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# CHAPTER 2

KINEMATICS
Learning outcomes:
i.Able
to understand the concept of vector and
kinematics.
ii.Able
to explain the basic concept of free fall and
projectile.
iii.Able to solve problems in kinematics.
2.2.1 Vector
subtraction and
multiplication

2.2.2 Vector
component

2.2.3 Unit
vector
2.2 VECTORS AND SCALARS
A scalar quantity is completely specified
by a single value with an appropriate unit
and has no direction.
Example: mass, distance, speed.

## A vector quantity is completely

described by a number and appropriate
units plus a direction.
Example: displacement, force,
acceleration, velocity.
VECTOR EXAMPLE
A particle travels from A
to B along the path shown
by the dotted red line
This is the distance
traveled and is a scalar
The displacement is the
solid line from A to B
The displacement is
independent of the path
taken between the two
points
Displacement is a
vector
VECTOR NOTATION

## When dealing with just the r

A
magnitude of a vector, an italic letter
will be used: A or| |
The magnitude of the vector has
physical units
The magnitude of a vectorr is
always a positive number A
To write a vector, use an arrow:
SUBTRACTION
must be taken into account
Units must be the same
All of the vectors must be of the same
type of quantity
For example, you cannot add a displacement
to a velocity
Using two method:
i). Graphical Methods - Use scale drawings
ii). Algebraic Methods - More convenient
Graphical method
(ONE DIMENSION)

Fig. a
the net resultant displacement

8 km+ 6 km = 14 km

Fig .b

## the net resultant displacement

8 km- 6 km = 2km
GRAPHICAL METHOD
(TWO DIMENSIONS )
1. Choose a scale

2.
r
Draw the first vector, ,
A
with the appropriate length
and in the direction
specified, with respect to a
coordinate system

## 3. Next, draw the second

vector , ,with the
appropriate
B length and in
the direction specified, by
placing its tail at the tip of
the first vector r
A
GRAPHICAL METHOD, CONT.
4. The R resultant is
drawn rfrom the
origin of A to the
end of the last
B
vector

## 5. Using the ruler and

protractor to
measure the length
of Rr and its angle
Use the scale factor
to convert length to R 11.2km
actual magnitude 270
The magnitude (length) of R can obtained using the
theorem of Pythagoras :

A B (10km) 5km
2 2 2
R 2

125km 11.2km
2

B
tan
A
1 B
tan
You can use the A
Pythagoras theorem only when vectors are
perpendicular to each other.
GRAPHICAL METHOD, FINAL

## When you have

many vectors, just
keep repeating the
process until all
are included.

The resultant is
still drawn from
the tail of the first
vector to the tip of
the last vector

## When two vectors

is independent of
the order of the
This is the
Commutative
r
A B B A
DR D1 D2 DR D2 D1

When adding three or more vectors, their sum is
independent of the way in which the individual vectors
are grouped
This is called the Associative Property of Addition

r r r r r r

A BC A B C
VR V1 V2 V3
NEGATIVE OF A VECTOR

## The negative of a vector is defined as the

vector that, when added to the original
vector, gives a resultant
r of zero
Represented A
as A A
r r

A A 0

## The negative of the vector will have the

same magnitude, but point in the opposite
direction
SUBTRACTING VECTORS

Special case of
r r r r
If A B , then A B
use
Continue with
standard vector
procedure
SUBTRACTING VECTORS, METHOD 2

## Another way to look at

subtraction is to find
to the second vector
gives you the first
vector
r r r

A B C
As shown, the
resultant vector
points from the tip
of the second to the
tip of the first
VECTOR MULTIPLICATION:

## 1. Scalar or dot product

useful where a scalar result is wanted
from the product of two vectors.

