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PROJECT MEMBERS:

BATCH NO :39

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON PERFORMANCE,COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF PONGAMIA OIL BIODIESEL ON A CI ENGINE

MOHAMED SHAFEEL.K(812413114130) MOHAMED THARIK.A(812413114133) SAFIQUR RAHMAN.A(812413114180) SAFIULLAH SHERIFF.S.A(812413114181)

PROJECT GUIDE:

Mr.M.KIRUBAKARAN (Ph.d) (ASST PROFESSER)

OBJECTIVE

To study the challenges on the production of higher oil yield from pongamia oil and optimization of its conversion in to methyl ester

To investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with pongamia oil methyl ester for the sustainable energy future

To study the challenges on the production of biodiesel from pongamia oil

To study the biodiesel combustion characteristics on the C.I engine

OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION

Introduction Literature Review Process flow chart Experimental Setup and Measurement Experimental Investigation Result and Discussion Conclusion References

INTRODUCTION

Recent survey on the world energy consumption highlights that a major portion of the total energy consumed is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels.

Unfortunately, the reserves of fossil fuels, specially the liquid fuels are not unlimited.

Efforts are being made throughout the World to reduce the consumption of liquid petroleum fuels wherever is possible.

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat through a chemical process and can be used as either direct substitute, extender or as an additive to fossil diesel fuel in compression ignition engines

LITERATURE REVIEW

SNO

JOURNAL

TITLE

OBJECTIVES

NAME/AUTHOR

NAME/YEAR

1

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews/

Prospects of biodiesel from Pongamia in India

Biodiesel yield of 99% is obtained from Pongamia oil by transesterification under the molar ratio of 6:1 of alcohol to oil with Sodium

Gaurav Dwivedi, M.P. Sharma

hydroxide as a catalyst of 0.5 vol% and operating temperature of 60° C with time for production

2014

process being 1 h.

  • 2 Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety M. Srinivasa Rao n , R.B. Anand

Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of

  • 2015. Pongamia biodiesel

The experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH

CONCLUSION

Biodiesel yield of 99% is obtained from Pongamia oil by transesterification under the molar ratio of 6:1 of alcohol to oil with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst of 0.5 vol% and operating temperature of 60° C with time for production process is 1 h.

Pongamia biodiesel yield of 84% and 68% were obtained with KOH and NaOH catalyst respectively in identical production process conditions like reaction temperature 60 °C, reaction time 2 h, catalyst 1% by weight and methanol to oil molar ratio as 6:1.

  • 3 BIOMASS AND BIOENERGY V. Sathya Selva Bala a , K.V. Thiruvengadaravi a , P. Senthil Kumar b , M.P. Premkumar a , Vaidyanathan Vinoth kumar a , S. Subash sankar a , M. Hari Kumar a , S. Sivanesan a, * 2012

Removal of free fatty acids in Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja) oil using divinylbenzene- styrene copolymer resins for biodiesel production

The acid value was reduced 2 mg/KOH. The optimum conditions of esterification such as catalyst amount, methanol to oil ratio, and reaction time are chosen as 0.8% (w/w), 1:6 and 25 min for Amberlite IR 120 H and 1% (w/w), 1:6 and 25 min for Amberjet 1200 H. This pretreatment reduces the complexity of the process and the production cost of biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed transesterification.

The high FFA 12.5 level of crude KARANJA OIL can be reduced to less than 2 in solid acid ion exchange resins catalyzed pretreatment process of esterification at 60° C for 90 min. The first step product having acid value 2 is used for final alkali catalyzed (1% (w/w) KOH) transesterification with methanol to produce biodiesel. This process gives a maximum yield of 96% and 95% biodiesel respectively for Amberlite IR 120 H and Amberjet 1200 H pre-treated oil which has comparable properties with diesel and are within the ASTM standards.

  • 4 Egyptian Journal of Petroleum Gaurav Dwivedi, Mahendra Pal Sharma

Investigation of Oxidation stability of Pongamia Biodiesel and its blends

  • 2015 with diesel

Biodiesel from Pongamia oil is one of the promising non edible sources in India. But the main problem of using Pongamia biodiesel as fuel is its poor stability characteristics. This paper investigates the methodology of improving the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel by blending with diesel and use of the antioxidant Pyrogallol.

Results have shown that blending of biodiesel with diesel with less than 20% (v/v) would not need any antioxidants but at the same time, need a large storage capacity.

