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"An integrated study is one in which
children broadly explore knowledge
in various subjects related to certain
aspects of their environment
He sees links among the humanities, communication
arts, natural sciences, mathematics, social studies,
music, and art. Skills and knowledge are developed
and applied in more than one area of study.
In keeping with this thematic definition, Shoemaker
defines an integrated curriculum as ...education that
is organized in such a way that it cuts across subject-
matter lines, bringing together various aspects of the
curriculum into meaningful association to focus upon
broad areas of study. It views learning and teaching
in a holistic way and reflects the real world, which is
What is integration?

Problem, concerns real to the student and real in

the community.
Students and teachers work together to select the
specific topic of interest to them and together they
plan how, when, where, and why they will pursue
Active students participation and decision making.
Explore issue to understand and to propose a
solution, suggestion a new direction and report the
Develop essential skills intrinsic to their learning.
Key skill may be formulating questions,
creating hypotheses, working out way to
collect data, and report on what has been
Subject content and knowledge comes
into play after, rather than before,
deciding what is to be studied and how.
Program which are genuinely
Based on topic of substance and significance.
Place on emphasis on seeing connection in
and purpose for learning.
Develop big ideas that excite the imagination.
Develop desire for the learning process.
Develop skills and knowledge that are real to
Build on and extend knowledge and
Develop sustained programmes or work.
Components of Integrated Curriculum

Focuses on basic skills, content and

higher level thinking
Encourages lifelong learning
Structures learning around themes, big
ideas and meaningful concepts
Provides connections among various
curricular disciplines
Provides learners opportunities to apply
skills they have learned
Encourages active participation in
relevant real-life experiences
Captivates, motivates, and challenges
Provides a deeper understanding of
Offers opportunities for more small group
and industrialized instruction
Accommodates a variety of learning
styles/theories (i.e., social learning
theory, cooperative learning, intrinsic
Characteristics of an Integrated

Student directed real-world application.

Researched based
Usage of multiple resources
Social skills improved
Find a authentic literature on a topic
The purpose of integration

appropriately constructed to meet the

needs of two or more course units/VET
units or endorsed programs find it better
to deal with fewer teacherswhere the
same teacher is delivering two
Units and thus sees the students twice
as often make the connections between
the parts of the program and enjoy its
Enjoy participating in partnerships with
business, training organizations, and
Groups and connect with wider
community based activities like
environmental projects
Steps of integrated curriculum

Selecting a theme
Collecting texts and other materials
Engaging students
Grouping students
Expanding the theme
Assessing student growth
Why is curriculum integration important?

Students see relationships among ideas and

concepts as they plan and experience a
theme-based inquiry.
Relationships between in- and out-of-school
topics become obvious to students.
Communication processes become authentic
as students engage in thematically based
learning activities.
Students are encouraged to share ideas. As
they listen to one another, their personal
bases of ideas are expanded.
Respect and cooperation among peers
are expanded through interaction.
Students become more responsible for
and engaged in their own learning.
The teacher assumes the role of
facilitator rather than information
A sense of community develops as
cooperatively designed student projects
and classroom displays are created.

Many grouping patterns naturally


Assessment is continuous and related to

learning endeavors
Principles of curriculum integration

Learning build , extends and expands a

students personal knowledge and
Open-ended and provide for a range of
learning style .
Process of learning valued as the product
of learning .
Range of possible approaches to
curriculum integration.
Making connections and seeing real
purpose for their learning.
Based in topics of substance and
Linked to problems and issues that are of
personal and social concern to students.

Learning experiences develop big ideas

that excite and challenge the
Actively involved in negotiating the
content and direction of their learning.
Knowledge, skills , values , and attitudes
are all integrated
Approaches of integrated

Transdisciplinary Integration

When teachers integrate the sub

disciplines within a subject area, they are
using an intradisciplinary approach.
Integrating reading, writing, and oral
communication in language arts is a
common example
A good example of this is in a school wide
grade 78 unit, four to six weeks long,
developed by teachers .
The focus of study was "survival in a changing
world." All subject areas were involved in the
unit, including a foreign language, agriculture,
and life management. All teachers focused on
problem solving, decision making, and
communication, and selected the concepts
that were most compatible with their course
content. This approach lends itself very well to
planning with standards and performance
assessment because the standards for each
discipline are clearly set out.

In a multidisciplinary approach, two or

more subject areas are organized around
the same theme or topic. In elementary
school, this often occurs when learning
centers are utilized. The topic may be
pioneers, and students rotate through a
math center, language center, and visual
art center. At each one they explore the
topic of pioneers via an activity grounded
in the curriculum subject area.

In secondary schools, a common theme is
often studied in various subject-based
classrooms. For example, teachers of all
subject areas at High School and have agreed
to integrate the public health issue of physical
activity into their lesson plans (Eckman, 2000).
They undertook this integration in concert with
the Social studies was to look at policymaking
procedures, and English was to write editorials
and public service announcements about the

In math class students learned

graphing, plotting, percentages, and
ratios as they pertain to collecting health
data. Sociology and psychology students
were to implement and test planned
Transdisciplinary Integration

In the transdisciplinary approach to

integration, teachers organize curriculum
around student questions and concerns.
Students develop life skills as they apply
interdisciplinary and disciplinary skills in
a real-life context. Two routes lead to
transdisciplinary integration: project-
based learning and negotiating the

Variety within Learning
Classroom Culture
Curriculum Advancements

Interest Issues
Content Issues
A Turn with Classroom Culture
Inaccessible to some students due to
cultural, academic, or ability