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MATEMATIKA 1

Dr.-Ing. Silviana, ST.,MT.


Materi
MATRIKS
VEKTOR

Literature:
Ka Stroud, Engineering Mathematics, 2nd edition, Springe
Verlag New York
MATRIKS
- Raw? Column? Order ?
- Line matrixs, column matrixs, single element matrix, double
suffix notation
a11 a12 a13
- Matrix notation :
a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33 [aij], [a], A

- Addition and substraction ----same order


- Multiplication: a. Scalar
b. Two matrixs (l x m) (m x n) = (l x n)
Transpose of Matrix (AT)
a b c a d g
A d e f A T b e h
g h i c f i

Square Matrix (m x m)
Unit Matrix (I) 1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
Determinant of Matrix (A) = |A|

= (a x d) (b x c)


= (a x e x i) + (b x f x g) + (c x d x h) (g x e x c) ( h x f x a) (i x d x h)


= ax -bx +cx


Adjoint of square matrix

1. Cofactor matrixs of A = C 2. Transpose of C (CT)



A=


C=

= +


= -

Dst...
Inverse of square matrix A
1. Determinant of matrix of A
2. Form matrix C as cofactors of element
matrix A
3. Transpose of matrix C
4. Divide each element of (CT) with |A|
5. Obtain the inverse of matrix A or A-1
Application of inverse matrix for solution of a set of linear
equation
a x + a x + a x + ... + a x = b
11 1 12 2 13 3 1n n 1

a21x1 + a22x2 + a23x3 + ... + a2nxn = b2


a31x1 + a32x2 + a33x3 + ... + a3nxn = b3

a11 a12 a13 ... a1n x1 b1


a21 a22 a23 ... a2n x2 = b2 Ax=b x = A-1
a31 a32 a33 ... a3n x3 b3
b
A x b
Gaussian Elimination Method
a11 a12 a13 x1 b1
a21 a22 a23 x2 = b2
a31 a32 a33 x3 b3
A x b
a11 a12 a13 b1 a11 a12 a13 b1 a11 a12 a13 b1
B a21 a22 a23 b2 B 0 c22 c23 d2 B 0 c22 c23 d2
= = =
a31 a32 a33 b3 0 c32 c33 d3 0 0 e33 f3

a21 (a21 /a11)(a11) c32 (c32 / c22)(c22)


a31 (a31 /a11)(a11)
x3
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
Eigenvalues
A x = x, where A is square
matrix
a11 a12 a13 x1 x1
a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33
x2
x3
= x2
x3

a11x1 + a12x2 +... + a1nxn = x1 (a11-)x1 + a12x2 + ... + a1nxn = 0

a21x1 + a22x2 + ... + a2nxn = x2 a21x1 + (a22-)x2 + ... + a2nxn = 0


. . . .
. . . .

. . . .
. . .
. . . .
. . .

an1x1 + an2x2 + ... + (ann-)xn = 0


an1x1 + an2x2 + ... + annxn = xn
(a11-) a12 ... a1n x1 0
a21 (a22-) ... a2n x2 0
.

.
.

.
.

.
..

= .

.
:

an1 an2 ... (ann-) 0


x3

A x =x A xx
- =0 (A I)x
- =0
(a11-) a12 ... a1n

a21 (a22-) ... a2n
. . .
. . .

. . .

an1 an2 ... (ann-)


Eigenvectors = solution of x corresponding to particular values of
Vektor
Scalar Quantity (kuantitas/besarannya)
Vector Quantity (selain besaran juga arah)
Vector Algebra
Two Equal Vectors
Resultant of vector
vectors A and B is a vector C
formed by placing the initial
point of B on the terminal
point of A and then joining
the initial point of A to the
terminal point of B
A+B, i.e. C = A+B.
Difference of vectors
A -B, is that vector C which added to B yields vector A.
A- B = A + (-B).
Vector algebra
LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA. If A, B and C are vectors and
m and n are scalars, then
1. A+ B = B + A Commutative Law for Addition
2. A+ (B+C) _ (A+B) + C Associative Law for Addition
3. mA = Am Commutative Law for Multiplication
4. m (nA) - (mn) A Associative Law for Multiplication
5. (m+ n) A = mA + nA Distributive Law
6. m (A+ B) = mA + mB Distributive Law
Component vector of unit vector
Vector
A1i, A2j, A3k : rectangular
component vectors
A1i is defined in OX direction
Unit Vector, length =
A2j is defined in OY direction
A3k is defined in OZ direction
A= A1i+ A2j+ A3k
Magnitute A = A=
the position vector or radius vector r from 0 to the point
(x,y,z) is written
r = xi + yj + zk
and has magnitude r = I r I =
Vector in Space
Right Hand Rules
Problems
Problems
Direction Cosines
The Dot (Scalar) Product
The Cross (Vector Products)
Angle between two vectors
Vector Operator Differential/Del
Example
Example
Latihan Soal Vektor
1. Jika dan Tentukan dan
2. Tentukan direction cosines dari vektor yang
terhubungan dari dua titik (4,2,2) dan (7,6,14)
3. Jika
a. Hitung dan sudut antara
b. Magnitude dan direction cosines dari cross product
dan sudut yang dibentuk dari vektor tersebut
dengan
Latihan soal Vektor
Tentukan angle antara permukaan dan pada titik (2,-
1,2)
Tentukan nilai konstanta a jika vektor berbentuk
solenoidal, solenoidal jika div V=0
Tentukan curl curl A jika
Tugas

Tentukan himpunan penyelesaian di bawah ini dengan menggunakan invers matrik dan eliminasi
Gaussian

Tentukan eigenvalues dan eigenvektors dari matrik berikut

Tentukanlah nilai a jika A=ai-2j+k dan B=2ai+a-4k saling tegak lurus, kemudian hitunglah:
a. , b .
Tentukan konstanta a, b, c sehingga vektor V irrotasional (irrotasional jika curl V = 0)

Jika Tentukan
a. b. A, c. A, d. , e.
KUIS MATEMATIKA 1
SOAL
WAKTU : 40 menit
SIFAT : CLOSED BOOK
DOSEN PENGAMPU : Dr.-Ing. Silviana, ST.,MT

Tentukan eigenvalues dan eigenvektor dari

Berapa nilai a jika vektor dan saling tegak lurus


Tentukanlah nilai gradien maksimum dari titik (2,1,-1) terhadap
derivative dan berapa besaran atau magnitudenya.