5

Ain Shams Engineering Journal K. Nantha Gopal

Effect of pongamia biodiesel on emission and combustion

Biodiesel produced from pongamia oil has been considered as promising option for diesel engines because of its environmental

Diesel engine can perform satisfactorily with pongamia oil methyl esters and their blends

 

characteristics of DI

In this work, bio-diesel from

without any engine modifications.

compression ignition engine

pongamia oil is prepared (PME 100), tested on a diesel engine for different blends such as PME 20, PME 40, PME 60 and PME 80.

The combustion analysis showed that the biodiesel added tothe conventional diesel fuel decreased the delay period and lowered the heat release rate of the premixed combustion.

6

Energy Procedia 90 / Ajeet Kumar a , S.K.

A Review of Research and Policy on Using

The main focus area of this review is to discuss the reduction of major pollutants

Biodiesel obtained from saturated feedstock produces less NOx and

Shukla b , J.V.Tierkey a,b, *

Different Biodiesel oils

like carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt

also more resistive to oxidation. It is

2016

as Fuel for C.I. Engine

hydrocarbons (UHC), particulate matter (PM) and effect of fatty acid composition on performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel can be used as fuel without modification in CI engine, it means biodiesel replaces the diesel fuel. The biodiesel obtained from saturated feedstock shows low emission of NOx

highly viscous in nature so exhibit poor atomization. Lower carbon saturated esters produces more NOx than higher carbon saturated esters. So slightly on compromising the performance characteristics of biodiesel the animal fat may be the better solution to reduce the NOx emission.

PROCESS FLOW CHART

Collection of Pongamia oil

 
Collection of Pongamia oil Purification of oil by water wash Acid value test Esterification Transesterification Engine
 

Purification of oil by water wash

 
Collection of Pongamia oil Purification of oil by water wash Acid value test Esterification Transesterification Engine
 

Acid value test

 
Collection of Pongamia oil Purification of oil by water wash Acid value test Esterification Transesterification Engine
 

Esterification

 
Collection of Pongamia oil Purification of oil by water wash Acid value test Esterification Transesterification Engine
 

Transesterification

 
Collection of Pongamia oil Purification of oil by water wash Acid value test Esterification Transesterification Engine
 

Engine testing

METHODOLOGY

collection of pongamia oil Purification of oil Esterification Process Transesterification Process Water washing and Drying the biodiesel

WORK DONE:

COLLECTION OF PONGAMIA OIL The Nine liter of pongamia oil purchased from oil shop.

WORK DONE: COLLECTION OF PONGAMIA OIL • The Nine liter of pongamia oil purchased from oil

OIL PURIFICATION PROCESS

WATER WASH METHOD The take 250ml of raw pongamia oil is poured in seperating funnel

The 500ml of distilled water is heated in 50°c then the distilled water is poured in Seperating funnel then the seperating funnel is shake well.

The after one hour water,oil,Dust are sperated three layer. The water and dust is removed oil is taken to next process. The water wash process is done 4 to 5 times in all oil.

Finally the water washed oil is Filtered by whatman filter paper. Finally the oil is get 150ml to 200ml.

oil
oil
sludge
sludge
distilled water
distilled water

Oil after water wash

OIL BEFORE USING WHATMAN FILTER PAPER

OIL IS FILTERED BY WHATMAN FILTER PAPER

OIL AFTER USING FILTER PAPER

OIL AFTER HEATING ABOVE 100°C

CHECK THE FREE FATTY ACID (FFA)VALUE:

ACID VALUE TESTING

It is defined as the weight of KOH in mg need to neutralize the organic acid present in 1g of fat and it is a measure of the free fatty acid (FFA) present in the fat or oil. unit:mgKOH/g

FREE FATTY ACID

Free fatty acids are those long chain acids that are not conjugated or attached to anything else.That is they are “free”and not bound.

FATTY ACID

Fatty acids that are attached to for example glycerol are not longer considered “free”.They can also be bound to proteins like albumin again making them not “free” because they are bound hope this helps.

ACID VALUE TESTING PROCESS

In this step heated oil is taken to check the free fatty acid value. The FFA value is <1 the oil is taken to transesterfication process. If the value of FFA is >1 the oil is taken to esterfication process.

