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12 MD O42
competency is described as "a cluster of knowledge, skills,
abilities, behaviors, and attitudes related to job success and
failure " (Byham & Moyer, 2000; Cooper, 2000; Green, 1999;
Lucia & Lepsinger, 1999; Parry, 1996 ).
This new behavioral approach creates what "good" competencies
might look like. Characteristics of a set of useful competency
list are,
1) Exhibiting job-relatedness,
2) Observable and measurable against well-accepted job
standards or criteria,
3) Being improved via training and development, and
4) Providing insights on determining how capable or fitness a
person is to a job and an organization.
Impact Of Three-level Competencies On
Business Results

Individual Job/Role Organizational Growth Business
Competencies Mission

structure & culture
HR processes based on competencies -Mc Lagan

In an organization with many different jobs there are two

approaches for building competency models Universal and
Multiple model approach.
Universal approach -This is a one size fits all approach. It
involves creating a single model with one set of competencies
applicable to all jobs. These are less related to specific job or
function and more related to values and skills.
Multiple approach -This method creates multiple models
depending on jobs and levels. This method is used when all
the jobs do not have anything in common.
Recent Trends in Competency Modeling
1.Automation of competency modeling- In an effort to streamline and
make the process of competency modeling /job-analysis more
efficient, Mason and Lin (2008) advocate the use of online data
warehouses of competency models, web-based focus groups, and the
use of online surveys to gather data from subject matter experts
(SMEs) and incumbents.

2.Strategic job analysis - Attempting to identify the relevant tasks,

behaviors, and KSAOs for a job as they are predicted to be in the
future (Schneider & Konz, 1989).
This approach represents a change from descriptive job analysis (with
a focus on describing the job as it currently exists) to predictive job
analysis (which focuses on how the job is expected to be in the future).
The need for strategic job analysis is becoming more apparent because
of the dynamic nature of modern-day organizations.
3.Personality-oriented job analysis- The use of personality as a
predictor in selection is becoming more and more common
in todays organizations.
Countless meta-analyses have demonstrated that a number
of broad personality traits are associated with high
performance on the job.

4.Cognitive task analysis - The identification and analysis of

cognitive processes that underlie task performance, has been
offered as a supplement to traditional task analysis.
With the advent of the Internet and the great increase in
technology across the workplace, todays jobs contain more
cognitive complexity than ever before.
Potential Uses Of The Model
The model can be used for multiple reasons.
1.Competency modeling is an important innovation in that it is a way to
get organizations to pay attention to job-related information and
employee skills in the management of employees.

2.They are often intended to distinguish top performers from average

performers (e.g., Parry, 1996; Olesen, White, & Lemmer, 2007). They
focus less on and may even omit descriptors of tasks or KSAOs that do
not help understand employee performance (but cf., Lievens, Sanchez,
& De Corte, 2004).

3.They often include descriptions of how the competencies change or

progress with employee level (e.g., Martone, 2003; Rodriguez et
4.The KSAOs are usually linked to the business objectives and
strategies (e.g., Green, 1999; Martone, 2003; Rodriguez et al.,

5. They are developed top down rather than bottom up like job

6.Competency models may consider future job requirements either

directly or indirectly (e.g., Parry, 1996; Rodriguez et al., 2002;
Schippmann et al., 2000). They do not document the status quo
but attempt to look into the future.

7.Competency models are usually presented in a manner that

facilitates ease of use. Designing for ease of use often includes the
utilization of organization-specific language.
Building Competency models Spencers classic
competency study design
Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis
Inventory - Close-Ended (MOSAIC)

United States, Office Of Personnel Management ,OPM has been

conducting Government wide occupational studies using its
Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory - Close-Ended
(MOSAIC) methodology for more than two decades.

MOSAIC, a multipurpose, survey-based occupational analysis

approach, is used to collect information from incumbents and
supervisors on many occupations for a wide range of human resource
management functions
MOSAIC Continued
Identified the 885 competencies employees need to perform
successfully in nearly 200 Federal occupations, as well as for
leadership positions.

These competencies provide users with a basis for building

integrated human resource management systems that use a
common set of competencies to structure job design,
recruitment, selection, performance management, training, and
career development so that employees receive a consistent
message about the factors on which they are selected, trained,
and evaluated.
Developing Competency Model
Competency modeling is a process of determining what
competencies are necessary for successfully performing a job
or a role.

The competency models are normally linked to organizations

strategic purposes for achieving results. Valid competency
models help to strengthen HR systems, improve overall
performance, and increase business impacts over time (Cook
& Bemthal, 1996; Parry, 1996, 1998)

A variety of a profile and its applications varies according to a

diversity of business results, target groups, job/ roles, and
A Conceptual Cascade For Developing Competency
Comparing Approaches to Developing Competency Models
S.No. Categories of Competency Major Characteristics Advantages & Disadvantages
1. Core Competency Model -closely aligned to vision, values, and -helps to catalyze changes
(one-size-fits-all mission -can be used with many groups
model) -applies to all levels/ jobs -modest cost but long last impacts
-provides broad, quick, and and functions
consistent impacts -not specific to particular job
-more difficult to implement
-best for homogeneous work