## 2. Vector or cross product

useful where a vector result is
wanted from the product of two
vectors.
PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
We can also express many physical relationships
briefly by using products of vectors.
There are two different kinds of products of
vectors. The first, called the scalar product, yields
a result that is a scalar quantity. The second, the
vector product yields another vector.
Scalar product
The scalar product of two vectors A and B is
denoted by A B .
The scalar product is also called the dot product.
PRODUCTS OF VECTORS

Scalar product
We define A B to be the magnitude of A
multiplied by the component of B parallel to A ,
A B AB cos A B cos
PRODUCTS OF
VECTORS

Scalar product
We can also express A B B A cos AB cos
.
The scalar product of two perpendicular vectors
is always zero.
Scalar product
0 to 90 Positive
90 Zero
90 to 180 Negative
z
Products of Vectors B A
k

j y
i
Scalar product x
Cartesian coordinate x,y ,z can be represented by
3- unit vectors i,j,k respectively .
We can calculate the scalar product A B directly
if we know the x-, y-, and z-components of A and B

i i j j k k 11 cos 0 1
(Cartesian unit vectors)
i j i k j k 11 cos 90 0
Dot product of two general vectors

A B Axi Ay j Az k Bxi By j Bz k
Ax Bxi i Ax Byi j Ax Bz i k
Ay Bx j i Ay By j j Ay Bz j k
Az Bx k i Az By k j Az Bz k k

z
B k
A
A B Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz
j y
i
x
EXAMPLE : CALCULATING A
SCALAR PRODUCT
Find the scalar product A B of the two vectors
shown in figure. The magnitudes of the vectors are
A = 4.00 and B = 5.00.
2 ways to calculate the scalar product.

## First way uses the magnitudes of the vectors and

the angle between them .

Execute:

## Using first approach,

The angle between the 2 vectors is
=130.0 53.0 = 77.0, so
A B AB cos 4.00 5.00 cos 77.0 4.50

## This is positive as angle between A and B is between

0 and 90
The second approach:
uses the components of the two vectors
Ax 4.00 cos 53.0 2.407
Ay 4.00 sin 53.0 3.195
Az 0
Bx 5.00 cos130.0 3.214
By 5.00 sin 130.0 3.830
Bz 0

A B Ax Bx Ay B y Az Bz
2.407 3.214 3.195 3.830 0 0
4.50 We get the same result for the scalar
product with both methods, as we should.
VECTOR MULTIPLICATION: DOT
PRODUCT(SUMMARY )
Properties: z

1. ab = ba
(cos 0 = 1)
2. aa = a 2
k
3. ab = 0 where a and b are orthogonal

## Thus ii =1, ij = 0 (Cartesian unit vectors) y

j
i
Dot product of two general vectors x

## a = axi+ayj+azk and b = bxi+byj+bzk

is ab = axbx+ayby+azbz
PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
Vector product
Vector product of two vectors A and B, also called
the cross product, denoted by A B.
To define the vector product, we draw the vectors
as shown.

Right Hand or
Corkscrew
RULE
PRODUCTS OF VECTORS
Vector product
The vector product is defined as a vector
quantity with a direction perpendicular to the
plane (bothAand B ) and a magnitude equal to
AB sin .
If C A B C AB sin

## The vector product of any two parallel or

antiparallel vectors is always zero.
The vector product of any vector with itself is
zero.
Note that vector product is not commutative. In
fact, for any two vectors A and B
A B B A

zero, so z

i i j j k k 0
k

## and the right-hand rule, we find

y
j
i
i j j i k x
j k k j i
k i i k j
2.2.2 COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR,
INTRODUCTION

A component is a
projection of a vector along
an axis
Any vector can be
completely described by
its components
It is useful to use
rectangular components
These are the projections
of the vector along the x-
and y-axes
r r r
A x and A y are the componentAvectors of
They are vectors and follow all the rules for
COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR

## Assume ryou are

given a A
vector
It can be expressed
in terms of two
r
other vectors, r
Ax Ay
and
These three vectors
form
r ra right
r triangle
A Ax Ay
COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR
The x-component of a vector is the
projection along the x-axis
Ax A cos
The y-component of a vector is the
projection along the y-axis
Ay A sin
This assumes the angle is measured
with respect to the x-axis
If not, do not use these equations, use the
sides of the triangle directly
COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR
The magnitude of vector A in terms of
component is
Ay
A A A
2
x
2
y and tan 1

