xf - xi

SI units are meters (m)

x can be positive or negative

Different than distance the length

of a path followed by particle

(always positive)

DISTANCE VS. DISPLACEMENT

AN EXAMPLE

court to the other and back

Distance is always positive

Displacement is zero

x = xf xi = 0 since

xf = xi

Ex: 1

Ali walking 70m to the east then

turning around and walking

back(west) a distance of 30m.

Total distance traveled 30m 70m 100m

Displacement 70 30 40m

total distance tra From starting point

2.3.3 SPEED AND VELOCITY

Speed is how fast an object travel in

a given time

of how fast the object moving and

the direction in which it is moving.

AVERAGE SPEED

Speed is a scalar quantity

same units as velocity

d

total distance / total time: v avg

t

expressed as a positive number

gives details about the trip described

AVERAGE VELOCITY

The average velocity is rate at which the

displacement occurs

Average velocity = displacement/ time

x xf xi

v x , avg

t t

The x indicates motion along the x-axis

The dimensions are length/ time [L/T]

The SI units are m/s

Is also the slope of the line in the position time

graph

Ex:2

Ali walking 70m to the east then turning

around and walking back(west) a distance of

30m.Suppose this walk took 70s,find the

average speed and average velocity

Total distance traveled 30m 70m 100m

Displacement 70 30 40m From starting point

total distance

Average velocity= 40m/70s=0.57m/s

Along + x dirction

EXAMPLE 3

The positon of a runner as a function of time is

plotted as moving along the x axis. During a 3.00

s time interval the runner position changes from

x1 =50.0m to x2 =30.5m,what was

(a) the total distance traveled

(b) the displacement of the runner

(c) the average speed

(d) the average velocity

SOLUTION

Total distance =50 m

The displacement =x2 -x1 =30.5m-50.0m=-19.5m

Average speed=50m/3.00s = 1.66m/s

Average velocity =-19.5m/3.00s=-6.50m/s

2.3.4 ACCELERATION

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

AVERAGE ACCELERATION

Average acceleration is the rate of change of

the velocity v x v xf v xi

ax ,avg

t tf t i

SI units are m/s

In one dimension, positive and negative can

be used to indicate direction

Constant velocity

Varying velocity

EXERCISE

1. The position of an object moving along an

x axis xis 3given

t t 2 2by

t3 where x is in

meters and t in seconds. Find the position of

the object at the following values of t

a) 2 seconds. (Ans: 18 m)

= 0 and t = 4 (Ans: 124 m)

c) What is its average velocity for the time

interval from t=2s to t=4s? (Ans: 53 m/s)

d) What is its average acceleration for the time

interval from t=2s to t=4s? (Ans: 26.5 m/s )

2

2.2.1 Vector

addition ,

subtraction and

multiplication

2.2.2 Vector

component

2.2.3 Unit

vector

speed

2.3.2 Displacement

2.3.3 Velocity and 2.4.1 Instantaneous

speed velocity

2.3.4 Acceleration

2.4.1 INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY

as the time interval becomes

infinitesimally short, or as the

time interval approaches zero

The instantaneous velocity

indicates what is happening at

every point of time

On a graph of a particles position vs.

time, the instantaneous velocity is the

tangent to the curve at any point.

INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY, GRAPH

The instantaneous

velocity is the slope of

the line tangent to the

x vs. t curve

This would be the

green line

The light blue lines

show that as t gets

smaller, they approach

the green line

INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY,

EQUATIONS

velocity is

x dx

v x lim

t 0 t dt

The instantaneous velocity can be

positive, negative, or zero

2.4.2 INSTANTANEOUS SPEED

magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

associated with it

EXAMPLE

1.A jet engine moves along an experimental

track. We will treat the engine as if it were a

particle. Its position as a function of time is

given by the equation x=At2+B, where A =

2.10m/s2 and B= 2.80m, determined

a)the displacement of the engine during the

time interval t1 = 3.00s and t2 = 5.00s

b)the average velocity during this time interval

c) the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

at t = 5.00s

SOLUTION

a) At t1 = 3.00s, the position is

x1 At12 B (2.10m / s 2 )(3.00 s ) 2 2.80m 21.7 m

At t2 = 5.00s, the position is

x2 (2.10m / s 2 )(5.00 s) 2 2.80m 55.3m

The displacement is thus

x2 -x1 = 55.3m-21.7m = 33.6m

b)The magnitude of the average velocity

x x2 x1 33.6m

v 16.8m / s

t t 2 t1 2.00 s

c) Instantaneous velocity

dx d

v ( At 2 B) 2 At

dt dt

v2 2 At 2(2.10m / s 2 )(5.00 s) 21.0m / s

2.2.1 Vector

addition , 2.5.1 Free falls

subtraction and

multiplication 2.5.2 Projectile

2.2.2 Vector

component

2.2.3 Unit

vector

speed

2.3.2 Displacement

2.3.3 Velocity and 2.4.1 Instantaneous

speed velocity

2.3.4 Acceleration

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS

The kinematic equations can be used with any

particle under uniform acceleration.

