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Asst. Prof Dr. SUPRIYA

What is soil liquefaction:- Liquefaction is the
phenomena when there is loss of strength in
saturated and cohesion-less soil because of
increased pore water pressures and hence effective
stress is reduce due to dynamic loading.

During liquefaction the water pressure become high

enough to counteract the gravitational pull on the soil
particles and effectively float or suspend the particles.
Then soil particle move freely with respect to each
other. due to this the strength of soil decreases and the
ability of a soil deposit to support foundations for
buildings and bridge is reduce.
Loosely packed grains Shaking destabilizes
of soil are held the soil by increasing
together by friction. the space between
Pore spaces filled with grains and soil flow like
water. a liquid.

Soil before Soil after

liquefaction liquefaction

Type of liquefaction
Flow liquefaction:- Flow
liquefaction is a phenomenon in which
the static equilibrium is destroyed by
static or dynamic loads in a soil deposit
with low residual strength. It occurs
when the static shear stresses in the soil
exceed the shear strength of the
Cyclic mobility:-Cyclic mobility is a
liquefaction phenomenon, triggered by
cyclic loading, occurring in soil deposits
with static shear stresses lower than the
soil strength.
Deformation due to cyclic mobility
develop incrementally because of static
and dynamic stresses that exist during an
Effects of liquefaction
Loss of bearing strength:-The
ground can liquefy and lose its
ability to support structure.

Lateral spreading:-The
ground can slide down very gentle
slopes. It is mainly caused by cyclic
mobility. Lateral spreading causes
damage to foundations of buildings,
pipelines, railway lines and cause
Sand boil:-Sand-laden
water can be ejected from
a buried liquefied layer and
erupt at the surface to form
sand volcanoes. The
surrounding ground often
fractures and settles.
Flow failures:-Flow
failures are the most
catastrophic ground
failures caused by
liquefaction. These failures
commonly displace large
masses of soil laterally.
Flows develop in loose
saturated sands or silts on
relatively steep slopes,
Ground oscillation :-Where the ground is flat or the slope is too gentle to
allow lateral displacement, liquefaction at depth may decouple overlying soil layers
from the underlying ground, allowing the upper soil to oscillate back and forth and up
and down in the form of ground waves. These oscillations are usually accompanied
by opening and closing of fissures and fracture of rigid structures such as pavements
and pipelines.

structure that are buried
in the ground(like pipeline
sewers and nearly empty
fuel tanks) can float to
the surface when they are
surrounded by liquefied
soil. Manhole Lifted up manhole

Settlement:-Liquefied ground reconsolidates during an

earthquake, the ground surface may settle and the underlying
liquefied soil become more dense.
Methods to reduce
-susceptible soil:-The first possibility is to
Avoid liquefaction
avoid construction on liquefaction susceptible soil.

Build liquefaction-resistant structures:- It may be possible to make the

structure liquefaction resistant by designing the foundation elements to resist the
effects of liquefaction . Structure that possesses ductility, has the ability to
accommodate large deformations, adjustable supports for correction of differential
Shallow foundation aspects:-It is
important that all foundation elements in a
shallow foundation are tied together to make
the foundation move or settle uniformly, thus
decreases the amount of shear force induced in
the structural elements resting upon the

A stiff foundation mat is a good type of shallow

foundation. Which can transfer loads form Mat foundation
locally liquefied zone to adjacent stronger
Deep foundation
aspect:-Liquefaction can
cause large lateral loads on pile
foundations. Piles driven through
a weak, potentially liquefiable.
Soil layer to a stronger layer not
only have to carry vertical loads
form the superstructure, but must
also be able to resist horizontal
loads and bending moments
induced by lateral movements if
the weak layer liquefies. Piles of
larger dimensions and/or more
reinforcement can achieve
sufficient resistance.
Soil improvement techniques against liquefaction:-The
main objective of soil improvement techniques used for reducing
liquefaction hazards is to avoid large increases in pore water pressure
during earthquake shaking by improving the strength, density, and
drainage characteristics of soil.

Vibro-compaction :- Vibro-
compaction involves the use of a
vibrating prone that can penetrate
granular soil to depths of over 100 feet.
The vibration of the probe cause the
grain structure to collapse thereby
densifying the soil surrounding the
Dynamic compaction:-
Densification by dynamic
compaction is performed by
dropping a heavy weight of steel
or concrete in a grid pattern form
heights of 30 to 100 feet.

Compaction grouting:-
Compaction grouting is a
technique whereby a slow-flowing
water/sand/cement mix is injected
into loose sand under high
pressure. Gout does not enter soil
pores but forms a bulb that
compact and densify the soil by
forcing it to occupy less space.
Stone column:-Stone columns
are columns of gravel constructed
in the ground. Stone columns can
be constructed by the vibro-
compation method. In this
approach the steel casing is driven
into the soil and gravel is filled in
from the top and tamped with a
drop hammer as the steel casing
is successively withdrawn.