Ax

## May still have to find with respect to the

positive x-axis
COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR, FINAL

The components
can be positive or
negative and will
have the same units
as the original
vector

## The signs of the

components will
depend on the angle
EXAMPLE 1:

## Calculate the x and y component A

of vector y

A
25ms
-1

27 0
x
SOLUTION
y
2 2
A Ax Ay

Ay
Ay A sin 25ms-1 tan
Ax
25 sin 27 0

= 11 ms-1
27 0
x
Ax A cos
25 cos 27 0
= 22 ms-1
EXERCISE 1:
1. The three vectors shown have
magnitudes
2. A = 3.00 m,
3. B = 4.00 m and
4. = 10.00 m and angle
C
5. = 30o.What areA
a) The x and y component
B of (Ans: 3m,
0)
C
b) The x and y component of (Ans: 3.46
m, 2 m)
c) The x and y component of (Ans: -5m,
8.66 m)
EXAMPLE 2:
2. A country mail carrier leaves the post
office and drives 22.0km in a northerly
direction. She then drives in a direction
60.0o south of east for 47.0km (Fig
(a)). What is her displacement from
the post office?
SOLUTION Component vector D1
D1x = 0o D1y = 22.0km
Component vector D2
D2x = +(47.0km)(cos60o) = +23.5km
D2y = - (47.0km)(sin 60o) = -40.7km (vector
component points along the negative y-axis)

## The resultant vector D has components

Dx = D1x+D2x = 0km +23.5km= +23.5km
Dy = D1y+D2y = 22km + (-40.7km) = -18.7km
Magnitude and angle of resultant
vector

## D Dx2 D y2 (23.5km) 2 (18.7km) 2 30.0km

Dy 18.7 km
tan 0.796
Dx 23.5km
tan 1 0.796 38.50
UNIT VECTORS
A unit vector is a vector with a
magnitude of 1, with no units.
In an x, y, z rectangular coordinate
system these unit vectorsiare k
j ,called
,
with hat (^) is the
symbol for a unit vector

## This relationship between

component vectors and components
is: Ax Ax i
Ay Ay j
Az Az k
A
We can also write a vector in
Ay j Az k
A Ax i as
terms of its components
When two vectors A Band represented
in terms of their components, we R
express vector sum using unit
vectors:
A Ax i Ay j Az k
B Bx i B y j Bz k

R Ax Bx i Ay B y j Ax Bz k
R Rx i R y j Rz k
EXAMPLE : USING UNIT VECTORS
Given the two displacements
D 6i 3 j k m and E 4i 5 j 8k m
Find the magnitude of the displacement 2D E
.
Solution:
Identify,F Set2 D Up E and Execute:
Letting , we have
F 2 6i 3 j k m 4i 5 j 8k

12 4 i 6 5 j 2 8 k m
F 8i 11 j 10k m
D E , F , and
The units of the vectors
are meters, so the components of these
vectors are also in meters.
F The
magnitude of ,

2 2 2
F Fx Fy Fz

F 8 m 11 m 10 m 17 m
2 2 2
2.2.1 Vector
subtraction and
multiplication

2.2.2 Vector
component

2.2.3 Unit
vector

2.3.1 Position

2.3.2 Displacement
2.3.3 Velocity and
speed
2.3.4 Acceleration
2.3 DISPLACEMENT, POSITION, VELOCITY,
SPEED AND ACCELERATION
2.3.1 POSITION
The objects position
is its location with
respect to a chosen
reference point
Consider the point to
be the origin of a
coordinate system
In the diagram,
to be the reference
point
POSITION-TIME GRAPH

The position-time
graph shows the
motion of the particle
(car)
The smooth curve is a
guess as to what
happened between the
data points
2.3.2 DISPLACEMENT
Displacement is defined as the
change in position during some time
interval
Represented as x
x xf - xi
SI units are meters (m)
x can be positive or negative
Different than distance the length
of a path followed by particle
(always positive)
DISTANCE VS. DISPLACEMENT
AN EXAMPLE

