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Unit 5: Internal Stresses

Axial and Shear Stresses


Introduction Concept of Stress
Both the analysis and the design of a given
structure involve the determination of stresses
and deformations.
Stress and strain is the study of relationship
between the external forces applied to a
deformable body which causes strain, and the
development of the internal forces within the
body, which causes stress.
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For a body to be in equilibrium with its external
forces:
F = M = 0.
This, however, applies to structures like truss and
frame only, which is a rigid body system.
For any general three-dimensional body to be in
equilibrium, we need to satisfy two conditions
simultaneously:
i. Kinetic admissibility study of
relationship between stress and force
ii. Kinematic admissibility (the study of
displacement and strain)
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Stresses
The force per unit area, or intensity of the
forces distributed over a given section, is
called the stress on that section and is denoted
by the Greek letter (sigma). This is written as

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When an arbitrary body is acted upon by
external forces, internal stress will develop
immediately if the body is in equilibrium,
otherwise, the body will experience rigid body
motion.
Unit for stress is either (N/m2) or pascal (Pa).
Multiples of this unit is usually used, namely
kPa, MPa and GPa.
1 kPa = 103 Pa = 103 N/m2
1 MPa = 106 Pa = 106 N/m2
1 GPa = 109 Pa = 109 N/m2
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Stress in an elemental volume can be
represented schematically in the diagram
below.

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Types of stresses:
i) When a member is subjected to axial
loading it is under normal stress.
ii) The shearing stress is caused by the
application of equal and opposite transverse
forces.
iii) Bearing stress is created by bolts, pins and
rivets in the members they connect.

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Axial Loading: Normal Stress
The resultant of the internal forces for an axially
loaded member is normal to a section cut
perpendicular to the member axis.
The force intensity on that section is defined as the
normal stress.
P
ave
A
The normal stress at a particular point may not be
equal to the average stress but the resultant of the
stress distribution must satisfy

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Note: The detailed distribution of stress is statically
indeterminate, i.e., can not be found from statics alone.
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Centric and Eccentric Loading
A uniform distribution of stress in a
section infers that the line of action for
the resultant of the internal forces
passes through the centroid of the
section.
A uniform distribution of stress is only
possible if the concentrated loads on the
end sections of two-force members are
applied at the section centroids. This is
referred to as centric loading.
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If a two-force member is
eccentrically loaded, then
the resultant of the stress
distribution in a section
must yield an axial force
and a moment.
The stress distributions in
eccentrically loaded
members cannot be
uniform or symmetric.

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Shear Stress

Forces P and P are applied transversely to the


member AB.
Corresponding internal forces act in the plane of
section C and are called shearing forces.
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The resultant of the internal shear force
distribution is defined as the shear of the section
and is equal to the load P.
The shearing stress is denoted by the Greek letter
(tau) and the corresponding average shear
stress is,
P
ave
A

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Single and Double Shear

Single shear Double shear


P F P F
ave ave
A A A 2A
Note that the area, A, is the cross-section of the bolt. 14
Bearing Stress

Bolts, rivets and pins create stresses on the points of


contact or bearing surfaces of the members they
connect.
The resultant of the force distribution on the surface
is equal and opposite to the force exerted on the pin.
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The corresponding
average force intensity is
called the bearing stress,
computed as
P P
b
A td
Bearing stress can also
occur on a foundation
that rests on a surface
as shown in the figure.

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Shear Resistance Caused by Axial Load
If the structural member is built into a wall e.g.
cantilever beam, and is subject to axial force, the
surface area in contact with the wall will generate
shear stress and the formula is given by
P
allow
dl

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Stress in Two-Force Members
Axial forces on a two force member result in
only normal stresses on a plane cut
perpendicular to the member axis.

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Transverse forces on bolts and pins result in
only shear stresses on the plane perpendicular
to bolt or pin axis.

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Stress on an Oblique Plane
Average stress
If a plane of angle is cut through the cross
section of a member subject to axial forces at its
ends, the force P on the inclined plane can be
decomposed into a normal and tangential
component, with respect to the plane.
Resolve P into components normal and tangential
to the oblique section,
F = P cos , V = P sin

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The average normal
and shear stresses on
the oblique plane are

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Maximum stress
The maximum normal stress occurs when the
reference plane is perpendicular to the member
axis,

The maximum shear stress occurs for a plane at


45 with respect to the axis,

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Factor of Safety
Structural members or machines must be designed
such that the working stresses are less than the
ultimate strength of the material.
fail failure stress
FS
all allowable stress

Note that fail does not necessary has to be fracture


stress or the ultimate tensile stress.
Any appropriate stress value can be used provided
that the definition is given for fail. Typically for
safety reason, we use yield stress for design, i.e.
fail = yield.
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Stress-strain diagram of low carbon steel 25
Factor of safety considerations:
Uncertainty in material properties
Uncertainty of loadings
Uncertainty of analyses
Number of loading cycles
Types of failure
Maintenance requirements and deterioration effects
Importance of member to structures integrity
Risk to life and property
Influence on machine function