any problem involving one-dimensional motion

with a constant acceleration

one problem

solve a problem

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS

SUMMARY

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS, SPECIFIC

FOR CONSTANT ACCELERATION

1- The average velocity

v xi v xf

v x ,avg

2

2- The position of the particle in terms of time and

velocities is:

1

xf xi v x ,avg t xi v xi v fx t

2

3- Final position in terms of velocity and

acceleration

1 2

xf xi v xi t ax t

2

Doesnt tell you about final velocity

displacement

When a = 0

When the acceleration is zero,

vxf = vxi = vx

xf = xi + vx t

constant velocity model

2.5.1 FREELY FALLING OBJECT

One of the most common examples of

motion with constant acceleration is when

an object allowed to fall freely near the

Earths surface.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) claimed that all

object light or heavy fall with the same

acceleration at least in the absence of air.

The apple falls farther during each

successive interval, which means it is

accelerating

Galileos specific contribution about motion of falling

objects:

At a given location on the earth and in the absence of

air resistance, all objects fall with the same constant

accelerationThis acceleration is due to the gravity,

g = 9.80 ms-2

The effect of air resistance are often small and we will

neglect them for the most part.

can make use of kinematics equation for

constant acceleration a = g = 9.80 ms-2

If motion is vertical,

substitute

y in x and yo in xo,

yo = 0 (unless

specified)

vo is initial velocity,

EXAMPLE

1. Suppose that a ball is dropped (v o = 0) from

a tower 70.0m high. How far will it have

fallen after a time t1= 1.00s, t2 = 2.00s and

t3 = 3.00s?

SOLUTION

Acceleration a = g =9.80m/s2, vo= 0 and yo= 0

t = t1 = 1.00s

1 2

y1 yo vo t

at

2

1

0 0(1.00s) (9.80ms 2 )(1.00 s ) 2

2

4.90m

and so on for t2 = 2.00s and t3 = 3.00s

EXERCISE

1. Suppose the ball is thrown downward

with an initial velocity of 3.00m/s instead

of being dropped.

a) What then would be its position after

1.00s and 2.00s? (Ans: 7.9m and 25.6 m)

b) What would its speed be after 1.00s and

2.00s. (Ans: 12.8 m/s and 22.6 m/s)

2.5.2 PROJECTILE MOTION

and y directions simultaneously

we will deal with is called projectile

motion

ASSUMPTIONS OF PROJECTILE

MOTION

The free-fall acceleration is constant over

the range of motion

It is directed downward

This is the same as assuming a flat Earth

over the range of the motion

It is reasonable as long as the range is

small compared to the radius of the Earth

The effect of air friction is negligible

With these assumptions, an object in

projectile motion will follow a parabolic path

This path is called the trajectory

PROJECTILE MOTION DIAGRAM

ANALYZING PROJECTILE MOTION

Consider the motion as the superposition of the

motions in the x- and y-directions

The actual position at any time is given by:

1

y yo v y o t gt

2

The initial velocity, vo can be expressed in terms

of its x and y components

vxo = vo cos and vyo = vo sin

The x-direction has constant velocity

ax = 0

The y-direction is free fall

ay = -g

Projectile motion is motion with constant

acceleration in two dimensions, where the

acceleration is g and is down.

EFFECTS OF CHANGING INITIAL

CONDITIONS

components depend

on the value of the

initial velocity

Change the angle

and note the effect

Change the

magnitude and

note the effect

RANGE AND MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF A

PROJECTILE

When analyzing

projectile motion, two

characteristics are of

special interest

The range, R, is the

horizontal distance of

the projectile

The maximum height

the projectile reaches

is h

ZERO PROJECTION ANGLE

Vyo = 0

V = velocity

Click to watch video

Vxo (initial

-y velocity)

V1x = Vxo

V1y negative V1

V2x = Vxo

y = yo + Vyo t ay t2

y = - gt2 V2

V2y negative

x = xo + Vxo t ax t2

= Vxo t

x

CASE STUDY: ZERO PROJECTION

ANGLE

A ball was thrown horizontally with

initial velocity 40 m/s from the height

of 3 m. Calculate:

b.The range, R of the ball was thrown.

A BALL WAS THROWN HORIZONTALLY WITH

INITIAL VELOCITY 40 M/S FROM THE HEIGHT

OFa.3The

M.time taken to reach the ground.

b. The range of the ball was thrown.

Vyo = 0 m/s

Vxo = 40 m/s

y = -3m

y = yo + Vyo t ay t2

y = yo + Vyo t gy t2

-3 = 0 0(t) - (9.81) (t2)

(-3) / (-4.905) = t2

0.6 = t2

x@R = xo + Vxo t ax t2

t = 0.78 s

= 0 + (40) (0.78) (0) t2

= 31.2 m

x@R

SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING

PROJECTILE MOTION

A movie stunt driver on a

motorcycle speeds

horizontally off a 50.0-m-

high cliff. How fast must the

motorcycle leave the cliff

top to land on level ground

below, 90.0 m from the base

of the cliff where the

cameras are? Ignore air

resistance. (Ans: 3.19 s and 28.2 m/s)

SOLUTION :

We choose y- direction to be positive upward, with the

top of cliff as y0 =0

The x-direction is horizontal with x0 =0 at the point

The time interval to begin (t =0 )

ax =0 (in horizontal x-direction ) ,so the velocity is

constant .