## Assume a player moves from one end of the

court to the other and back

## Distance is twice the length of the court

Distance is always positive

Displacement is zero
x = xf xi = 0 since
xf = xi
Ex: 1
Ali walking 70m to the east then
turning around and walking
back(west) a distance of 30m.
Total distance traveled 30m 70m 100m

Displacement 70 30 40m
total distance tra From starting point
2.3.3 SPEED AND VELOCITY
Speed is how fast an object travel in
a given time

## Velocity indicate both the magnitude

of how fast the object moving and
the direction in which it is moving.
AVERAGE SPEED
Speed is a scalar quantity
same units as velocity
d
total distance / total time: v avg
t

## The speed has no direction and is always

expressed as a positive number

## Neither average velocity nor average speed

gives details about the trip described
AVERAGE VELOCITY
The average velocity is rate at which the
displacement occurs
Average velocity = displacement/ time
x xf xi
v x , avg
t t
The x indicates motion along the x-axis
The dimensions are length/ time [L/T]
The SI units are m/s
Is also the slope of the line in the position time
graph
Ex:2
Ali walking 70m to the east then turning
around and walking back(west) a distance of
30m.Suppose this walk took 70s,find the
average speed and average velocity
Total distance traveled 30m 70m 100m
Displacement 70 30 40m From starting point

## Average speed=100 m/70s =1.4m/s

total distance
Average velocity= 40m/70s=0.57m/s
Along + x dirction
EXAMPLE 3
The positon of a runner as a function of time is
plotted as moving along the x axis. During a 3.00
s time interval the runner position changes from
x1 =50.0m to x2 =30.5m,what was
(a) the total distance traveled
(b) the displacement of the runner
(c) the average speed
(d) the average velocity
SOLUTION
Total distance =50 m
The displacement =x2 -x1 =30.5m-50.0m=-19.5m
Average speed=50m/3.00s = 1.66m/s
Average velocity =-19.5m/3.00s=-6.50m/s
2.3.4 ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

AVERAGE ACCELERATION
Average acceleration is the rate of change of
the velocity v x v xf v xi
ax ,avg
t tf t i

## Dimensions are L/T2

SI units are m/s
In one dimension, positive and negative can
be used to indicate direction
Constant velocity

Varying velocity
EXERCISE
1. The position of an object moving along an
x axis xis 3given
t t 2 2by
t3 where x is in
meters and t in seconds. Find the position of
the object at the following values of t
a) 2 seconds. (Ans: 18 m)

## b) What is the objects displacement between t

= 0 and t = 4 (Ans: 124 m)
c) What is its average velocity for the time
interval from t=2s to t=4s? (Ans: 53 m/s)
d) What is its average acceleration for the time
interval from t=2s to t=4s? (Ans: 26.5 m/s )
2
2.2.1 Vector
subtraction and
multiplication

2.2.2 Vector
component

2.2.3 Unit
vector

## 2.3.1 Position 2.4.2 Instantaneous

speed
2.3.2 Displacement
2.3.3 Velocity and 2.4.1 Instantaneous
speed velocity

2.3.4 Acceleration
2.4.1 INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY

## The limit of the average velocity

as the time interval becomes
infinitesimally short, or as the
time interval approaches zero
The instantaneous velocity
indicates what is happening at
every point of time
On a graph of a particles position vs.
time, the instantaneous velocity is the
tangent to the curve at any point.
INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY, GRAPH
The instantaneous
velocity is the slope of
the line tangent to the
x vs. t curve
This would be the
green line
The light blue lines
show that as t gets
smaller, they approach
the green line
INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY,
EQUATIONS

## The general equation for instantaneous

velocity is
x dx
v x lim
t 0 t dt
The instantaneous velocity can be
positive, negative, or zero
2.4.2 INSTANTANEOUS SPEED