Note: A structure designed with high factor of safety does not mean
that the structure is safe.
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Deformation and Strain
Deformation is the ability of the body to change its shape
and size due to the action of external agents.
In the most simplistic setting of one-dimensional strain, it
is defined as

l l l o deformed length
xx
lo lo original length

l is sometimes represented by the Greek letter


(delta).
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The quantity is termed the displacement of the
material. In a general three-dimensional setting, there
are six components of strains
xx, yy, zz (normal strain)
xy, xz, yz (shearing strain)

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Constitutive Law
Strain is related to stress via constitutive
hypothesis or material model. This relationship
is usually written as
= f()
The simplest material model you have learnt is
the one-dimensional, perfectly linear, elastic
model or the Hookes model, which relates
axial stress to axial strain via Youngs
modulus, E, i.e.
= E
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Note that there are other constitutive models, for
example, a non-linear elastic model or the Henkys
elastic material,
= En
On the other hand, shear stress, , is related to shear
strain, , via the shear modulus, G, in the form
= G
Apart from the linear and non-linear elastic
constitutive models, there are also viscous and plastic
constitutive models. These constitutive models are
phenomenological models that describe material
behavior at visible macroscopic scale.
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Example

Determine the largest normal stress in the bar, given


that the bar has constant width of 35 mm and a
thickness of 10 mm.

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Solution:
Using the method of section, we compute forces in region
AB, BC and CD.

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Example:
Given that AB has diameter of 10 mm and BC has
diameter of 8 mm; determine which rod is subjected to
greater normal stress. The mass of the lamp is 80kg.

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1
0

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Example:
The casting shown is made of steel having specific weight
st = 490 lb/ft3. Determine the average compressive stress
acting at points A and B.

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Note: This value acts on point A and B. It is the average
compressive stress.

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Example:
Determine x so that the compressive stress at C is equal to
the tensile stress in the tie rod AB. The rod has cross-
sectional area of 400 mm2 and contact area at C is 650 mm2.

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Solution:

Known that compressive stress


at C equals tensile stress in AB.
Thus,

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Example:
The bar shown has a square cross-section for which the depth and
thickness are 40 mm. If an axial force of 800 N is applied along the
centroidal axis of the bars cross-sectional area, determine the
average normal stress and average shear stress acting on the material
along (a) section plane a-a and (b) section plane b-b.

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a)

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b)

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Frames and Machines
Frames are generally stationary and are used to
support loads.
Machines contain moving parts and are designed to
transmit and alter the effect of forces.
Frames and machines are two common types of
structures which are often composed of pin-connected
multi-force members .
The forces acting at the joints and supports can be
determined by applying the equations of equilibrium.

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Example:
The structure is designed to support a 30 kN load. It consists of a
boom AB and a rod BC joined by pins (zero moment connections)
at the junctions and supports. Perform a complete static design
analysis to determine the internal force in each structural member
and reaction forces at the supports and pins.

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Step 1: Draw the free-body diagram & calculate the support reactions

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Ay and Cy cannot be determined from these equations. In addition to the
complete structure, each component must satisfy the conditions for static
equilibrium. Consider a free-body diagram for the boom:

Results:
Ax = 40kN
Cx = 40kN
Cy = 30kN
The boom and rod are 2-force
members.

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For equilibrium, the force must be parallel to an axis between the
force application points, equal in magnitude but opposite in
directions. Using the graphical method, we analyze joint B:

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2

Rod normal stresses:


The rod is in tension with an axial force of 50 kN. At the rod
center, the average normal stress in the circular cross-section
(A = 314 x 10-6m2) is BC = +159 MPa

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At the flattened rod ends, the smallest cross-sectional area occurs
at the pin centerline,

Boom normal stress:


The boom is in compression with an axial force of 40 kN and
average normal stress of 26.7 MPa. The minimum area sections at
the boom ends are unstressed since the boom is in compression.

Pin shearing stresses:


The cross-sectional area for pins A, B, and C

2
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The force on the pin at C is equal to the force exerted by the rod BC.

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Pin A:
The pin at A is in double shear as shown:

The total force on the pin is equal to the force exerted by the boom AB.

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Pin B:

50 kN

Divide the pin at B into sections to determine the


section with the largest shear force,
PE = 15 kN
PG = 25 kN (largest)

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Pin Bearing Stress:

To determine the bearing stress at A in


the boom AB, we have t= 30mm and
d=25mm.

To determine the bearing stress at A


in the bracket, we have t = 2(25) =
50 mm and d = 25 mm

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