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Conflictis an interactive
process between two or more
parties that requires
effective human interaction
Conflict is a felt struggle between two
or more interdependent individuals
over perceived incompatible
differences in beliefs, values, and
goals, or over differences in desires for
esteem, control, and connectedness

This definition emphasizes several unique

aspects of conflict
Levels of Conflict
Intrapersonal conflict
Interpersonal conflict
Societal conflict
Conflicts as Managed
Constructive Conflict -- if:
People change and grow personally from the
The conflict results in a solution to a problem
It increases the involvement of everyone affected
by the conflict
It builds cohesiveness among the members of a
Conflicts as Managed
Destructive Conflict -- if:
No decision is reached and the problem still exists
It diverts energy from more value adding
activities or issues
It destroys the morale of teams or individual team
It polarizes or divides teams or groups of people
Perspectives on Conflict
K.W Thomas (1976) explains that conflict
is a process which begins when one party
perceives that another party has frustrated,
or is about to frustrate, some concern of
Traditional (Unitary) Perspective
Pluralist Perspective
Interactionist Perspective
Conflict Evaluation
Functional Conflicts: Functional
conflict supports the goals of a group or an
organization and improves its performance
It improves the quality of performance,

stimulates creativity and innovation,

encourages interest and curiosity amongst
group members, provides a way of airing
grievances, releases tensions and
encourages self evaluation and change
Conflict Evaluation
Dysfunctional Conflicts: Dysfunctional
conflict hinders group or organizational
Functionality of Conflict
Level of Organizational Performance

Situation 2

Level of Conflict
Situation 1 Situation 3
Conflict Management
Conflict Mitigation
Conflict Resolution

Conflict mitigation is to reduce the level of

conflict in the organization for beneficial
In contrast conflict resolution employs
communication skills, negotiation, and other
techniques to attempt to terminate or
resolve conflicts
Communication and Conflict
The content dimension of communication
involves the objective, observable aspects
such as money, weather, and land
The relationship dimension refers to the

participants perceptions of their connection

to one another
Communication and
Communication Strategies for
Conflict Resolution

Face Saving
Fisher and Ury Approach to
Invent on
on Using
the Objective
Objective Criteria
Professional standards
What a court would decide
Moral standards
Scientific judgment
Kilmann & Thomas Styles of
Approaching Conflict
In conflict, the Competing style tends to
focus on satisfying their own concerns, even
at the cost of the other person's concerns.
Its win-lose strategy
Collaborating is more of a truly win-win,

seeking to find a solution that fully meets all

parties needs. Though this sounds ideal,
complete collaboration is not always
The Avoiding style seeks to postpone or
avoid the conflict completely. Its not lose-
lose as much as, Conflict? What conflict?
Accommodating is the opposite of

Competing. Its lose-win: your concerns are

sacrificed for what the other person is
Compromising tries to find middle ground. It
sounds like win-win but could be better
considered partly win-partly win
Conflict Management Strategies and Styles
Conflict Style Conflict Fundamental Strategic
Strategy Premise Philosophy

Avoiding No winners, no This isn't the Avoids conflict

losers right time or by withdrawing,
place to address sidestepping, or
this issue postponing

Competing I win, you lose Associates When goals are

"winning" a extremely
conflict with important, one
competition must sometimes
use power to
Conflict Management Strategies and Styles
Conflict Style Conflict Fundamental Strategic
Strategy Premise Philosophy
Accommodating I lose, you win Working toward a Appease others by
common purpose downplaying
is more important conflict, thus
than any of the protecting the
peripheral relationship
concerns; the
trauma of
differences may
damage fragile
Compromising You bend, I bend Winning Both ends are
something while placed against the
losing a little is OK middle in an
attempt to serve
the "common
good" while
ensuring each
person can
Conflict Management Strategies and Styles

Conflict Style Conflict Fundamental Strategic

Strategy Premise Philosophy
Collaborating I win, you win Teamwork and The process of
cooperation working through
help everyone differences will
achieve their lead to creative
goals while also solutions that
maintaining will satisfy both
relationships parties'