## The instantaneous speed is the

magnitude of the instantaneous velocity

## The instantaneous speed has no direction

associated with it
EXAMPLE
1.A jet engine moves along an experimental
track. We will treat the engine as if it were a
particle. Its position as a function of time is
given by the equation x=At2+B, where A =
2.10m/s2 and B= 2.80m, determined
a)the displacement of the engine during the
time interval t1 = 3.00s and t2 = 5.00s
b)the average velocity during this time interval
c) the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity
at t = 5.00s
SOLUTION
a) At t1 = 3.00s, the position is
x1 At12 B (2.10m / s 2 )(3.00 s ) 2 2.80m 21.7 m
At t2 = 5.00s, the position is
x2 (2.10m / s 2 )(5.00 s) 2 2.80m 55.3m
The displacement is thus
x2 -x1 = 55.3m-21.7m = 33.6m
b)The magnitude of the average velocity
x x2 x1 33.6m
v 16.8m / s
t t 2 t1 2.00 s
c) Instantaneous velocity
dx d
v ( At 2 B) 2 At
dt dt
v2 2 At 2(2.10m / s 2 )(5.00 s) 21.0m / s
2.2.1 Vector
subtraction and
multiplication 2.5.2 Projectile

2.2.2 Vector
component

2.2.3 Unit
vector

## 2.3.1 Position 2.4.2 Instantaneous

speed
2.3.2 Displacement
2.3.3 Velocity and 2.4.1 Instantaneous
speed velocity

2.3.4 Acceleration
KINEMATIC EQUATIONS
The kinematic equations can be used with any
particle under uniform acceleration.

## The kinematic equations may be used to solve

any problem involving one-dimensional motion
with a constant acceleration

one problem

## Many times there is more than one way to

solve a problem
KINEMATIC EQUATIONS
SUMMARY
KINEMATIC EQUATIONS, SPECIFIC
FOR CONSTANT ACCELERATION
1- The average velocity

v xi v xf
v x ,avg
2
2- The position of the particle in terms of time and
velocities is:

1
xf xi v x ,avg t xi v xi v fx t
2
3- Final position in terms of velocity and
acceleration
1 2
xf xi v xi t ax t
2
Doesnt tell you about final velocity

displacement

## v xf2 v xi2 2ax xf xi

When a = 0
When the acceleration is zero,

vxf = vxi = vx
xf = xi + vx t

## The constant acceleration model reduces to the

constant velocity model
2.5.1 FREELY FALLING OBJECT
One of the most common examples of
motion with constant acceleration is when
an object allowed to fall freely near the
Earths surface.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) claimed that all
object light or heavy fall with the same
acceleration at least in the absence of air.

## Fig. 1: Falling apple at equal time interval.

The apple falls farther during each
successive interval, which means it is
accelerating
Galileos specific contribution about motion of falling
objects:
At a given location on the earth and in the absence of
air resistance, all objects fall with the same constant
accelerationThis acceleration is due to the gravity,
g = 9.80 ms-2
The effect of air resistance are often small and we will
neglect them for the most part.

## When dealing with freely falling object, we

can make use of kinematics equation for
constant acceleration a = g = 9.80 ms-2
If motion is vertical,
substitute
y in x and yo in xo,
yo = 0 (unless
specified)
vo is initial velocity,
EXAMPLE
1. Suppose that a ball is dropped (v o = 0) from
a tower 70.0m high. How far will it have
fallen after a time t1= 1.00s, t2 = 2.00s and
t3 = 3.00s?
SOLUTION
Acceleration a = g =9.80m/s2, vo= 0 and yo= 0
t = t1 = 1.00s
1 2
y1 yo vo t
at
2
1
0 0(1.00s) (9.80ms 2 )(1.00 s ) 2
2
4.90m
and so on for t2 = 2.00s and t3 = 3.00s
EXERCISE
1. Suppose the ball is thrown downward
with an initial velocity of 3.00m/s instead
of being dropped.
a) What then would be its position after
1.00s and 2.00s? (Ans: 7.9m and 25.6 m)
b) What would its speed be after 1.00s and
2.00s. (Ans: 12.8 m/s and 22.6 m/s)
2.5.2 PROJECTILE MOTION

