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You are on page 1of 52

SUPPLEMENT

Process

Control

Heizer and Render

Operations Management, Eleventh Edition

Principles of Operations Management, Ninth Edition

Learning Objectives

1. Apply quality management tools for

problem solving

2. Identify the importance of data in

quality management

6S2

6S2

Introduction

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Statistical

Quality Control

Acceptance Sampling (AS)

widely used to ensure that the process meets standards.

Acceptance sampling is used to determine acceptance or

rejection of material evaluated by a sample.

6S3

6S3

Introduction

Pottery Making Process

Preparing

the clay for Wedging Throwing Pinching Painting Firing

throwing pots

6S4

6S4

Introduction

6S5

6S5

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

Variability is inherent in every process.

Natural Variation

Variation

Assignable Variation

Assignable variation -- Deviation that can be

traced to a specific reason: machine vibration, tool

wear, new worker.

6S6

6S6

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

The essence of SPC is the application of statistical

techniques to prevent, detect, and eliminate

defective products or services by identifying

assignable variation.

6S7

6S7

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

A control chart is a time-ordered plot obtained from an ongoing process

due to assignable sources control

UCL

Mean

Natural variation

due to chance

LCL

Abnormal variation

due to assignable sources

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Sample number

6S8

6S8

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

x -charts (for controlling central tendency)

Control Charts

for Variable Data

R-charts (for controlling variation)

Control

Charts

p-charts (for controlling percent defective)

Control Charts for

Attribute Data

c-charts (for controlling number of defects)

scale, such as speed, length, density, etc.

Attribute Data (discrete): qualitative characteristic or condition,

such as pass/fail, good/bad, go/no go.

6S9

6S9

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

1. Take random samples

2. Calculate the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower

control limit (LCL)

3. Plot UCL, LCL and the measured values

4. If all the measured values fall within the LCL and the UCL,

then the process is assumed to be in control and no actions

should be taken except continuing to monitor.

5. If one or more data points fall outside the control limits, then

the process is assumed to be out of control and corrective

actions need to be taken.

6S-10

x-Charts

Lower control limit (LCL) = x - A2R

A2 = control chart factor

x = average of the sample means

6S11

6S11

x-Charts

Hour 1 Hour 2

Box Weight of Box Weight of

Number Oat Flakes Number Oat Flakes

1 17 1 14

2 13 2 16

3 16 3 15

4 18 4 14

5 17 5 17

6 16 6 15

7 15 7 15

8 17 8 14

9 16 9 17

Range=18-13=5 Range=17-14=3

R = (5+3)/2 = 4

6S12

6S12

x-Charts

Lower control limit (LCL) = x - A2R

A2 = control chart factor from Table

S6.1 (page241)

x = average of the sample means

6S13

6S13

x-Charts

Hour 1 Hour 2

Box Weight of Box Weight of

Number Oat Flakes Number Oat Flakes

1 17 1 14

2 13 2 16

3 16 3 15

4 18 4 14

5 17 5 17

6 16 6 15

7 15 7 15

8 17 8 14

9 16 9 17

Average=(17+13++16)/9=16.11 Average=(14+16++17)/9=15.22

x = (16.11+15.22)/2 = 15.665

6S14

6S14

x-Charts

Lower control limit (LCL) = x - A2R

A2 = control chart factor

x = average of the sample means

6S15

6S15

x-Charts

Sample Size Mean Factor Upper Range Lower

Range

n A2 D4 D3

2 1.88 3.27 0

3 1.02 2.58 0

4 .73 2.28 0

5 .58 2.12 0

6 .48 2.00 0

7 .42 1.92 0.08

8 .37 1.86 0.14

9 .34 1.82 0.18

10 .31 1.78 0.22

11 .29 1.74 0.26

6S16

6S16

x-Charts

Lower control limit (LCL) = x - A2R

A2 = control chart factor from

x = average of the sample means

6S17

6S17

x-Charts

Example 1: Eight samples of seven tubes were taken at random

intervals. Construct the x-chart with 3- control limit. Is the

current process under statistical control? Why or why not? Should

any actions be taken?

