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PARAPHRASING

Tiyas Kusumaningrum
Paraphrasing
Paraphrase (noun)
-paraphrase\per--frz,pa-r-

Expression of a passage in another words


(Pocket oxford dictionary)

a statement that says something that another


person has said or written in a different way
a restatement of a text, passage, or work
giving the meaning in another form
(Mirriam Webster Dictionary)
Plagiarism
Simply copy and paste from different sources
Autoplagiarism
Using 5 exact words or more
Not acceptable!!!
It is allowed to copy phrases from other
sources as long as its generic
(Wallwork 2011)
Plagiarism Example
Original Plagiarism
Because of their unique According to Lester Thurow
perspective, Americans fear (1993) Americansfear
globalization less than anyone globalization lessthan
else, and as a consequence people from other countries
they think about it less than andas a
anyone else. When Americans do consequencespend less
think about globalization, they timethinking about it.
think of the global economy as Indeed, Americans see
an enlarged version of the globalizationas an
American economy. enlarged version oftheir
own economy.
(Source: Thurow, L.
(1993).Fortune Favors the
Bold(p. 6). New York: Harper
Collins.)
Paraphrasing Example
Original Paraphrasing
Because of their unique Lester Thurow (1993)
perspective, Americans fear maintains that because
globalization less than anyone Americans see
else, and as a consequence globalization simply as a
they think about it less than bigger form of their own
anyone else. When Americans do economy, they are less
think about globalization, they concerned about it than is
think of the global economy as the rest of the world.
an enlarged version of the
American economy.
(Thurow, L. (1993).Fortune
(Source: Thurow, L. Favors the Bold(p. 6). New
(1993).Fortune Favors the York: Harper Collins.)
Bold(p. 6). New York: Harper
Collins.)
Paraphrasing
Strategies
Use synonyms for all words that are not generic.
Words like world, food, or science are so basic to
our vocabulary that is difficult to find a synonym.
Change the structure of the sentence.
Change the voice from active to passive and vice
versa.
Change clauses to phrases and vice versa.
Change parts of speech.
(Brennecke 2014)
Activity 1 Paraphrasing
Like drought, excess rainfall and flooding can
also contribute to epidemics of waterborne
infectious diseases, in this case due to poor
sanitation resulting from runoff from
overwhelmed sewage lines or the
contamination of water by livestock.

(Source: Shuman, E., M.D. (2010, March 25). Global


climate change and infectious diseases. New
England Journal of Medicine; 362, 12, 1061-1063.
Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)
Activity 1 Paraphrasing
Current political and economic incentives favor
industry and other interest groups at the expense
of health: consider the subsidies paid for corn-
based agriculture and mass-produced processed
foods, the tobacco revenue generated in countries
with a government-owned tobacco industry,
industrial growth in the face of environmental
pollution, and the spread of the sedentary
automobile-and-television culture.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010,


September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases where worlds
meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198.
Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)
Activity 1 Paraphrasing
The prevalence and impact of non-
communicable diseases continue to grow.
Chronic diseases account for 60% of all deaths
worldwide, and 80% of these deaths occur in
low-or middle-income countries, where the toll
is disproportionate during the prime
productive years of youth and middle age.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., , Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J.


(2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases
where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine,
363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT
Libraries.)
Paraphrasing
A good paraphrase using as many of the
strategies

You need to make it as your own


statement, not your source author
statement.

Its not merely a summary


References
Pocket Oxford Dictionary
Mirriam Webster Dictionary
Wallwork, A. 2011. English for Writing

Research Papers. New York. Springer


Brennecke, P. 2014. Academic Integrity at

MIT: A Handbook for Students.


https://integrity.mit.edu/handbook/academic
-writing/avoiding-plagiarism-paraphrasing
ANALYSING TOPICS &
SELECTING IDEAS
Tiyas Kusumaningrum
Analysing Topics
Something what you do to make
research, essay, literature review,
etc

Itwill helps you set the correct


keywords you need
Analysing Topics
Write down topic sentence
Ex: Music & Baby
Make question phrase
Ex: What effect does music done for baby development?
Write other quetions following the first question
Ex: What effect does music done for baby hearing?
Ex: What effect does music done for baby speaking?
Extract and writes all keywords
Ex: effect, music, baby, development, hearing, speaking
Write Synonym and related terms of your keywords
Ex: musicclasical song, hearingcalling response,
speakingBaby first word
You can use Mind Map or Chart or Table
Analysing Topics
Analysing Topics
Organizing Ideas
NUTRITION

PREGNANCY

PROBLEM

MOTHER

BLEEDING

POST PARTUM
BREASTFEEDI
MATERNITY NG
NURSING

HEARING

DEVELOPMEN
BABY SPEAKING
T

MOBILIZATIO
N
References
http://
library.unitec.ac.nz/services/libraryinstruct
ion/analysing.htm
http://www.utas.edu.au/accounting-

communication-matters/writing-an-essay-or-
report/starting-to-write/topic-analysis
LEVEL OF
GENERALIZATION
Tiyas Kusumaningrum
GENERALIZATION
Generalization, also known
Generalizability is making prediction with
the same situation, produce conclusion as
broad of what have been observed or
measured.

Ussualy used in quantitative research more


than in qualitative research

Ussualy used as evidence based practice


Model Generalization
the classic statistical generalization
model
The analytic generalization
the case-to-case transfer model

(transferability)
Strategy of
Generalization
Sampling replication
Studies replication
Evidence integration
Thinking conceptually and reflextively
Mastering the data
Detail description
Mixed methods research
Pragmatic trials and the RE-AIM framework
Level of Evidence
References
Polit, D, Beck, CT 2010 Generalization in
quantitative and qualitative research: Myths
and strategies. International Journal of
Nursing Studies. Vol 47(11) Elsevier Ltd.
Palmquist, M 2016 Generalizability and

Transferability.
http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cf
m?guideid=65