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Electronically controlled

diesel injection system

Electronically controlled diesel
injection system types:

Three types of Electronically controlled

diesel injection system :

1. Unit injector system,

2. Rotary distributor type and
3. Common Rail Direct Injection system,
1. Unit injector system

Design of the unit injector eliminates the need

for high-pressure fuel pipes, and with that their
associated failures, as well as allowing for
much higher injection pressure to occur. The
unit injector system allows accurate injection
timing, and control .
Design and technology:

The unit injector is fitted into the engine cylinder head, where
the fuel is supplied via integral ducts machined directly into the
cylinder head.
Each injector has its own pumping element, and in the case of
electronic control, a fuel solenoid valve as well.
The fuel system is divided into the low pressure (<500 bar) fuel
supply system, and the high-pressure injection system (<2000
A low pressure fuel delivery pump supplies filtered diesel fuel
into the cylinder head fuel ducts, and into each injector fuel port
of constant stroke pump plunger injector, which is overhead
camshaft operated.
Cut through diagram of a typical
fuel injector
Unit injector system
The basic operation can be described
as a sequence of four separate
a. thefilling phase,
b. thespill phase,
c. the injection phase, and
d. thepressure reduction phase.
Unit injector system Operation principle

a. Fill phase:
The plunger on the way up draws fuel from the supply duct in to the chamber, and as
long as electricsolenoid valveremains de-energized fuel line is open.

b. Spill phase:
The plunger is on the way down, and as long as solenoid valve remains de-energized
the fuel line is open and fuel flows in through into the return duct.

c. Injection phase:
The plunger is still on the way down, the solenoid is now energized and fuel line is now
closed. The fuel can not pass back into return duct, and is now compressed by the
plunger until pressure exceeds specific "opening" pressure, and the injector nozzle
needle lifts, allowing fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber.

d. Pressure reduction phase:

The plunger is still on its way down, theengine ECUde-energizes the solenoid when
required quantity of fuel is delivered, the fuel valve opens, fuel can flow back into return
duct, causing pressure drop, which in turn causes the injector nozzle needle to shut,
hence no more fuel is injected.
2. Rotary distributor pump
The fuel is distributed to each cylinder by means of a rotor.
The rotor has a set of radial holes (suction and delivery
ports) equal to the number of engine cylinders.
Fuel flows from the transfer pump to the distributor pump .
Each of the delivery ports is connected to the high pressure
delivery lines leading to injectors mounted on the each
cylinder in multi-cylinder engines.
The fuel is pressurized inside the distributor pump to approximately
1800 psi .
This high-pressure fuel is then directed to an injector at the
appropriate cylinder.
The individual control pump systems use a separate high-
pressure pump and metering unit for each cylinder.
The high pressure pumps are fed fuel from a transfer pump.
As the rotor revolves, the suction ports align with the intake
metering port one by one, while the distribution port aligns
with the delivery ports in turn.
The plungers have helix cut grooves which allow them to
meter fuel. By rotating the plunger, the effective stroke is
changed and the amount of fuel fed to injectors is metered.
The plungers themselves are cam operated.
The injector atomizes the fuel for proper combustion.
Rotary distributor type injector
Rotary fuel injection pumps :
small in size
have less weight
the equal quantity of fuel Since there is a (single rotor being
used for delivering fuels to the multiple cylinders)
even combustion of fuel
generating consistent power strokes.
The distributor-type pump uses a vane-type transfer pump to fill
the single pumping element. This then raises fuel pressure to
injection pressure. A distribution system then distributes fuel to
each cylinder, in the firing order of the engine.
3.Common Rail Direct Injection system, CRDI

CRDI stands for Common Rail Direct Injection meaning, direct injection of the fuel into
the cylinders of a diesel engine via a single, common line, called the common rail which
is connected to all the fuel injectors.

Construction & Working:

Common Rail: The ordinary diesel direct fuel-injection systems have to build up pressure a
new for each and every injection cycle, the new common rail (line) engines maintain constant
pressure regardless of the injection sequence.

This pressure then remains permanently available throughout the fuel line(up to and above
2,000 bars).

The Pressure accumulator(common rail) stores the fuel at high pressure. This accumulator
supplies multiple fuel injectors with high-pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of the high-
pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target.
ECU: The electronic control unit (ECU) modifies injection pressure precisely
and as needed, based on data obtained from sensors on the cam and
crankshafts. The engine's electronic timing regulates injection pressure
according to engine speed and load. In other words, compression and
injection occur independently of each other. This technique allows fuel to be
injected as needed, saving fuel and lowering emissions.
The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled. When the fuel injectors are
electrically activated, a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is
mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the
desired pressure.
Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically
actuated, the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the
pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square injection rate.
Advantages & Disadvantages of CRDI:


Cars fitted with this new engine technology are believed to deliver 25% more power
and torque than the normal direct injection engine.
It also offers superior pick up,
lower levels of noise and vibration,
higher mileage,
lower emissions,
lower fuel consumption,
and improved performance.

The key disadvantage of the CRDI engine is that it is costly than the conventional
The list also includes high degree of engine maintenance and costly spare parts.
Also this technology cant be employed to ordinary engines.