Sample size = n = 7

A2 = ?

6S18

6S18

x-Charts

Sample Size Mean Factor Upper Range Lower

Range

n A2 D4 D3

2 1.88 3.27 0

3 1.02 2.58 0

4 .73 2.28 0

5 .58 2.12 0

6 .48 2.00 0

7 .42 1.92 0.08

8 .37 1.86 0.14

9 .34 1.82 0.18

10 .31 1.78 0.22

11 .29 1.74 0.26

6S19

6S19

x-Charts

Example: Eight samples of seven tubes were taken at random

intervals. Construct the x-chart with 3- control limit. Is the

current process under statistical control? Why or why not? Should

any actions be taken?

A2 = 0.42

x 6.36 oz

8

0.16 0.18 ... 0.18

R 0.17 oz

8

UCL x A2 R 6.36 0.42(0.17) 6.43 oz

LCL x A2 R 6.36 0.42(0.17) 6.29 oz 6S20

6S20

x-Charts

Control Chart

for sample of

7 tubes

6.43 = UCL

6.36 = Mean

6.29 = LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sample number

It is assumed that the central tendency of process is in control with

99.73% confidence. No actions need to be taken except to continuously

monitor this process.

6S21

6S21

Steps in Creating Charts

1. Take samples from the population and

compute the appropriate sample statistic

2. Use the sample statistic to calculate control

limits

3. Plot control limits and measured values

4. Determine the state of the process (in or out of

control)

5. Investigate possible assignable causes and

take actions

6S22

6S22

R-Charts

where

R = average range of the

samples

D3 and D4 = control chart factors

6S23

6S23

R-Charts

Sample Size Mean Factor Upper Range Lower

Range

n A2 D4 D3

2 1.88 3.27 0

3 1.02 2.58 0

4 .73 2.28 0

5 .58 2.12 0

6 .48 2.00 0

7 .42 1.92 0.08

8 .37 1.86 0.14

9 .34 1.82 0.18

10 .31 1.78 0.22

11 .29 1.74 0.26

6S24

6S24

R-Charts

Example 2

Average range R = 5.3 pounds

Sample size n = 5

From Table 1 D4 = ? D3 = ?

6S25

6S25

R-Charts

Sample Size Mean Factor Upper Range Lower

Range

n A2 D4 D3

2 1.88 3.27 0

3 1.02 2.58 0

4 .73 2.28 0

5 .58 2.12 0

6 .48 2.00 0

7 .42 1.92 0.08

8 .37 1.86 0.14

9 .34 1.82 0.18

10 .31 1.78 0.22

11 .29 1.74 0.26

6S26

6S26

R-Charts

Example 2

Average range R = 5.3 pounds

Sample size n = 5

From Table S6.1 D4 = 2.12, D3 = 0

= (2.12)(5.3)

= 11.2 pounds Mean = 5.3

LCLR = D3 R

LCL = 0

= (0)(5.3)

= 0 pounds

6S27

6S27

R-Charts

Example 3: Refer to Example 1. Eight samples of seven tubes

were taken at random intervals. Construct the R-chart with 3-

control limits. Is the current process under statistical control? Why

or why not? Should any actions be taken?

R 0.17 oz

8

n=7

D3 =? D4 = ?

6S28

6S28

R-Charts

Sample Size Mean Factor Upper Range Lower

Range

n A2 D4 D3

2 1.88 3.27 0

3 1.02 2.58 0

4 .73 2.28 0

5 .58 2.12 0

6 .48 2.00 0

7 .42 1.92 0.08

8 .37 1.86 0.14

9 .34 1.82 0.18

10 .31 1.78 0.22

11 .29 1.74 0.26

6S29

6S29

R-Charts

Example S6.3: Refer to Example S6.1. Eight samples of seven

tubes were taken at random intervals. Construct the R-chart with

3- control limits. Is the current process under statistical control?

Why or why not? Should any actions be taken?