The value of x when motorcycle reach ground x=+90 m

ay =-g = -9.8 m/s2

the value of y when motorcycle reach ground y =-50 m

The initial velocity vx0 is unknown

The vertical velocity is zero vy0 =0

To find out how long it takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below

We use :

1 2 Known values

y y0 v y 0t a yt

2 x0 y0 0

1

0 0 g t 2 x 90.0m

2 y 50.0m

1

gt 2 ax 0

2

a y g 9.8m / s 2

We solve for t and set y=-50.0 m vy0 0

t 3.19 s

g 9.8m / s 2

vx0

t

To calculate the initial velocity vx0 for horizontal x- direction with

ax =0 and x0 =0 :

1

x x0 vx 0t at 2

2

0 vx 0 0

or

x v x 0t

x 90.0m

vx 0 28.2m / s

t 3.19 s

With projection angle

If an object is projected at an upward

angle there is an initial vertical, Vy0

and horizontal, Vxo component of

velocity.

Vxo Vo cos

Vy o Vo sin

WITH PROJECTION ANGLE

V3y = 0

V2y positive V2 V3 V4x = Vx

V3x = Vx

V1y positive V1 V2x = Vx V4

V4y negative

y V5x = Vx

V1x = Vx

Vyo =

= Vy

Vertical component = Vo sin V5y negative V5

Vo = initial velocity

V6x = Vx

Vxo = Vx

Vxo = Horizontal component V6y negative V6

= Vo cos

x

Vy = Vyo gy t

y = Vyo t gy t2

position=V t g t2 V=Vgt

x = Vxo t gx t2

= Vxo t Vx = Vxo gx t

= Vxo

CASE STUDY: WITH PROJECTION

ANGLE

A ball was thrown with an inclination

degree of 20 from the horizon and

initial velocity of 12m/s. Calculate:

reach

b. The range of the ball was thrown

A ball

b. wasrange

a. The

The thrownofwith

highest the an

point inclination

ball

thewas degree of

ballthrown

can

20 from the horizon and initial velocity of 12m/s.

reach

Vx = Vxo

At the highest point: t1 = 0.42 s

Vy = 0

Vyo = Vy = Vyo gy t

4.10 y 0 = 4.10 (9.80) t

m/s

Vo = 12 m/s (-4.10) / (-9.80) = t

20 t = 0.42 s

t2 = 0.42 s x 2

Vxo = 11.28 m/s x y = yo + Vyo gy t2 = 0.84 s

Vxo = Vo cos Vyo = Vo sin

= 0 + (4.10) (9.80) (0.42)2

= 12 cos (20) = 12 sin (20)

= 4.10 0.864

= 11.28 m/sThe highest

= 4.10

pointm/sthe ball can m reach is 3.235 m

= 3.235

x = Vxot

The range of the ball was thrown is (0.84)

= (11.28) 9.48 m

= 9.48 m

SOLVING PROBLEMS

INVOLVING PROJECTILE

MOTION

A football is kicked at an angle 0 = 37.0 with a

velocity of 20.0 m/s, as shown. Calculate (a) the

maximum height, (b) the time of travel before the

football hits the ground, (c) how far away it hits the

ground, (d) the velocity vector at the maximum

height, and (e) the acceleration vector at maximum

height. Assume the ball leaves the foot at ground

level, and ignore air resistance and rotation of the

Solution:

We resolve the initial velocity ito its components

vx 0 v0 cos 37.00 20m / s 0.799 16.0m / s

v y 0 v0 sin 37.00 20m / s 0.602 12.0m / s

(a) we consider the time interval begins just after the foot ball loses

contact with foot until reaches its maximum height

Velocity is horizontal and vy =0

v y v y 0 gt

vy 0

t

vy0

12.0m / s 1.22 s

g 9.8m / s 2

y0 0

1 2

y v y 0t gt

2

12.0m / s 1.22 s

1

2

9.8m / s 2 1.22 s

2

7.35m

(b) To find the time it takes for the ball to the ground:

Consider ; at t=0, y0 =0 ( starting the ball leave the ground )

And ending at y=0 (ground level )

1

y y0 v y 0t gt 2

2

0 0 12.0m / s t

1

2

9.8m / s 2 t 2

1

29. 8m / s 2

t 12 . 0 m / s

t 0

either :

t 0 Corresponding to initial point

or

212.0m / s

t 2.45s

9.8m / s 2

(c) Total distance in x-direction

x 39.2m

0

is the same at highest point as it is throughout

which is:

9.8m / s 2 downward

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