Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 43

Unit-1

GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR


MOBILE COMMUNICATION)
Contents
GSM-INTRODUCTION
GSM services
GSM ARCHITECTURE
GSM
Global System for Mobile communication is a second
generation cellular standard developed to cater voice
services and data delivery using digital modulation
GSM services
GSM provides intergrated services for voice & data.
The three kinds of services deleivered by GSM system
are:
Teleservices
Supplementary services
Bearer or Data services
Teleservices
Telecommunication services that enable voice
communication via mobile phones
Offered services:
Mobile telephony
Emergency calls
Bearer services
This includes data services for information transfer
between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc at
rates from 300 to 9600 bps
Short message services (SMS)
Upto 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile
terminal
Voice mailbox
Supplementary services
Call related services
Call waiting- notification of incoming call while on
handset
Call hold- put a caller on hold to take another call
Call barring all calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls
Call forwarding- calls can be sent to various numbers
defined by the user
Multi party call conferencing- link multiple calls
together.
GSM Architecture subsystems
Radio subsystem
Network subsystem
Operation subsystem
Network Structure
LOCATION AREA
A LA is defined as a group of cells.Within the
network, a subsribers location is known by the LA
which they are in.
The identity of the LA in which an MS is currently
located is stored in the VLR. (LAI)

11
Network Structure

MSC Service Area


An MSC Service Area is made up of
LAs and represents the
geographical part of the network
controlled by one MSC.

12
Network Structure
PLMN (Public Land Mobile network)
SERVICE AREA
A PLMN service area is the entire set of cells served by
one network operator and is defined as the area in
which an operator offers radio coverage and access to
its network.

13
Network Structure

GSM SERVICE AREA


The GSM service area is the entire
geographical area in which a subscriber
can gain access to a GSM network.

14
Relation between areas in GSM

Location
CellArea
Location Area
MSC Service Area
PLMN Service Area
GSM Service Area

15
Interfacing between different subsystems in GSM
Architecture
Mobile Station

GSM MSs consist of:


Mobile Equipment
Subscriber Identity Module

18
Functions of Mobile Station
Voice and data transmission & receipt
Frequency and time synchronization
Monitoring of power and signal quality of
the surrounding cells
Provision of location updates even
during inactive state

19
Mobile Station

Can receive, store, send SMS up to 160


characters.
MS identified by unique IMEI shown on
pressing *#06#.
Power levels of 20W, 8W, 5W, 2W and .
8W

20
SIM-Subsciber Indentity Module
SIM has microprocessor and memory.
Fixed data stored for the subscription:
IMSI,
Authentication Key, Ki
Security Algorithms:kc,A3,A8
PIN & PUK

21
Network Identities
IMEI
MSISDN
IMSI
TMSI
MSRN

22
IMEI
International Mobile Equipment Identity
The IMEI is an unique code allocated to each mobile
equipment. It is checked in the EIR.
IMEI check List
White List
Grey List
Black List

23
MSISDN
Mobile Station ISDN Number
The MSISDN is registered in the telephone directory and used by the calling party
for dialing.
MSISDN shall not exceed 15 digits.
NDC--National Destination Code
SN--Subscriber Number

1 to 3 digits Variable Variable


CC NDC SN

24
IMSI
International mobile subscriber Identity
The IMSI is an unique identity which is used
internationally and used within the network to identify
the mobile subscribers.
The IMSI is stored in the subscriber identity module
(SIM), the HLR, VLR database.

25
Temporary Mobile subscriber Identity

TMSI is a temporary IMSI no. made known


to an MS at registration.
The VLR assigns a TMSI to each mobile
subscribers entering the VLR area.
Assigned only after successful
authentication.

26
MSRN
Mobile Station Roaming Number
The MSRN is used in the GMSC to set up a connection to
the visited MSC/VLR.
MSRN--is a temporary identity which is assigned during
the establishment of a call to a roaming subs.

27
BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

MSC/VLR

BSC BSC

BSC
BSS
BSS

n BTS n BTS
28
FUNCTIONS OF BTS (Base Transceiver Station)

Radio resources
Signal Processing
Signaling link management
Synchronization
Local maintenance handling
Functional supervision and Testing

29
FUNCTIONS OF BSC

Radio Resource management


Internal BSC O&M
Handling of MS connections

30
MSC-BSS Configurations

A BTS
MSC BSS A-bis BTS BTS

BSC BTS BTS


A-bis

BTS

31
Switching System (SS)
SS7 Signalling
Traffic Path VLR D

C HLR AUC
F
E
Other
EIR A
MSC MSC

(PSTN)

(BSS)

32
MSC Functions
Switcing and call routing
Charging
Service provisioning
Communication with HLR(Home Location Register)
Communication with VLR(Visitor Location Register)
Communication with other MSCs
Control of connected BSCs

33
MSC Functions
Echo canceller operation control

Signaling interface to databases like HLR, VLR.

Gateway to SMS between SMS centers and subscribers

Handle interworking function while working as GMSC

34
VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)

It contains data of all mobiles roaming in its


area.

One VLR may be incharge of one or more


LA(location area).

VLR is updated by HLR on entry of MS its area.

VLR assigns TMSI which keeps on changing.

35
Data in VLR
IMSI(International mobile subscriber Identity)&
Temporary MSI
MSISDN (Mobile subscriber ISDN No.)
MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)
Location Area
Supplementary service parameters
MS category
Authentication Key
36
Home Location Register(HLR)

Reference store for subscribers parameters, numbers,


authentication & Encryption values.

Current subscriber status and associated VLR.

Both VLR and HLR can be implemented in the


same equipment in an MSC.

one PLMN may contain one or several HLR.


37
Home Location Register(HLR)
Permanent data in HLR
Data stored is changed only by commands.

IMSI, MS-ISDN number.

Category of MS ( whether pay phone or not )

Roaming restriction ( allowed or not ).

Supplementary services like call forwarding

38
Home Location Register(HLR)
Temporary data in HLR
The data changes from call to call & is
dynamic
MSRN
VLR address , MSC address.
Messages waiting data used for SMS

39
Operation subsystem(OSS):
The OSS facilitates the operations of MSCs. The OSS
administers the operation & maintenance of entire
network.
Operation & Maintenance Centre(OMC): it monitors &
controls all other network entities. Its typical tasks
include:
Management of status reports
Traffic monitoring
Subscriber security management
Accounting & Billing
EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER ( EIR )

This data base stores IMEI for all registered mobile


equipments and is unique to every ME.

Only one EIR per PLMN.

White list : IMEI, assigned to valid ME.


Black list : IMEI reported stolen
Gray list : IMEI having problems like faulty software,
wrong make of equipment etc.

41
AUthentication Center (AUC)

To authenticate the subscriber attempting to use a network.


AUC is connected to HLR which provides it with authentication
parameters and ciphering keys used to ensure network security.

42
AUC Functions
To perform subscriber authentication and to establish ciphering
procedures on the radio link between the network and MS.

Information provided is called a TRIPLET consists of:

1.RAND(non predictable random number)

2.SRES(Signed response)

3.Kc(ciphering key)

43