The Pongamia oil esterfication process.

is

value of

FFA is

4.1

so

the

oil

is

taken to

ACID VALUE TESTING PROCEDURE

STEP1:

0.33g of KOH (potassium hydroxide) pallet is taken in beaker. 50g of demineralised water is mixed. Then poured in burette solution.

STEP2:

2g of oil+8.33ml of diethyl ether+16.67ml of ethanol+2drop of indicator. Taken in beaker or conical flask

Phenolphthalein indicator&KOH pallet

Ethanol &diethyl ether

Demineralised wat

CALCULTION:

ACID VALUE = 56.1*0.1*burette reading/oil in gm

=56.1*0.1*3/2.1

ACID VALUE =8.01 FATTY ACID VALUE=8.01/2 FATTY ACID VALUE=4

ESTERIFICATION

In order to eliminate saponification reaction (formation of soap when FFA react with homogeneous base catalyst) pongamia oil can be pretreated with acid catalyst, which esterifies free fatty acid to form esters of free fatty acid (bio diesel).

But this reaction is slower than base catalyzed transesterification reaction.

ESTERIFICATION PRO%CESS

The molecular weight of pongamia oil is 890g/mol. The esterification process is done by two times of 1:15 ratio. The 2 wt% of oil to methanol. The molecular weight of methanol is 32g/mol.Take the 400g of filtered pongamia oil then 86.29g of methanol with 2g of HCL . The mixture is poured in three neck round bottom flask. This mixture is stirred at 600 rpm. The temperature is maintained at 55° to 60°c. This process is running at one hour. The oil mixture is poured in seperating funnel. The rest time of seperation is 1 hour. The methanol and oil is seperated in two layers. The oil is get 436g methanol content is mixed with oil then the oil is taken to return water wash. After water wash the oil is gained to 408g then it is taken heating process methanol is evaporated. In this process same for all pongamia oil.

STIRRING MOTOR CONDENSER STIRRING ROD THREE NECK FLASK HEATING MANDLE ESTERIFICATION SETUP

STIRRING MOTOR

STIRRING MOTOR CONDENSER STIRRING ROD THREE NECK FLASK HEATING MANDLE ESTERIFICATION SETUP
STIRRING MOTOR CONDENSER STIRRING ROD THREE NECK FLASK HEATING MANDLE ESTERIFICATION SETUP

CONDENSER

STIRRING ROD

STIRRING MOTOR CONDENSER STIRRING ROD THREE NECK FLASK HEATING MANDLE ESTERIFICATION SETUP

THREE NECK FLASK

STIRRING MOTOR CONDENSER STIRRING ROD THREE NECK FLASK HEATING MANDLE ESTERIFICATION SETUP

HEATING MANDLE

ESTERIFICATION SETUP

METHANOL
METHANOL
OIL
OIL

OIL AFTER ESTERIFICATION

TRANSESTERIFICATION

Transesterification is a reversible reaction in which one ester is converted into another (as by interchange of ester groups with an alcohol in the presence of a base).

TRANSESTERIFICATION • Transesterification is a reversible reaction in which one ester is converted into another (as

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

BIODIESEL GLYCEROL

BIODIESEL

BIODIESEL GLYCEROL

GLYCEROL

YIELD CALCULATION FOR 30g OIL

BEFORE HEATING

27.5/30*100=91.6%

AFTER HEATING

25.6/30*100=85.3%

REFERENCES

Hanh HD, Dong NT, Okitsu K, Nishimura R, Maeda Y. Biodiesel production through transesterification of triolein with various alcohols in an ultrasonic field. Renew Energy 2009;34:766–8.

Sánchez M, Bergamin F, Peña E, Martínez M, Aracil J. A comparative study of the production of esters from Jatropha oil using different short-chain alcohols:

optimization and characterization. Fuel 2015;143:183–8.

Malins K, Kampars V, Kampare R, Prilucka J, Brinks J, Murnieks R, et al. Properties of rapeseed oil fatty acid alkyl esters derived from different alcohols. Fuel 2014;137:28–35.

Sun Y, Ponnusamy S, Muppaneni T, Reddy HK, Patil PD, Li C, et al. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions. Fuel

2014;135:522–9.

Sendzikiene E, Sinkuniene D, Kazanceva I, Kazancev K. Optimization of low quality rapeseed oil transesterification with butanol by applying the response surface methodology. Renew Energy

2016;87:266–72.

THANK YOU

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