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PIPELINE LAYING IN WATER

Technology, Techniques and Environmental Fa

BY
S.JAI KRISHNA SAHITH
CONTENTS

Need For Laying

Technology & Techniques

Environmental Factors

Advancements
NEED FOR SUBSEA PIPELINES

Offshore Pipelines Are Essential For The Transportation


Of Oil And Gas, And Range From Small Diameter Inter
field Flow lines To Large Diameter Export Lines For
Transportation From Offshore Installations To Shore And
For Transportation Across Oceans Between Countries.

The Use Of Subsea Pipelines Represents A Safe And


Environmentally Friendly Mean Of Transportation (Collier
And Rosier, 1995).
AN ARTISTIC IMPRESSION OF AN OFFSHORE PIPE LAYING OPERATION
TECHNOLOGY & TECHNIQUES

The Pipe Installation Methods Covered Are:


S-lay
J-lay
Reeling
Towing
S - L AY M E T H O D
S-LAY METHOD

Drill Ship

S-lay Barge
S-LAY METHOD
When Performing S-lay Pipeline Installation,

Pipe Is Eased Off The Stern Of The Vessel As The Boat Moves Forward.

The Pipe Curves Downward From The Stern Through The Water Until
It Reaches The "Touchdown Point," Or Its Final Destination On The
Seafloor.

As More Pipe Is Welded In The Line And Eased Off The Boat, The Pipe
Forms The Shape Of An "S" In The Water.

S-lay Can Be Performed In Waters Up To 6,500 Feet (1,981 Meters)


Deep, And As Many As 4 Miles (6 Kilometers) A Day Of Pipe Can Be
Installed In This Manner.
J- L AY M E T H O D
J-LAY METHOD

J-lay Pipeline Installation Puts Less Stress On The Pipeline By


Inserting The Pipeline In An Almost Vertical Position.

Here, Pipe Is Lifted Via A Tall Tower On The Boat, And Inserted
Into The Sea.

Unlike The Double Curvature Obtained In S-lay, The Pipe Only


Curves Once In J-lay Installation, Taking On The Shape Of A "J"
Under The Water.
ADVANTAGES OVER S-LAY METHOD

The reduced stress on the pipe allows J-lay to work in deeper water
depths.

Additionally, the J-lay pipeline can withstand more motion and


underwater currents than pipe being installed in the S-lay fashion.
REELING
REELING

Reel Pipe Lay Is A Method Of Installing Pipelines In The Ocean From


A Giant Reel Mounted OnAn Offshore Vessel. Pipelines Are
Assembled At An Onshore Spool-base Facility And SpooledOnto A
Reel Which Is Mounted On The Deck Of A Pipe Lay Barge.

Suitable For Cables And Flexible Pipes, Which Generally Have Small
Diameters And Small Diameter Rigid Pipes (Up To 16 Inches).
PROS AND CONS
Connecting the ends of the pipeline segments

Amount of time to re-reel the pipeline to remove a buckle

Establishing a spool base close to the location where the pipeline is


to be laid

Concrete-coated pipelines cannot be reeled

Only specifically designed pipe-in-pipe pipelines can be reeled

The pipeline is plastically deformed and then straightened. Some


thinning of the walland loss of yield strength of the material in
localized areas can occur (Bauschinger effect)
TOWING
TOWING

Towing Lay Method, In Which The Pipe Is Made Up At Some


Remote Location Onshore, Transported To The Offshore
Installation Site By Towing And Laid Down.

The Towing Is Either On The Water Surface (Surface Towing),


At A Controlled Depth Below The Surface (Control Depth
Towing Method [Cdtm]), Or On The Sea Bottom (Bottom
Towing), Where The Different Water Depths Are Used Mainly
To Reduce The Fatigue Damage Due To Wave Action.
PRIME FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES
Manipulation Of Pipelines During Towing Is Relatively Easy And Safe
Regardless Of Water Depths Or Pipe Characteristics. Excessive
Bending Or Damage During Installation Can Be Avoided, And Pipeline
Stresses Can Be Maintained At Low, Safe Levels Throughout Towing.

Considerable Reductions In Pipeline Installation Time Can Be


Achieved In Contrast To Conventional Lay Barge Methods. Tow Vessels
By Comparison, Are Fast And Their Relatively Small Size Assists In
Giving Them Outstanding Manoeuvrability.

Large Diameter And Heavy Pipe Can Be Installed, As Can Bundled Or


Otherwise Difficult Pipe Configurations. These Designs Would Be
Slow Or Impossible To Install By Lay Barge.
E N V I R O N M E N TA L
FA C T O R S
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

Soil Erosion
Surface Water Contamination
Increased Sedimentation
Spillage
Generation Of Noise
ADVANCEMENTS

O-lay

G-lay

Jet Dredging
O - L AY M E T H O D
O-LAY METHOD
The O-lay is developed to install pipelines which have been welded, coated
and inspected onshore, then pulled (while made afloat) in the water and
formed into a spiral in the elastic area of the steel (within 0,2% strain
limits).

It will form a spiral with a diameter of 500X the pipe diameter. Pipe in Pipe,
concrete coated pipe and cladded pipe can all be used with this technology
while in theory the pipe diameter to be installed can be of any size and wall-
thickness.

When the predefined length of the pipeline is reached it will be transported


to the installation location, loaded on board of a lay vessel while unwinding
the spiral and installed with the S-lay method.
G - L AY M E T H O D
G - L AY M E T H O D

With his method welding, coating and inspection takes place on the lay
barge like is done with S-lay. After the pipe has been welded it will be
guided to a large vertical wheel on the stern of the barge that will slightly
deform the pipe in the plastic area (roughly 0,5 -1,2% strain depending
on the diameter of the pipe) and diverts the pipe almost 180 degrees in
the direction of a second wheel. From the 2nd wheel the pipe is diverted
into an vertical position and can be installed with the J-lay technology.

The technology has been developed by a newly formed company Ceona


(www.ceona.net) that is financially supported by Goldman Sachs.
?ANY
QUESTIONS???
THANKS!