R 0.17 oz

8

D3 =0.08, D4 = 1.92

LCL D3 R 0.08(0.17) 0.01 oz

6S30

6S30

R-Charts

Control Chart

for sample of

7 tubes

0.33 = UCL

0.17 = R

0.01 = LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sample number

The variation of process is in control with 99.73% confidence.

6S31

6S31

Mean and Range Charts

(a) The central tendency of process is in control, but its

variation is not in control.

UCL

(R-chart detects

R-chart increase in

dispersion)

LCL

UCL

(x-chart does not

x-chart detect dispersion)

LCL

6S32

6S32

Mean and Range Charts

(b) The variation of process is in control, but its

central tendency is not in control.

UCL

(R-chart does not

R-chart detect changes in

mean)

LCL

UCL

(x-chart detects

x-chart shift in central

tendency)

LCL

6S33

6S33

R-Chart and X-Chart

Example S6.4: Seven random samples of four resistors each are taken to

establish the quality standards. Develop the R-chart and the x-chart both

with 3- control limits for the production process. Is the entire process

under statistical control? Why or why not?

n=4

D3 = 0, and D4 = 2.28

R = (3 + 2 + + 4)/7 = 3.0

LCL D3 R 0(3.0) 0

6S34

6S34

R-Chart and X-Chart

Control Chart

for sample of

4 resistors

6.84 = UCL

3.0 = R

0 = LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sample number

The variation of process is in control with 99.73% confidence.

6S35

6S35

R-Chart and X-Chart

n = 4, A2 = 0.73

R = (3 + 2 + + 4)/7 = 3.0

LCL x A2 R 99.79 0.73(3.0) 97.6 6S36

6S36

R-Chart and X-Charts

Control Chart

101.98 = UCL

99.79 = Mean

97.6 = LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sample number

The central tendency of process is not in control with 99.73%

confidence.

In conclusion, with 99.7% confidence, the entire resistor

production process is not in control since its central tendency is

out of control although its variation is under control.

6S37

6S37

Problem

A part that connects two levels should have a distance between the two

holes of 4. It has been determined that x-bar chart and R-chart should

be set up to determine if the process is in statistical control. The

following ten samples of size four were collected. Calculate the control

limits, plot the control charts, and determine if the process is in control

No. of Sample Mean Range

1 4.01 0.04

2 3.98 0.06

3 4.00 0.02

4 3.99 0.05

5 4.00 0.06

6 3.97 0.02

7 4.02 0.02

8 3.99 0.04

9 3.98 0.05

10 4.01 0.06

6S38

6S38

R-Chart and X-Chart

Example S6.5: Resistors for electronic circuits are manufactured at Omega

Corporation in Denton, TX. The head of the firms Continuous Improvement

Division is concerned about the product quality and sets up production line

checks. She takes seven random samples of four resistors each to establish

the quality standards. Develop the R-chart and the chart both with 3-

control limits for the production process. Is the entire process under statistical

control? Why or why not?

# of sample Readings of Resistance (ohms)

1 99 100 102 101

2 101 103 101 101

3 98 102 101 99

4 99 100 99 100

5 99 99 98 100

6 95 100 97 96

7 101 99 101 103

6S39

6S39

R-Chart and X-Chart

# of Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample range 3 2 4 1 2 5 4

Sample mean 100.5 101.5 100.0 99.5 99.0 97.0 101.0

R 3.0

7

UCL D4 R 2.28 3.0 6.84

variation of process

3.0 = R is in control with

99.73% confidence.

0 = LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

6S40

R-Chart and X-Chart

# of Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample range 3 2 4 1 2 5 4

Sample mean 100.5 101.5 100.0 99.5 99.0 97.0 101.0

3 2 ... 4 X= (100.5 + + 101.0)/7 99.8

R 3.0

7

A2 =0.73 UCL x A2 R 99.8 0.73(3.0) 102.0

n=4

LCL x A2 R 99.8 0.73(3.0) 97.6

102.0 = UCL central tendency of

process is not in control

99.8 = X with 99.73% confidence.