2. Functional Competency -built around key business areas -focused and specific efforts
Model -applies to all employees in target -considers on technical aspects
functions -often used for a single job or
3. Job/Role Competency -applies to specific roles in -unifying, useful in a team-based
Model organizations organizations
- identifies both core and specific -narrow if applied to a single job
competencies less cost effective if outdated
- time consuming
4. Multiple-Job Model -provides a common set of generic -getting popular but most difficult
competencies to implement and explain
- can be used with several jobs for a -needs close management supports
longer period and HR champions
- applied to a wide range of -a quick, low-cost approach
employee groups -customized for individual jobs
HR Professional Framework
The HR Professional Framework will help to identify the
person in relation to the roles.
The purpose of the framework is to help think about the
direction you would like to take as you pursue a career within
the HR profession.
It can be a useful reference in building the Individual
Development Plan (IDP) with the manager, coach or mentor.
The HRM Competency Model features 24 general
competencies, categorized into three HR Professional Roles,
plus the Leader Role.
I-Core Competency Model:
II-Functional Competency Model

Roles of the HR

1. Technical Specialist

2. Advisor

3. Strategic Partner

4. Leader
The seven critical general competencies in the ADVISOR
ROLE are:
Creative Thinking
Client Engagement / Change Management
Decision Making
Project Management
III-Job/Role Competency Model


Advisor Apprentice
Advisor Practitioner
Advisor Expert

Advisor Apprentice:

Has a moderate level of strategic ability and only a limited familiarity with
technical HR operations.

Is likely in the beginning stages of a career as an HR leader.

The Advisor Apprentice's skills would be enhanced through partnering with

and learning from experts in both technical and strategic HR operations.
Advisor Practitioner
Has a moderate level of both strategic and technical HR ability.
The Advisor Practitioner would serve as an effective advisor
for experienced HR leaders.

Advisor Expert
Has a high level of technical ability and a moderate familiarity
with strategic HR operations.
Serves as an excellent advisor to experienced and novice HR
With a little more strategic training, the Advisory Expert can
likely be an effective HR leader.
Training Managers

Roles: Technical Specialist; Advisor; Strategic Partner; Leader

Performance Management; Employee Relations; Labor
Relations (Technical);
Reasoning, Decisions-Making, Interpersonal Skills, Self-
Management, Legal, Government,& Jurisprudence, Oral
Communication (General);
Human Capital Management, Leveraging Diversity,
Developing Others, Conflict Management,
Accountability (Leadership)
Managing Talent
Roles: Advisor; Strategic Partner

Competencies: Staffing; Human Resource

Development (Technical);
Attention to Detail, Creative Thinking, Integrity/Honesty,
Interpersonal Skills, Legal, Government & Jurisprudence, Oral
Communication, Planning & Evaluating, Problem Solving,
Project Management, Reasoning, Self-Management,
Teamwork, Technical Competence (General);
Client Engagement/Change Management, Decision Making,
Influencing/Negotiating, Organizational Awareness,
Workforce Planning (Leadership)

Methodologies used to design the models involve

1) Analyzing target job or position under changing business


2) Identifying effective and ineffective behaviors from below,

average, and "star" performers,

3) Collecting data by using balanced approaches,

4) Analyzing the data and formulating an interim competency model,

5) Validating the appropriateness of the model.

Validating the Competency Models
Organizations should validate the models to avoid risks of
having irrelevant and outdated profile which may lead to legal
implications. The Validation is a long-term process to realize
the actual effectiveness.
Validation approaches
Statistical -systematically examine content representativeness
of the interim model.
Criterion validation- focuses on correlation indices between a
given competency and measures of individual performance.
In addition, output benefits such as profits, productivity, and
client satisfaction are tracked.
In fact, using balanced validation approaches enhance the
credibility and the validity of the models in practice.
Benefits of Valid competency models
They provide directional guidance in behavioral terms what
people at every level need to do in delivering results.
When properly defined, their measurability helps to differentiate
effective performance from those average and substandard. The
assessment information can also be used to benchmark
management effectiveness between organizations.
Competencies regarded as critical to business survival and
success can be learned and improved.
Good competency models provide comprehensive integration into
many human resource practices.
Competency-based Management (CBM)

CBM can be regarded as an approach to managing employee

performance based on both the "what" is achieved and the
"how" results are derived.

The presence of organizational culture that fosters change,

excellence innovation, participative decision-making, and
continuous learning will greatly enable the application of
CBM to success.
Human Resource Role of Competency Modeling
1. Job analysis & Shift the unit of analysis from a job and associated tasks to a person
Evaluation and what he/she is capable of.
2. Selection and Serve as a means to determine appropriate assessment tools after
Promotion identifying that competencies are job-related.
3. Lay-off Used as qualifications to determine order/reasons to be laid off.

4. Deployments Serve as requirements and justifications to appointments

5. Resourcing Activities Be a tool for assessment with indicators and proficiency level.

6. Human Resource Address rising marketable skills in demands or in shortage.

7. Training and Used to identify training needs, self-development, evaluating.
8. Performance Establish 360-degree feedback system & performance standard.
9. Compensation Least often used, reward performance/skill-based pay for team.

10. Career, Succession, Support for career mobility and individual development plan.
Byham &Moyer, 2000; Dubois,1998; Lucia & Lepsinger,l999;
Zwell, 2000

It is realized that there is no right answer to competency

issues. What is important for organizations is adopting
definitions, models, and approaches that make sense, meet
their needs, and used them consistently.