You are on page 1of 18

VIBRATION AWARENESS COURSE

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Objectives of this course

Define the three modes of vibration

Differentiate between modes and dysfunctions of vibration

List the operation parameters that can be changed to reduce vibration

List the sources of drillstring excitation

Define critical speeds, resonance, and natural frequency

Identify the worst mode and dysfunction of vibration for our tools

Interpret the published VSS flow charts

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Vibration Costs

Customer Costs: ~$300 million per year


Reduced drilling efficiency
Lost time due to tool failures

BHI Costs: ~$35 million per year


Tool failures
Tool repair
Rebates to customers

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Definitions of Vibration

Vibration Movement To and Fro. Often referred to as


oscillations, periodic motion, shocks. BHI material
A rapid linear motion of a particle or of an elastic solid
about an equilibrium position The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
A periodic motion of the particles of an elastic body or
medium in alternately opposite directions from the
position of equilibrium when that equilibrium has been
disturbed (as when particles of air transmit sounds to the
ear) Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary, 2002 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
a regular periodic variation in value about a mean WordNet
2.0, 2003 Princeton University

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Definitions

Amplitude
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.
Excitation Sources

Cutting action of bit

Drill string rotation

Eccentric action of mud motors

Pump pulsations

Stabilizer contacts with borehole wall

Drill string / wellbore interaction


2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.
Natural Vibration Simple Model

Mass
Provides inertia
Resists changes in motion (speeding up, slowing
down)

Stiffness
Provides a restoring force
Tries to bring position back to initial state
Damping
Stiffness

Damping (not dampening - to moisten)


Mass
Takes energy out of the system
Friction, viscous drag

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Natural Transient Response

Single DOF System Behavior: Transient


Response to a temporary disturbance
Pull on the mass and let it go ...
Stiffness
Moderate Damping
Undamped Heavy Damping
Damping 1.00

0.75

0.50
Mass
Displacement

0.25

0.00
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
-0.25

-0.50
Displacement
-0.75

-1.00

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


Time
All rights reserved.
Natural Frequency

Natural Frequency

Forced Vibration

Resonance

Critical Speed

Damping

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Eliminating Resonance

Change the excitation frequencies


(and magnitudes)
Adjust rotary speed
Adjust pump strokes 6.0

5.0
Low Damping
Change the natural frequencies of 4.0

Amplitude
the drill string 3.0

Bit type and/or design 2.0


Medium

Drillstring design 1.0


High
Adjust the weight on bit 0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Drill collar sizes and lengths
Stabilizer type and placement Frequency Ratio
Drill pipe sizes and lengths

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Remember - Critical Speeds occur
when.
Rotary Speed
=
Natural Frequency
=
Resonance

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Vibration - Multiple DOF Systems

Axial ~ along its axis

Torsional
Lateral ~ transverse to its axis
Lateral

Torsional ~ twist about its axis

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Axial
Three Degrees of Freedom

AXIAL

LATERAL

TORSIONAL
2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated
All rights reserved.
VSS

Published Guidelines

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Key Points Vibration Theory

Frequency
Natural vibration occurs at a Natural Frequency amplitude
and amplitude remains
constant if undamped (Simple MSD system in a perfect world)
Damping
Dampingreduces amplitude over time, but natural frequency
natural is unchanged
frequency
Forced vibrations Amplitude increases as the excitation frequency
approaches the natural frequency
Amplitude
Resonance is a condition where excitation frequency = natural frequency.
Amplitude increases significantly
natural
Resonance Avoidance Change something
frequency
Excitation sources
Natural Frequency of Drill String

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Key Points Vibration Principles Applied
to Drill Strings

Drill strings are complex system with 3 Degrees of Vibrational


Fredoom or Modes
Axial
Torsional
Lateral

naturalfrequency
Critical speeds occur when rotary speed matches a natural
resonance
and causes resonance
Well Done!

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Remember - Critical Speeds occur
when.
Rotary Speed
=
Natural Frequency
=
Resonance

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.
Objectives of this course

Define the three modes of vibration

Differentiate between modes and dysfunctions of vibration

List the operation parameters that can be changed to reduce vibration

List the sources of drillstring excitation

Define critical speeds, resonance, and natural frequency

Identify the worst mode and dysfunction of vibration for our tools

Interpret the published VSS flow charts

2005 Baker Hughes Incorporated


All rights reserved.