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Prof. Madya Dr. Ahmad Jelani B Sh



Not all students can have access to
computers at home or outside school.

2. To watch the video, it would required at

least one unit of computer or laptop.
.Families with lower incomes may not have the means
financially to access the Internet as required for flipped
classroom lessons (Bergmann & Waddell, 2012)

A fast internet connection is required to
access the video
Watching videos were boring and passive
. Some students are not suited to learn from material presented in
the form of an instructional video. Students may choose not view
the video lessons (Bergmann & Waddell, 2012).

Need large tool box to keep students engaged.

6. It was difficult to ensure that students had

truly watched the video
.Researchers (Ash, 2012; Riveraa, 2015; Sams & Bergman, 2013;
Thoms,2012) have stated some teachers can be suspicious about
whether the students are watching the videos or not and may find
interaction during the individual learning processes insufficient
7. No feedback from students on lecture
content / delivery at time of interaction.
8. Students are unable to ask questions to
the teachers or their friends if only
watching the videos
. According to Johnson(2013) Students have
been found to exhibit frustration when they
could not get immediate responses to their
questions during video instruction
9. Some students needed more clear
instructions on how to work productivity
in groups during class
10. Challenging students to manage
or control a lot of things at home
11. Lack of teaching resources.
12.Teacher might not be able to
upload the videos online
. Burton (2013) asserts the time needed to
create the material (such as PowerPoint
slides and videos) can be often labour
intensive and responsibility for many
teachers, particularly if they are not
comfortable with using learning technologies.
13. Instructional videos were too long;
and students could not focus on
watching videos Only focus on a
small group
14. Flipped classroom can only be
implemented in schools that students
already have enough infrastructure.
.Nielsen (2012) states the success of the flipped
classroom is wholly dependent on having a fully
functional smartphone, laptop, tablet or computer
and if a student does not have one of these (or one
that is working correctly) they will not be able to
1.Opening up teacher-student
communication before flipping.
. Some students were not familiar with the
arrangement of a flipped course, which may affect
the efficacy of this instructional approach
(Clark 2015; Schultz et al. 2014;Snyder et al. 2014).
2. Using cognitive theory of multimedia
learning to guide video production
. Some students were disengaged when watching
long instructional videos (Kettle 2013; Schultz et
al. 2014).
3. Demonstrating students how to
learn through flipped
Students were asked to view a video lecture during class time. At the
same time, they introduced students with some cognitive skills such as
making their own notes while watching the video lectures.
Providing instructor brief notes to accompany the videos is
another useful technique to guide student learning during video
lectures (Grypp and Luebeck 2015; Kirvan et al. 2015; Snyder et
al. 2014).
Clark (2015) reported that it was demanding and challenging for
students to pick up a new learning approach and understand
course content at the same time.
In Kirvan et al.s (2015) practice, they would prepare their
students gradually before full implementation of their flipped
4. Retaining the workload when flipping a
Echoing the findings of previous reviews in higher
education (e.g., Betihavas et al. 2016; OFlaherty and
Phillips 2015),
Some students were upset that the pre-class workload
of flipped classrooms overwhelmed their time at home
(Schultz et al. 2014; Snyder et al. 2014; Wang 2016).
5. Providing students with communication
platform outside the classroom.
. Teachers can create an online discussion forum for
students to post their questions and discuss with peers
(Bhagat et al. 2016).
6. Enriching teachers knowledge of
flipped classroom approach.
. Some teachers recalled their experiences as a first-time user
offlipped classroom approach (e.g., Chen 2016; Clark 2015; Grypp
and Luebeck 2015; Kettle 2013).
. Institutes can create opportunities for teachers to share their
experiences of implementing flipped classrooms as well as to
receive feedback from colleagues or other professionals (Mazur et
al. 2015).

7. Preparing flipped learning materials

. Preparing flipped learning materials required considerable start-up
effort (Chen 2016; Kettle 2013; Kirvan et al. 2015; Snyder et al. 2014).
. Chen (2016) explained that although there were instructional videos
such as Kahn Academy available online, not all of the topics taught
in high school had all of the video resources for flipped classroom
(p. 417).
8. Supporting the students who are
limited by technology resources.
. Teachers can extend the use of computer facilities in school
to support the implementation of flipped classrooms (Schultz
et al. 2014).
. Teachers can prepare a few additional copies of flipped
learning materials in flash drives or DVDs for the students
who do not have Internet connection at home (Clark 2015;
Schultz et al. 2014).

9. Using LMS with gamification to monitor

and motivate student learning.
. Gamification is recently used in the education field to engage
student in learning (Hamari et al. 2014).
1. Ash, K. (2012). Educators view flipped model with a more critical
eye. Education Week, 32(2), 6-7.
2. Bergmann. J. & Waddell, D. (2012). To flip or not to flip. Learning &
Leading with Technology, 39(8), 6. Retrieved from
3. Burton, A.L. (2013) My Mistaken Thinking in a Flipped
Classroom.School Administrator, 70(3), 29.
4. Johnson, G. B. (2013). Student perceptions of the flipped classroom
5. Nielsen, L. (2012)Five Reasons Im Not Flipping Over The Flipped
Classroom. Link: [Accessed 5thMarch, 2015
6. Rivera, E. (2015). Using the flipped classroom model in your library
instruction course. The Reference Librarian, 56(1), 34-41.