## An object may move in both the x

and y directions simultaneously

## The form of two-dimensional motion

we will deal with is called projectile
motion
ASSUMPTIONS OF PROJECTILE
MOTION
The free-fall acceleration is constant over
the range of motion
It is directed downward
This is the same as assuming a flat Earth
over the range of the motion
It is reasonable as long as the range is
small compared to the radius of the Earth
The effect of air friction is negligible
With these assumptions, an object in
projectile motion will follow a parabolic path
This path is called the trajectory
PROJECTILE MOTION DIAGRAM
ANALYZING PROJECTILE MOTION
Consider the motion as the superposition of the
motions in the x- and y-directions
The actual position at any time is given by:
1
y yo v y o t gt
2
The initial velocity, vo can be expressed in terms
of its x and y components
vxo = vo cos and vyo = vo sin
The x-direction has constant velocity
ax = 0
The y-direction is free fall
ay = -g
Projectile motion is motion with constant
acceleration in two dimensions, where the
acceleration is g and is down.
EFFECTS OF CHANGING INITIAL
CONDITIONS

## The velocity vector

components depend
on the value of the
initial velocity
Change the angle
and note the effect
Change the
magnitude and
note the effect
RANGE AND MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF A
PROJECTILE

When analyzing
projectile motion, two
characteristics are of
special interest
The range, R, is the
horizontal distance of
the projectile
The maximum height
the projectile reaches
is h
ZERO PROJECTION ANGLE
Vyo = 0
V = velocity
Click to watch video
Vxo (initial
-y velocity)
V1x = Vxo

V1y negative V1

V2x = Vxo
y = yo + Vyo t ay t2

y = - gt2 V2
V2y negative
x = xo + Vxo t ax t2
= Vxo t
x
CASE STUDY: ZERO PROJECTION
ANGLE
A ball was thrown horizontally with
initial velocity 40 m/s from the height
of 3 m. Calculate:

## a.The time taken to reach the ground.

b.The range, R of the ball was thrown.
A BALL WAS THROWN HORIZONTALLY WITH
INITIAL VELOCITY 40 M/S FROM THE HEIGHT
OFa.3The
M.time taken to reach the ground.
b. The range of the ball was thrown.
Vyo = 0 m/s
Vxo = 40 m/s

y = -3m

y = yo + Vyo t ay t2
y = yo + Vyo t gy t2
-3 = 0 0(t) - (9.81) (t2)
(-3) / (-4.905) = t2
0.6 = t2
x@R = xo + Vxo t ax t2
t = 0.78 s
= 0 + (40) (0.78) (0) t2
= 31.2 m

x@R
SOLVING PROBLEMS INVOLVING
PROJECTILE MOTION

## Exercise: Driving off a cliff.

A movie stunt driver on a
motorcycle speeds
horizontally off a 50.0-m-
high cliff. How fast must the
motorcycle leave the cliff
top to land on level ground
below, 90.0 m from the base
of the cliff where the
cameras are? Ignore air
resistance. (Ans: 3.19 s and 28.2 m/s)
SOLUTION :
We choose y- direction to be positive upward, with the
top of cliff as y0 =0
The x-direction is horizontal with x0 =0 at the point
The time interval to begin (t =0 )
ax =0 (in horizontal x-direction ) ,so the velocity is
constant .
The value of x when motorcycle reach ground x=+90 m
ay =-g = -9.8 m/s2
the value of y when motorcycle reach ground y =-50 m
The initial velocity vx0 is unknown
The vertical velocity is zero vy0 =0
To find out how long it takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below

We use :
1 2 Known values
y y0 v y 0t a yt
2 x0 y0 0
1
0 0 g t 2 x 90.0m
2 y 50.0m
1
gt 2 ax 0
2
a y g 9.8m / s 2
We solve for t and set y=-50.0 m vy0 0

## 2y 2 50.0m Unknown values

t 3.19 s
g 9.8m / s 2
vx0
t
To calculate the initial velocity vx0 for horizontal x- direction with
ax =0 and x0 =0 :