97.6 = LCL Thus, entire process is

| | | | | | | | | | | | not in control.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

6S41

EX 2 in class

A quality analyst wants to construct a sample mean chart for

controlling a packaging process. Each day last week, he randomly

selected four packages and weighed each. The data from that

activity appears below. Set up control charts to determine if the

process is in statistical control

Monday 23 22 23 24

Tuesday 23 21 19 21

Wednesday 20 19 20 21

Thursday 18 19 20 19

Friday 18 20 22 20

6S42

6S42

Statistical Process Control

Chart (SPC)

x -charts (for controlling central tendency)

Control Charts

for Variable Data

R-charts (for controlling variation)

Control

Charts

p-charts (for controlling percent defective)

Control Charts for

Attribute Data

c-charts (for controlling number of defects)

scale, such as speed, length, density, etc.

Attribute Data (discrete): qualitative characteristic or condition,

such as pass/fail, good/bad, go/no go.

6S43

6S43

Control Charts for Attribute

Data

Categorical variables

Good/bad, yes/no, acceptable/unacceptable

Measurement is typically counting defectives

Charts may measure

Percentage of defects (p-chart)

Number of defects (c-chart)

6S44

6S44

P-Charts

p (1 p )

UCL p z p p z

n

p (1 p )

LCL p z p p z

n

where p = mean percent defective overall

the samples

z = number of standard deviations =

3

n = sample size

6S45

6S45

P-Charts

Example S6.6: Data-entry clerks at ARCO key in thousands of insurance

records each day. One hundred records entered by each clerk were

carefully examined and the number of errors counted. Develop a p-chart

with 3- control limits and determine if the process is in control.

Sample Number Percent Sample Number Percent

Number of Errors Defective Number of Errors Defective

1 6 .06 11 6 .06

2 5 .05 12 1 .01

3 0 .00 13 8 .08

4 1 .01 14 7 .07

5 4 .04 15 5 .05

6 2 .02 16 4 .04

7 5 .05 17 11 .11

8 3 .03 18 3 .03

9 3 .03 19 0 .00

10 2 .02 20 4 .04

Total = 80 6S46

6S46

P-Charts

n = 100

Total number of errors 80

p 0.040

Total number of records examined (100)(20)

or , p 0.040

Number of samples 20

p (1 p ) 0.04(1 0.04)

UCL p z 0.04 3 0.099

n 100

p (1 p ) 0.04(1 0.04)

LCL p z 0.04 3 0.019 0

n 100

6S47

6S47

P-Charts Possible

assignable

causes present

.11

.10 UCL= 0.10

.09

Percent defective

.08

.07

.06

.05

.04 p = 0.04

.03

.02

.01

| | | | | | | | | | LCL= 0.00

.00

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Sample number

Possible good assignable

causes present

The process is not in control with 99.73% confidence.

6S48

6S48

C-Charts

A c-chart is used when the quality cannot be

measured as a percentage.

Number of car accidents per month at a particular

intersection

Number of complaints the service center of a hotel

receives per week

Number of scratches on a nameplate

Number of dimples found on a metal sheet

6S49

6S49

C-Charts

UCL = c + 3 c LCL = c - 3 c

6S50

6S50

C-Charts

Example S6.7: Over 9 weeks, Red Top Cab company received the following

numbers of calls from irate passengers: 3, 0, 8, 9, 6, 7, 4, 9, 8, for a total

of 54 complaints. Determine the 3- control limits of a c-Chart.

UCL = 13.35

c = 54 / 9 = 6 complaints /week 14

Number of defect

12

10

UCL = c + 3 c 8

=6+3 6 6 c= 6

= 13.35 4

2 LCL = 0

LCL = c - 3 c 0 | | | | | | | | |

=6-3 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Week Number

8 9

= - 1.35 => 0

The process is in control

Because we cannot have the negative with 99.73% confidence.

number of defective records 6S51

6S51

Managing Quality Summary

1. Effective quality management is data

driven

2. There are multiple tools to identify and

prioritize process problems

3. There are multiple tools to identify the

relationships between variables

6S52

6S52

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