1
x x0 vx 0t at 2
2
0 vx 0 0
or
x v x 0t
x 90.0m
vx 0 28.2m / s
t 3.19 s
With projection angle
If an object is projected at an upward
angle there is an initial vertical, Vy0
and horizontal, Vxo component of
velocity.
Vxo Vo cos
Vy o Vo sin
WITH PROJECTION ANGLE
V3y = 0
V2y positive V2 V3 V4x = Vx
V3x = Vx
V1y positive V1 V2x = Vx V4
V4y negative
y V5x = Vx
V1x = Vx
Vyo =
= Vy
Vertical component = Vo sin V5y negative V5
Vo = initial velocity
V6x = Vx

Vxo = Vx
Vxo = Horizontal component V6y negative V6
= Vo cos
x
Vy = Vyo gy t
y = Vyo t gy t2
position=V t g t2 V=Vgt
x = Vxo t gx t2
= Vxo t Vx = Vxo gx t
= Vxo
CASE STUDY: WITH PROJECTION
ANGLE
A ball was thrown with an inclination
degree of 20 from the horizon and
initial velocity of 12m/s. Calculate:

## a. The highest point the ball can

reach
b. The range of the ball was thrown
A ball
b. wasrange
a. The
The thrownofwith
highest the an
point inclination
ball
thewas degree of
ballthrown
can
20 from the horizon and initial velocity of 12m/s.
reach
Vx = Vxo
At the highest point: t1 = 0.42 s
Vy = 0

## At the highest point:

Vyo = Vy = Vyo gy t
4.10 y 0 = 4.10 (9.80) t
m/s
Vo = 12 m/s (-4.10) / (-9.80) = t
20 t = 0.42 s
t2 = 0.42 s x 2
Vxo = 11.28 m/s x y = yo + Vyo gy t2 = 0.84 s
Vxo = Vo cos Vyo = Vo sin
= 0 + (4.10) (9.80) (0.42)2
= 12 cos (20) = 12 sin (20)
= 4.10 0.864
= 11.28 m/sThe highest
= 4.10
pointm/sthe ball can m reach is 3.235 m
= 3.235
x = Vxot
The range of the ball was thrown is (0.84)
= (11.28) 9.48 m
= 9.48 m
SOLVING PROBLEMS
INVOLVING PROJECTILE
MOTION

## Exercise : A kicked football.

A football is kicked at an angle 0 = 37.0 with a
velocity of 20.0 m/s, as shown. Calculate (a) the
maximum height, (b) the time of travel before the
football hits the ground, (c) how far away it hits the
ground, (d) the velocity vector at the maximum
height, and (e) the acceleration vector at maximum
height. Assume the ball leaves the foot at ground
level, and ignore air resistance and rotation of the
Solution:
We resolve the initial velocity ito its components
vx 0 v0 cos 37.00 20m / s 0.799 16.0m / s
v y 0 v0 sin 37.00 20m / s 0.602 12.0m / s
(a) we consider the time interval begins just after the foot ball loses
contact with foot until reaches its maximum height
Velocity is horizontal and vy =0
v y v y 0 gt
vy 0

t
vy0

12.0m / s 1.22 s
g 9.8m / s 2
y0 0
1 2
y v y 0t gt
2
12.0m / s 1.22 s
1
2
9.8m / s 2 1.22 s
2

7.35m
(b) To find the time it takes for the ball to the ground:
Consider ; at t=0, y0 =0 ( starting the ball leave the ground )
And ending at y=0 (ground level )

1
y y0 v y 0t gt 2
2
0 0 12.0m / s t
1
2

9.8m / s 2 t 2

1
29. 8m / s 2

t 12 . 0 m / s

t 0
either :
t 0 Corresponding to initial point
or
212.0m / s
t 2.45s
9.8m / s 2

(c) Total distance in x-direction

x 39.2m

0

## (e)The acceleration at maximum height :

is the same at highest point as it is throughout
which is:
9.8m / s 2 downward